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Paper presented at 2012 4th International Conference on Digital Image Processing – ICDIP 2012.

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- 1. IMAGE QUALITY IMPROVEMENT OF LOW-RESOLUTION CAMERA USING DATA FUSION TECHNIQUE S.A.Quadri and Othman Sidek Collaborative µ-electronic Design Excellence Centre Universiti Sains Malaysia
- 2. Use of Low-cost and Low-resolution optical sensorsImage Quality? Low ! Poor Quality, Obviously! No How? Application of Image Fusion technique
- 3. Presentation overview Introduction to Data fusion and Image fusion Image processing Singular value decomposition (SVD) analysis Energy association of an image Conclusion
- 4. DATA FUSION•Data-fusion is a problem-solving technique based on the idea of integrating manyanswers to a question into a single; best answer.•Process of combining inputs from various sensors to provide a robust and completedescription of an environment or process of interest.•Multilevel, multifaceted process dealing with the automatic detection, association,correlation , estimation, and combination of data and information from single andmultiple sources.“Properly said, fusion is neither a theory nor a technology in its own. It is aconcept which uses various techniques pertaining to information theory, artificialintelligence and statistics [1]”[1] David L. Hall & James Llinas, “Introduction to Multisensor Data Fusion”, IEEE , Vol. 85, No. 1, pp. 6 – 23, Jan 1997.
- 5. Image fusion•Image fusion is defined as the process of combining multiple input images into asingle composite image.•The aim is to create from the collection of input images a single output image, whichcontains a better description of the scene than the one provided by any of the individualinput images.•The output image would be more useful for human visual perception or for machineperception.•The principal motivation for image fusion is to improve the quality of the informationcontained in the output image in a process known as synergy.• The major benefits of image fusion include• Improvement in image quality,• Extended range of operation,• Extended spatial and temporal overage,• Reduced uncertainty, increased reliability, robust system performance• Compact representation of information.
- 6. Schematic diagram of image fusion
- 7. IMAGE PROCESSING•The image is processed using Matlab Image processing toolbox and Simulink.• RGB images are converted to matrices as an initial step for processing.• The histogram block computes the frequency distribution of the elements in each input image by sorting the elements into a specified number of discrete bins.• It calculates the histogram of the R, G, and/or B values in an image.• It computes the frequency distribution of the elements in a vector input, of the elements in each channel of a frame-based matrix input.• It accepts real and complex fixed-point and floating-point inputs.•The block distributes the elements of the input into the number of discrete bins specified by the number of bins parameter, n. y = hist (u, n) % Equivalent MATLAB codeThe histogram value for a given bin represents the frequency of occurrence of the inputvalues bracketed by that bin.The histogram of respective image is computed using Simulink.
- 8. The frequency distribution of image1 andimage2 are almost identical which is alsoan indicating factor that the quality ofboth the images are approximately same.After the fusion of two images, thefrequency distribution of resulting imageis quite different, distinct over shoot spike.
- 9. Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) analysisSVD can be performed on any real (m, n) matrix.It factors X into three matrices U, S, V, such that, X = USVT .Where U and V are orthogonal matrices and S is a diagonal matrix.The matrix U contains the left singular vectors, the matrix V contains the right singularvectors, and the diagonal matrix S contains the singular values.The singular values are arranged on the main diagonal in such an orderσ1 ≥ σ2 ≥ . . . ≥ σr > σr+1= . . . σp=0,where r is the rank of matrix A, and where (p) is the smaller of the dimensions m or n.
- 10. THE ENERGY OF AN IMAGELet a digital image be represented as the matrix I and denote its elements as m x nmatrix I and denote its elements as Iij , i=1,2,3,...m and j= 1,2,3,...n .We define the frobenius norm of the matrix I as Singular value decay is related with the energy of the image. For the images with less information content , the elements of diagonal matrix S reaches peak value and decays gradually as compared with images with more information content whose peak is more than the former and decay is prompt
- 11. Peak
- 12. Conclusion The study aimed at evaluation of data fusion technique using frequencydistribution analysis. Frequency distribution analysis was carried out using Matlab and Simulink,which summarized image statistics and represented them in histogram. Energy associated with the image is studied using singular value decomposition(SVD) analysis. It is shown that the quality of image after fusion is substantially improved. By image processing and analyzing the results, it is tried to affirm that synergy isobtained using data fusion technique. The experiment explore use of low cost, moderate resolution camera to renderbetter quality images using data fusion technique.
- 13. AQny uestions

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