California Titles Practice Procedure Senator N W Thompson


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California Titles Practice Procedure Senator N W Thompson

  1. 1. The ReA,k! Blue Book of Cadlor"nin ere zed bhe 8t- pl vil he iti rc- l!- an
  2. 2. 24 TlLeRealtA Blue Book of Aaklania I ltles Bv SENAToR W. THoMPSoN N. Ecol1t CaLi|attlitt Titles Oii!i|aL P(te ts l:lesert:etia]l ol Pxbli( Let(l Ol)ne:ftlhip The Re!.is- tratiotl S'lste1n TlLe TLrren, Sltsteln-EarL! Califa) kL Ploblo s AbstroLts of TiUe Certilicates of Title Titl,e I1i,s7o'are-M atteft All ecting Title Con(Iititr) s M odif Ui, ! c OwlLership Ttrsts-State HoI(Ls JlLlisdiatian. Col r nit! PnDet rt-C. tt( i.itt! of Lan l 1itles N ecess(1 . FIE history of titles {ulrlishes an acculate index to conmunity glowth and development. Periods of plosperity and ad]rance- rneni as well as occnsional r€cessions in activity ar.e clearly reflected in the rccold. CoDsidered in a broad seDse.the data thus made available furnishes vaiuable and autheDtic information to the historian, the sLudeit and the philosopher',and illListlates rn a glrphic say the steady march along the up$'ard trail $'hich, in a compara- tively short period of time, has brought Califomia flom th€ status of an lruknowl western frontier to the commanding position which it no1l' holds in population, ri'ealth, resoulces and inRuences. EAELY CALIFOIINIA TIALES Paramount ownership and control of laDd is essentiall-van nttli- bute of soveteignty. The attitude of ure governmerltal author'- ities toward the disposition of la.rd is the."efore practically the deter'- mining factol ir flxirg the light or pr.ivilege of the citizen to acquile oqrnelship ir fee. Three dilTerent gover rents have succcssiveiy ruled over this area. Spair, and late| X{exico, claiming by Iight of discovery, sought to elfect peacelul conquest b]' colonization. The principal featules of this plan $'ere the lounding and suppolt of the missions, establish ent aDd mainteDance of pueblos and dispositior of much of the arable land through plivate glants. These glants were fr€queDUy nade in lecogrritior of distirguished serllce to thc government, although ill other c:rsesthe obiect was to plomote setUe ment and cultivatioi of the soil. llrdel such circumstances the grant 'was usually conditional upon perfolmance by the grantce oI celtain lequired coDditions and irstall:rtiorl of such iDprovemeDts as nlight bd prescribed. Local administrators at the Missions, acting in an advisory capacity to the govelDor, o girally exelcised a limited jurisdiction ovel adjacent public lards. SecliladzatioD of the Missions deprived these local administrators of much of the authorit. Dreviouslv exel.,
  3. 3. The R,"nltt/ I)llte Boak ol Caliial jtiu :?5 .:sed . ! j . , , d, r t i ! r d j , . r . . j , ^ " .f.o r r 1 . , r J, o j _ , r . r d , l , p. I r r s a s j , r . / L t r o l l F ., lr , l u - L l t , r l l . , l I i . , r " n . I . " ,' . r .' .: r. r, . l r , r ; , . i n . p r n n ; r , . r o others. l u " b l o . r , d " , . ^ r ! ! r ' a r . r n o t , - r , , r , i , r , :| , , t 1 , , . ^ r. .o . . n z p r , J , . u s u aJ . r t f o l ,l 1 , r r J' u r , ' n r r , r ' i . , r - . d " , r . , j I U , j r . r r J i , r r r o o l , - r 1 j r . r r amountsrlt Dnprovenents. Altel sccuhr,;zalioll pucbio officers exer c r l e dl a r ' : ' " t o . . s o ' r . - , r d : , ' L ( , r ' i l o , J . T . . . j r " , u $ F l l o e a r o o r ' r r j r r u r i ^ r ' , t r rr | r n t . r r . l r r ^ r,i i I | . , ^ . , r . r i , | . r . r . r . - there, in these_v:u.ious gr':r"nts, that certairi).of itcscription oi: touirA ary noll cot:sidcr.edcssential. Such l.e|c ltre p|evliling colditioris w ' r p . .u r , d . , . , r , . ' T r l , . i , , . , ; , , , t . t . , , di,'!.,;r; i i,,-.i Si.,".. n d ' , r ' d , l o r r o ' . " I - 1 : : r , u u r r s i r r r .. . - , 1.'. 10r.41' f r . " . .r I S r j r l pu r ' , ORICINAL PA'IEN'I'S Pur..i.r o i.i, -,,I u a^ ,pr'..- ,. L. I.a r-,,r..n:". or. .:r" . ^ p t o r n r n . r , | | . r u r ' r t .', t . . . u ,, ^ . . , , . ii l r l o l j r . i L I d . S":.rr ! J l l r e l o r ' n J f i o ' . J n p r . ' . . C I a ir r r " btr',or'llt " | . " " r , r , rjtrr p j .J l , p l r ; ! . i a r . , j 1 lo . d L r F I o n , , . s s . u ro r d . apfjrl L,irhc r e o . r | , , u" ,i . i r{q r 1 , . r i 1 - , r .J : . . , d , t , , , - j i p , 5 . j . 1 .L . , i , r e r r r r _ ented. Thc renaiuirs pubtic i:rnds rvcle irr ctuc course q t a ' "t r l ' i , . e , r . d ^ , 1 . u f : r . . , , i . . I o , . f ";.r";;;.'th;; ; , : . "bl',.";,, rot.I j r g , . , t , l | - I - . . ,"t , 9 , . j r , t j r l : |I,jII u..r'ov,d ljrld-. ti! ,]a jth,a vrtrun o .rs ,npror:"rli u q . . j 1 ' . . i d F : , r . r l s! i r h i r r i t " 0 o r d . r s . s r t L , r Fl , n r d i i r i f ; t ! 'o rr.. c..t,a,.ror r:St I of ,.on.rr.,.,., Jrd RESDRVATION OI' PUBLIC LANDS Both stale and leder'rl gorcr llcl)ts plovided by tegiFlative enact melts l'alious nethods by qfiich citizens could acquile ti e to pubtic lands. claDts by Colgr.ess in aid of tr.arscollti elltat rnitrcads;";r r r r l t o u c i , d 5 _ o:t, r r s . F e d " , r l n r ' u r i " i o n o r . f u L i i . u " p ss u . a s i o r , a lp a f i ! , l o t a 5 i i c 5 p r r s i t ^ . ^ t r h t i o r . s o I r v ; r r p r . t r d p o r r . . r n -ra ocver^ptcnl ,Id o f t , f l E , r 1 t u . j J s t , r . r s ^ . L r t . . . i r l . 9 " n t . p 2 s ,a s u b : srr.1t l purlior, of $l i.r, ,ill nrob.t,i | .p. I,a". i,,ro pri,ar, a . T h e A I F , . . r n D l a , ,o i ! - u n , m . r . t c o . t s r I. r t A t p : t r i r t , . a c l ,. r ^ 1 . s h a t t h ^ v e p t A . . ' r ' I i . o , i r o l o . r r h a j r . t i s t r : o r . o $ , r , I . r l ^ ; 1 ,i,n . L . . r - b m r c p . ' r : I n f a r , . d J . , . . . i . ^ n L t . , . o r r I . r : i.i r l r i ic bo.Lrar.. Lb_ s J e c lo r l ) l o l h . p r , , s i o r , s o i a n ! . , " i r , - t , . e : l r rn o i x t . 2 s t h p s ; p r o - v r so n s r ' 3 y f l n t r) . 11,ri).islr..rrt,ir']a aw nlrh" la||d,,,J;.nn_ s r q u 6 . r ' r r J t i . r . - . 1. . l l I . m s r,t,r^5iji^... Or).iI 'i" i drr.., 1 l ? ) ' n l a ) r o . t g f p n sr ' l $ t l ' a s n " , t i o , h F . n r r j I t e r . . . T l . : s L,rir,c.r,le 0 f g o ! e | n . r r e r ,il r l a r r r : l . o d L t l , I r r i t p dS . . . ' n I e . p n r L l n . ; s i o , r sl h ^ l d r s t p A t , . A , . . "" SLl,.am"r-oud RECONDING LAND OWNERSIIIP The inpo'-taDce of indirldual or'Iership of JaDalas an ircerrtive to l h e p o r 1 1 e n . n lu p b u r l d i | | gr r d i r . n | o v ^ . r r a r ,o , t h " r $e., i,tr r F r o g r T p d . I o p f o v r d ^ n t r e r n . i r , r p n rp u b l i . r p , o " d o f u u c r . y w n p r s h p " o sn r t u
  4. 4. t- Tht Ileall.! Bhc Boolr of CIlilrlnl L ihc rerording system $;as first established and at a lalel' datc the' istlation plaD irtroduced irl somejulisdictions. 'l'he r.ecolding st.stcm, established pliol to the forlr:riio! oi ihe Union, may fajrll'be telnled the original Anretican systen and is iD use in evell strtc. Thc basicDrirciple underlying this sIStcm is that thelc shall be tr'rnsoibed ancl peunanentl! kept as :r public r'ecold in thc nlarnel' Iequiled br lal' in sone designated public office copics o{ eyery tlansfcr', irlclrmbran(e, lien, judgrncnt ol declce all'ccting title to propertl'arrd thlt there should also bc plepalecl and kept i such ollice jDdices o{ everi' surh instlument, aDd. further', that these records a d irdjces shall bc open to public iDspection at usual business houls, thus affordirlg oppodunity to any interested Delson to ascel- tain at anl'time the condition of thc r'ecor'd titlc to ary palticLrlal propetty. Thc cost of such tlanscliption and indexing is bolnc br the party lequestiDg the sel''ice, but the dutl of mnking nnd pcr' nrrncnth pleser'ing such re(otd is a pubti( funclioD. Whcn so tran- scljbed, the oligirlal Dapers rtc, err(ept in spe.iial cases. retulned to the par.ties entitle.lthereto rnd the tra scribcd topr, rith theindices. folms the public rccot'd. THD RNGIS'TNATION SYSTDI{ Thc resishation sl'sten orisinated ir Ausllalia nnd was used irl conti ental lhited States about thirir ]'eals ago. This sys- tem has beel aptly described ns but anothel ncthod of transferring title to property, although its advocatesstlenLrouslyn1aintain that its scope is nuch broader'. It ap}rear'sto be based upon the theorf' thal. the state owes a continuirg dutv to its citizens to issue,thlough desig nated local authorities, ne'1{celtificates of title upon an)- tlalsfer of ownership and likewise to sho, endolsement or menloI.ial upon any outst:urding cerlificatc the filing of .rny lierl ol incumblance aflecling the land originall]'r'egisteled. fhdet this plan no Dapers lelating to registered land are lecorded. They ate simpli' executed arrd filed $'jth the for. pemarent retention and cannot be Ie-delivered to the intelested palties as in the case of a lecolded documert. lll oldel to nuke this systerr effertive the liegistlar's celtificate with ils endorsementso| menor-ials must be conclusive and firal upon the ghts of all parties. This is lreelr* conccdedboth by advocates and opporerts of th€ system. This system has been gen- el?lly usedirl,.1ndis probablr bettel adapledto, thosecour)tIies lvith- out A written constitufion. 'I'I1I] 1ORRDNS SYSTDII In 1897 the CaliforDi.! Legislaturc passed n 1a'of thjs ch:u actel commonly called thc 'for.rers ]a.ti",which Nas IerI littlc used. The present la$'is an nritiative meAsure xdopted by the electors in 1914. Beins ar initiative measure it cannot be amended bl the legislatule. The only method by which ary ch:uge or anlendment crn be effecied is by adoption at ar election ol anothel initiatile nreasLtre. The Cali- folnia Iaw provides that property sh:1llfimt be blc,ught Lrnderthe sys- tem by an action in court, the detree in such :ctjon bei g the basis for ffrst r€gistration.
  5. 5. ' l ' ) t I R r r I t . | | i 1 | B r , , l ; o i ( : L t L i f oj)t u t 27 IITONL]IIIS I,.RI,' CAI,IFORNIA FoI n co|sidc|ablel)er od lollo$irlf the ch:usc ot' ltrLg th{ro $N much conlusionrnd urlrert.iiDt! fespe(iirg.'lilies. lfler' .r peljod of militrrt. idministt:ltion nlrdel fcdcrxl corlrol. thf sfrt1] gotef'i meDt$as olgnnizc.l rlnd inrnrodiatclradorrtc.lllre conrn)unil]'i)r'otl €r1ysysteDr, then fir'mil est.rblished |)ns ustls! ur.t1)r'thelbnref Lr goyelnlnents.n{:1riIclninlsto priv.rtc land srnrts lvcrt fcjfctcd. Thr' activityincideniio the discovelr'ol told Lr)|lshl DLlllrclo'-rs Ilolrlems. quite nrLturallhat LLnder It {",1s t[esc fi|runrstrnccs doul)ls nrcsc ns to the sour.Lress tLr.l stabilltl'of titlcs to L!r.l rLrd nl :1r o.ult'drlc abstlactols and eItnrir€r'sol titlc besnlrto iryeslisrLte 'lrrd jJ.lssupor) thesufficiencl'ol thfsc. Folmolcth.u fiflt )caIS, irLconre(tioDNitlr placlicall:' cver','tr:r.ns:1ct:orir],olvnlE cith€r' a salc ol incLLmbrtlnco ol land i Calilolni.r, ihc Iccor'd title to thc plop{I i' inol'e.l h:Ls beencarc{ullr-cx.Drnrcd. Pclhrps in no othc) st.rtehrs therc brerl maintaiDed romplcte.l roror.t ol the litlc to 1r'rl Dr'o]]r.r't: so . ,tssTE,{.(i'|S fl1Lil 01, ID.1l1r'e.rlcsl.rteir,]lrsr(ti(r)s. rtrcthel ino1'injt purchnse of loaDsupon the sccurit-v of lard, it h.1s bcen rcccss.u,-to s^tisfv thr prospectivcpulchasel or nniestof ihnl the tiU. to thc plopeltx -as good. In enrl) d.ils this 1,rsr conrt):urlt:!clt'sinrlr1e ploceediDg, as examinationof but {cn-p:rpcls 1.asIcqui}cd and thelc was flequently genelal colnnlunit]' knolvlcdge :rs to ownership of ln ds, thc popuh- 'l'he tion then beirg mo]'e strble thnD rt t)r'eseDt. iDcl.e;rse in thr) volume of r'ccor.ds lcndeled necess:lr'] sone conle|ierll for'rr {or l)re sentingthe statlrsol lhe rerotd litle. This led to the ptepar':rtiolof abstlacts. , plopell)- t)repar'edrbstlict of lille lrr'esentsan cpitonre of all thc.sscntirl clenrents each o{ lhe secul recolded irlstlu of mentsrficcting the title io lL r)r1r'ticula!tr'r(ll ol l:r d, so th:rt un:rttot ney can leadill' detomine by exrmiDirlior whethcl the lAlious con- vey^nces and ircu lbunccs hrve been cor'r'ectly executed. whcther' any colrIt plocccdings sho1'nh:u'e Leerrr'egular'l) Lrliel, 1.lretherany liens disclosedhare been properl] srtisfi€d rnd ffo such €)iamin:t- tion prepalc a opinion respectjDgthe cordition of the title. The r'ap- idly ircrcasiDg lolrDDe ol rccords i.erds to render' lhe abstlact nore exp€nsivc, both in DIep lrrior and horr ihe st dpoirrtof the attor- nefs fec for' in opjnion rDor the l.itle. (--Dlt1'lll(lAlll OI, TITLII To n1eel this siluatio]l instrunrentscxliod cerUficrtes title 'erc ol ptepaled b]"Title ColnDanies. Th€sc rvere based upon exami ation b) the Tille Conrpanl.of thc l.ecolrlspeltnining to the particular tlaci and an oDirliorl bi'its attorncy or experienred €xalnilrer's as lo th€ effectof thes. r'ecoldsand $,ere,in Ixcl, suLstarrliallycquiv:rlenlto the opinio of an attor|ey upon :rn abstHcL of litle. l'hese ccltificntes ie]'e bliel ir lb|rn :Lnd €asiiy undelstood b]- the land orvner or inveslor- Necessarily the]' dealt i'ith lhe fecord litle onlr rnd theil lrt value as a Dlotectionwas rneasured th,: finirrcial sirl)iliii of ihe
  6. 6. 2A TlLeRedtu Blue Boah aJ Cdifor'ttilt TirLE rNSlrnANCE Title insulance has bcen intlodrced $.ithin the pzrst fi{t.. yeals and is now fir'mly establjshed. The fir'st companl' ras olganized at Philadelphi.L Use of title iDsurarrce policies lras occasionedby the growiDg valne of real eslAte, particul.4r'l) iD the largel conrmunities, the necessit}'of plovidiDg adequate p|otectiol 1or pulchasels and ienders !,!'hele the consider':rlion !:ls large and the comDlcxitics of moden transrctions such as long time lenses, bond issues, tlusts, buitdirg restlictiors, et(. The civil code ol Clli{or'nin plovides that "Any wr'itten contlact oI irstlument pul.por.tjng to show the title to reli Dlopelty. or ful ish infolmntion Ielative thercto, {hich sh.rll in express telnls putport to insurc or gualanteesuch tiUe or the cor'r:e(:lness such inlotmaiion, of shall be deemeda polict-of title irsulancc." This leg:rl delinition of a polici' has beel uDheld Ly dccision oi the SuDreme Coult- A policy of title insur'ance is lhe Lnoadeslfolm of title plotectron lhat can be {ur'nished. Companies tlnrsacting title insulance busi- ness in Califolrria nle not onl)- undel supclvision oI the hrsLrr':rce Commissioner ar)d lequiled io conduct their' business in stlict accoltl_ I ancc with the provisiorrs of lrw, but nust likel'isc Dlaintain .r gLtar- anty filnd on depositriih the Si:rteTIcasuIel and nLlst rrlsotlccurnu late a sur?lus furd equal to 25 per cent of theil capital. lssuancc of any single policy ivith a liability irl cxcess of thc conlpany's adnlitted assets tt'ohibitccibt lulins oi ihe lnsLruDCe is Cornrrissioner'. IIAATDFS AFIECTINC TITLE Tlansfel of tiuc ol the closirg ot :1 lo:rl seens to urnnt pelsons melely a routine matter. Foi lhe pl'otection ol the irvestor thele should be gcner':rl recognition ol ihe firrlr)fial lisks involred unless adequate precautions Lc obser"r'ed. Ilecor'ds of lhe laecorder''soifjce wherc deeds,nmltg:rges and other llens.lfe r'ecolded (oi legisteled if the title be under thc Tor'lens Act) .lnd of the Count]'Clclk's ollice wheie suits, estates nnd judgrrerts mc lound, must be cxanrincd. If the propertl'lies Nithir) a nltrnicipalitt- th€ local r'ecordsol that citt' must:rlso bc examinc.llol assessmerlts, rhangesin stlccts and alleys and othel rtter peculi.ul) rll1dellhc jlrrjsdi(tior o-l the nLrni(ipal autholilies. Specinl districts mrT be forrled lor iIIis.Ltior, dlairage or other puposes ith powel to ic']'nsscssnrenls tarrl'oul the 'fhe to purposes o{ theit or'ga ization. lccolds of some of thesc distficis ar'c kept entilely aDAr{ honl couDty lecolds. Brnln uptcr Dloceedi gs and lccleral liens llle disciosed bl. lcder'rl cour'l records- Impositio)r of iDcone a d othel ledcral taxcs has cDolmoush' irclcased the 1'ol ume ol lhese liers .hich h:l'c the folce and eficct of ,l judsrncnt and (onstitute n gererrl l;cn upo all propeltt of the iudgmcrt dcblor'. Properly pAssing LrI' rill or bt' the intestnte l:r$.s ol by an) instrunent exe(uted in contenplntiol of lle:rtll, if i cxccss of cert:rin mini um v:rlues, is subject to ar) inhelitan(e iax due ihe statc, which tax is a lien until prjd. Plopelty sirnilarl:.passing, in cxccss the i{ of
  7. 7. Tltc Rul.l lt Bl1t. Ronl; nl Celilt)r'nia 29 ?he of $50,000.00. suliecl, to a Jederai is estatetax, likewise a licrl until paid. I?gislatidr no1'pending :li Vashingtor rvould, if en^cted into lary. substarlti:rll:' irclcase the :1r1ourrt()f this tix. Public uiil- ities undef lhe julisdirtjon o1 tho R^] Clmnission crLnnotscll jn any propelt:'r)ccessar'I pclJir.lnrncc of their' pLLblic duties oI erc d cuterny notcs,mortglges oI trust dcedsexcept u der :Lr older ol thc comnlissiorl, Nhich o|ricl' DrLrst c|)lrplic.l 1ith ir Oiher ror Lc lorations olgarizcd fol pr'ofil. r'ith ccrt.lnl rnnror e.reptj.rns, cxrlnot issue bondsexceptun(ler:rulho|itt_ .r pcr'lnit issLlcd tlll Col'Dolr ol bt_ tion Connnissioncr,th. tcrnrs oI Nhi(h |clrnil nrust:rlso be lil.cfalb' complied with. Thele is Lrn(ler'lho trr'csortslstcnl Do .tir cct statc i:!r Lrpon].eal pfopertl- Crlihrrjx. Trxes rr. lelicd upo Ie:1]plopcrl bv eaclr in city and couut!. Thc slaic levies r dilcct t.i upor publi.l utilities, balks, i snlrncc rorrlprLnics nnd lhe IraDchise of genl]lil cofpor':rtions orgaDized plolii, n'hich 1rx is Drl alrle nt Sxc]alirerlo :lriclis, Iikc 1or locAl taxes,:1lien upor a]] pr-opellI on{]d b]'ihe respe(iile cofpor:l tioDson the fir'st -uond^t of X'I:D'chi e:rh r'.:r'. Ijl this tax be not paid the fL'n:rlt]'is dr'rlstic. Pl'ior'1l) 11)17 in|ohcd lorfciture ol i1 chart.r. In c.rse ihc cor.polrtion '.is a Dublic utilit., i1 co,rlC noi, nndelthc plovisionsol the corstitLrtioir, r'ostol'ed.Sin.c 1917 thc be lenalty is suspcnsion ot collnr'.rte |ower.s, ir addiiion to vhich the lien still subsistsupor all p]'opelt) ol the cor'trorxtio . , shtc liccnsc tax is nlso lcrierl LLpon thos. cor'Dolations orlr..:lnized plofit l.hich lor do not pa-v dilc(t stale t:Lr. T|is i.lri is lil.icrise lieJrupor all Drop- i r erty o$'red Lr]-thc collrcrrtion o]1 lhc lirst f'toDdrv in Junary. Pcn alt)'ior'lailur'elo pa)-is suspcnsjon cofpolrLto .f porers.lhe tax Ic- mainir)g lien. In ilLe .ase o1 eiihc| of these sirLto a tacs lh€re is no locNllecofd ol prl']nent untjl scvcul lcolis :lftcl thc ii c Nhcn sus- pensions h'1'.o.crr'f€d il thf lllri hns not irl lrct been]]:rid. ao_Illl IONS MODlrl INC 0 -llnsHlP Eshbtishrrerlt o{ zorins rcstli.rtio s l1rld s.t back lin.s is engas- ing thc rtlcrltior o{ nruni(ip:rlrri.hoiiti€s. Acii iiies .tlors lhesc lincs .ue no-bascdplincit.lllt-upon bload consi.lcr',itioI tub]ic .ellare. 01 hnil:Ltiors thus jnr]rosc.l lrLri u|orr llrc rse ol l)r'olier'lIaIe Druch lr]' mole coniprchcnsive rlrd 1'r' r'arfhir! ir elli,ct 1h.rI IoIrr]er'l) when cxcl'cisc thc policc |o er':rs ljl1r;t.dchifllt. to plorision fo| public L,f hcalth rn.1 s:liclr. tj!.nru.1llI ilic .r)rlr,ts n)usi .lcternrinc to 1vh:1t cxt€ntlhe ir.lilidLul r ighls (,1lh€ lxnd o$ ]lcI rrlc subor(li rle io (orr munit'irt.r'cst l1n(lgrirclrl $elfrre. liesllicliolrs.rordiiions ard (oeItrrrts imlosed in dcc(ls llrree or mentsto conlct' {. trr irrlporlrnt f:rctol iD.lcnlirlg !ith ].cal csilte. These rrit' grerllt ir lireir st'ot)e.For'lur:rtel'thc lrighcr four'ls hrve render'ed nunrlrcr'olhollrhrlde(isions(oristluing nlnnI oI l.hcse a pr'(L visioDs 11.hich oJ gr'.:Llrssisl.:tnre ,:lclcrDinirlg ?1r'c in tlcir'f1lect LLpon l,ille:rrl(tLrDoll use or lhe nrert o1 lu d. Tlre irstrLrnrertirrr|os iDg theselirDitaiionsir.{tLLeftlr Iix€-.t peliorl fol thcil tcl'nlirlation. Coult decisiors:uc ir substancc thc rlrect that il r serclal pl:ln fo]' to nnprorenlent the i'rtilc sul)di!isi(,)r .l.loli€d, it .unnol be altercd of is ol nodified .ithout th( corscnt oJ thc on'ncrs of:1ll pr'oleltt'in the
  8. 8. ?,0 Thc Re(Ltt Rllte riook al Ctll;i.thirL subrtivisidr. If, however',the l.ecold docs rrot shoy adoptjo| ol such :r plar, then r1lodificatiorlsrrar bc nadc bv the plopelt-olvner and the ox.ner'of thc lcvelsionaly light and the lesh:cti.rrs ol cc)|ditions alTe(:lingr D:1r'ticular'lot rnay be charged, oI e.en abrogaled. !'ilhout consert oll olher owrLels i11the sarne tr:Lct. Resirictions, ronditions or coven,rnts inlposcd upo| lnDd br plivntc deed or.rsleement havc no rclation to ol conrcction with zoDirs oI set back lirresesirblishedby muricit)rl l€gul:ltiou. fhcsc trvo methodsoi controlling ol nlodilyirg Lhe use ot Dlopert)-shonkl not bc conlirsed. In sornecff.'s both:lppl)-;ir othels. ore o| pcih:lps neither'. ]'hcir lequirenre,rtsale ]1ot necess:r'il)- sjlnil.u oI evell harmonious,ne.ertheless, making imploveme|ts it is not safe lo iI dislesard thc prolisions oi c:ther- TRtisls Tlusts iu le:r] p|opertJ'n1ay lall-full!-bc cr'eit€d in Califorr)i,L tor onll a limited rlumber of plrlposes. Use ol the wold "trusiee," rvithout olher.qu.rlificatiorl dealirlg with titles to real property, in is ill adfised. Notice rray thus be given of a tlust $'ithout disclos- ing its scope, ol pulDosc, oI the powels o{ the tluslee. Conrnon la$. tlusts so-called hrve been olganized irr lece|t treals es a srbstitute for' colpolations. Much uncer'laiDty has been caused bt'lhe attempt to tlansnct busincss thlough this nrediun, there beirg no spccific provision ir the state la$' IoI such a plocedure. S1'A'II' HOLDS JURISDTCTION Oalilbrrria does not concede to the courts of anr'' othel statc the Dowel to deal rilh lenl Dropelty within her bor'ders or. to dctcr'- mine conflictiDg lights of litig:rnts to plopelty nr this state. If ihe orvner' leal Dlopeltl'in C.lilornia dies, becomes of insane ot incom- l)etent, or. is :1minor, couit ploceedings for'(lealing with this ploperty or detelmining the question of jts ownershiD or dist)osition must be had hel'e. COI{N'IUNITY PNOPFJR'T'Y The eomlnurjty ploperty systeu in Califolria I1:1sbeen the subject o{ rnany legisl:rtive changes:rnd of corsidelablc litigatiol. Provisiorls of the conmunity pl'oDetty l.r$- relating to ]eal property dilter substanti:rtly flom those aDplying oDly to per-soral pr.operty. Decisions of the strte courts have consistently held thal the wile had Do vested inier'est. ol iDdependentownelship, in cornmunitv plot)elty duling the conljnuance of the m:lrital r.el:rtion. Fler' intier'csthas been defined as a nlele expectarcv, sinila]. to that of a plospectivc heir, but uDon the husb:rDd's death she inmedi.rtely slrcc€cds to the ovnership oI a half intcresl in the conDruDity,subjecl to administration. The respective lights oi the spousesir1 conlmunity proDerty, botll ieal and Delsonal, and the Iesulting po,!'cl ol control and d:sDositioD are seldom conclusi.ely showr by the record, lnr.gely because the record rarely discloseslrdat is, jn fact, conrmunity plopelty. Cer'tain presumDtions are dcducible fiom the recol.d :rnd ar'c rlrade conclus''e
  9. 9. Tke RealtaBtue Book of Californin 31 ]ra and protection of third pa ies who deal in good faith Ine ue. There is, naturally, no presumiption between the 0Ils The status of thefu property is a question of fact, presum- out to both. A vast amount of prope*y standing of record js, of only one of the spouses as a matter of fact, com- by 'In everysuchcase, joint execution both spouses by )rty. ith afiectingthe title to such ploperty is not only the rtive way, but also the only 4bsolutely safe method of pro- uld 'ere applies to both real artd personal prcpedy and to all This rps the property under consideration not sho$-nto be the is ren estate of one of the spouses. to . CERTAINTYOF LAND TITLES NECESSARY :ity of land titles is one of the requisites of civ;lization. stability and celtainty of ownership real progr.ess and cannot exist. It has been the pride ol Califomia that her are home builders and home owners. Climatic and scenic mmbined with vast national resourceshave been contrib- )s- factorc toward the marvelousdevelopment. which is both an on and a challengeto the future. de pt fic te le :y € l. v t. d v n ll e