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  1. 1. INF 385E Intro to IAWenbin Zhang<br />Audio & Video<br />
  2. 2. Agenda<br />The Past & Now<br />Uses of Web Audio & Video<br />Audio & Video Formats<br />Streaming<br />Video hosting<br />Online music<br />Podcast<br />Internet TV<br />What’s Hot and the Future<br />
  3. 3. The Past<br />Neilson’s usability guidelines for video and streaming media from 1999<br />Didn’t you hate dial-up when it came to audio & video? <br />
  4. 4. Now<br />On January 6, 2009, Phil Schiller announced that over 6 billion songs had been downloaded since the service first launched on April 28, 2003<br />In 2008, Youtube surpassed yahoo and became the 2nd largest search engine; in March2009, YouTube surpassed 100M U.S.Viewers<br />Google/YouTube streams 5.5 billion videos/month in the U.S.<br />Every single minute, over 20 hours of videos are uploaded to youtube.<br />iTunes store’s only 6 years old, and Youtube 4!! <br />
  5. 5. How Are Online Audio & Video Used?<br />Keeping abreast of trends and news (CNN, MSNBC, ESPN)<br />Entertainment in multiple way (Hulu, Youtube,<br />Elearning (Instructional, iTunes U, Audible)<br />Live communications: Live chat(Skype, Google Talk via VoIP), Video conferencing, etc.<br />Marketing & Advertising (pre-roll, post-roll, in-banner video ads; product/service demos)<br />
  6. 6. How Are Online Audio & Video Used?<br />Multipurpose: <br />Edutainment=eLearning + Entertainment (You Suck At Photoshop)<br />Advertainment=Advertising + Entertainment (Samsung HD Camera Trick Challenge; Tmobile Dance)<br />Etc.<br />
  7. 7. Audio & Video Formats<br />Containers: tells how the data are stored & can have metadata (FLV, MP4, Quicktime, Ogg)<br />Codecs: Coder-decoder/ Compressor-decompressor<br />Lossless Audio Formats: <br />Uncompressed:AIFF, WAV<br /> Compressed : FLAC, Monkey’s Audio, Shorten<br />Lossy Audio: MP3, AAC, Vorbis(ogg), WMA, RealAudio <br />
  8. 8. Comparison of Audio compressions<br />
  9. 9. Audio & Video Formats<br />Video Formats<br />Digital Tape Formats: DV, HDV, AVCHD<br />Digital Disc Formats: DVD, Blue-ray Disc<br />Lossy Formats: H.264/MPEG-4 AVC, MPEG-4 ASP, RealVideo, WMV<br />
  10. 10. Encoder/Transcoders<br />Open Source: Format factory,, MediaCoder<br />Proprietary: Sorenson Squeeze, Apple Compressor, Adobe Media Encoder<br />
  11. 11. Streaming<br />Before Streaming: Download before playback<br />After Streaming: Download as playback<br />Progressive Download(On-Demand Streaming): Flash Video, Quick Time Video… Files can be stored on regular Web servers, Using HTTP<br /> True Streaming(Living Streaming): Live broadcasting, Online Radio… A Streaming media server that executes control, Protocols vary(RTSP, RTP, etc.)<br />
  12. 12. Video Hosting<br />How to Choose GUC Video Sharing Sites:<br />Traffic<br />Audience<br />File Size , Number &Time Limits<br />Compression Quality<br />Formats<br />Downloadability<br />Editing Capabilities<br />Ads<br />Payments<br />
  13. 13. Emebbed Audio & Video<br />Wanna Do It Yourself?<br />Uploading Your Files to Your Web Server<br /> Embedding Multimedia Files in HTML by Using Special Tags(See w3school tutorial)<br />Embedding Flash Video by Using Dreamveaver<br />
  14. 14. Online Video Platform<br />Wanna Meet Higher Demand & Have Your Own Youtube-looking Site?<br />“White Brand Providers”<br />Business Focused: Brightcove, Vzaar<br />Consumer Focused: Fliggo<br />Open Source Video Sharing: PHPmotion, Plumi (Lunux) <br />
  15. 15. Online Music<br />Online Digital Music Stores: iTunes Music Store, Amazon Mp3, Rhapsody, Zune Market Place … Largest Amounts of Music, No More than 1$/song<br />Internet Radio:, Pandora, Shoutcast … All streaming, Little Playback but easy to tune in to your favorite genres<br />
  16. 16. Online Music<br />Online Music Databases & Search Engines: Internet Archives, Grooveshark… <br />Download For Free: Limeware, Rapidlibrary… Free file sharing (especially if you wanna find bootleg records) <br />
  17. 17. Podcast<br />iPod + Broadcast = Podcast<br /> Series of digital media files that are released episodically and downloaded through RSS<br />Producing: Audacity(Save as MP3)<br />Publishing: Find a Host(Web host or Blog), Upload, Generate RSS Reeds, Submit to a Directory(iTunes, Zune, etc.)<br />Don’t Forget ID3 Tags<br />
  18. 18. Internet TV<br />Wed TV: Cnet TV, Rvision3, Adobe TV, G4 … Original, Episodic Shows Distributed Exclusively Online As Opposed to Legacy Broadcast;<br /> So-called Internet TV: Hulu … in a broader sense, Any Broadcast TV Shows Repackaged for Online Viewing<br /> P2PTV: BBC iPlayer(UK-based), Reeltime(US-based), PPstream(China-based) … Peer-2-peer application designed to redistribute video streams on a P2P network<br />
  19. 19. What’s Hot and The Future<br />Online Media Guides or Aggregators: Casttv, Clicker, Ovguide, Fancast …<br />Cross-Platform Mass Distribution Services:, Tubemogul<br />Instant Video Sharing:, Qik, Tokbox<br />User Generated Live Streaming: Ustream,<br />Content Recognition for Music: Shazam, Midomi<br />
  20. 20. Thank You All<br />Questions? <br />
  21. 21. References<br />Wikipedia entries: <br />internet radio<br />internet television<br />Web television<br />web series<br />P2PTV<br />streaming media<br />online music store<br />comparison of online music stores<br />list of streaming media systems<br />list of online music databases<br />comparison of streaming media systems<br />video hosting service<br />list of video hosting websites<br />comparison of video services<br />viral video<br />
  22. 22. References<br />Podcast<br />podcast in plain English<br />how to create podcasts<br /> Compression & Codecs<br />Audio file format<br />Codec<br />Lossless comparison<br />Web Video Compression and Codecs<br />Streaming: <br />;<br /><br /><br />Neilson:<br /><br />