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Shays’s Rebellion

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Cause and Effect of the Rebellion as well as insights as to those that were involved. Includes annotated bibliography.

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Shays’s Rebellion

  1. 1. Shays’s RebellionShays’s Rebellion In partial-fulfillment of grade 8 Social Studies requirementsIn partial-fulfillment of grade 8 Social Studies requirements on May 20th, 2005 by Ashley Hu to Mr. Haskvitzon May 20th, 2005 by Ashley Hu to Mr. Haskvitz
  2. 2. Causes of the RebellionCauses of the Rebellion  A depression occurred after theA depression occurred after the end of the American Revolutionend of the American Revolution in 1783in 1783  This affected many farmers,This affected many farmers, especially those in Westernespecially those in Western MassachusettsMassachusetts  Economic value for agriculturalEconomic value for agricultural goods decreasedgoods decreased  High taxes from the governmentHigh taxes from the government were imposed due to debts fromwere imposed due to debts from the warthe war  Many farmers were thrown inMany farmers were thrown in prison from debt after theirprison from debt after their property was confiscated and soldproperty was confiscated and sold for one-third or less the originalfor one-third or less the original priceprice Source: http:// barney.gonzaga.edu/~jleahy/history/revolution.ht
  3. 3. Main Events of the RebellionMain Events of the Rebellion  At first, farmers merely demanded the development of paperAt first, farmers merely demanded the development of paper money to lead to inflationmoney to lead to inflation  Inflation would assist the farmers in paying off debtsInflation would assist the farmers in paying off debts  Farmers also petitioned for lower taxes from the governmentFarmers also petitioned for lower taxes from the government and a reform in the courts, since the courts were in charge ofand a reform in the courts, since the courts were in charge of the system of creditthe system of credit  Farmers desired elected officials running courts rather thanFarmers desired elected officials running courts rather than appointed officials since many were run by wealthy groupsappointed officials since many were run by wealthy groups  A group known as the Regulators were formed because manyA group known as the Regulators were formed because many individuals in Massachusetts sought reformindividuals in Massachusetts sought reform  Initially, the farmers were not involved in any type ofInitially, the farmers were not involved in any type of violence; instead, the farmers focused on freeing farmers inviolence; instead, the farmers focused on freeing farmers in prisonprison
  4. 4. Main Events of the RebellionMain Events of the Rebellion (cont’d)(cont’d)  As conditions grew worse, manyAs conditions grew worse, many began to take action by refusingbegan to take action by refusing to allow courts to have any furtherto allow courts to have any further hearings and throw debtors inhearings and throw debtors in prisonprison  To do this, farmers armedTo do this, farmers armed themselves and settled in front ofthemselves and settled in front of courts such as Pittsfield andcourts such as Pittsfield and NorthamptonNorthampton  Leaders began to emerge to guideLeaders began to emerge to guide farmers towards justice againstfarmers towards justice against unfair actionsunfair actions  One particular leader who was aOne particular leader who was a veteran of the Revolutionary Warveteran of the Revolutionary War was Captain Daniel Shayswas Captain Daniel Shays Source: http://www.people.memphis.edu/~kenichls/2601Shays.html
  5. 5. Main Events of the RebellionMain Events of the Rebellion (cont’d)(cont’d)  When citizens of Massachusetts attempted to consult the government ofWhen citizens of Massachusetts attempted to consult the government of their hardships, the government not only ignored their pleas, but also raisedtheir hardships, the government not only ignored their pleas, but also raised tax from fifteen cents to one dollar and seventy-five cents to pay off debtstax from fifteen cents to one dollar and seventy-five cents to pay off debts of the warof the war  In August of 1786, the farmers’ anger could not hold any longer. FifteenIn August of 1786, the farmers’ anger could not hold any longer. Fifteen hundred men armed with guns and swords kept the Northampton courtshundred men armed with guns and swords kept the Northampton courts from holding hearings of debtorsfrom holding hearings of debtors  Other mobs even hurt and insulted judges while liberating prisoners atOther mobs even hurt and insulted judges while liberating prisoners at Great BarringtonGreat Barrington  Desperate to prevent the rebellion from spreading, Governor JamesDesperate to prevent the rebellion from spreading, Governor James Bowdoin began to enlist soldiers for the militiaBowdoin began to enlist soldiers for the militia  On September 25On September 25thth to 25to 25thth , Shays led fifteen hundred men to the Springfield, Shays led fifteen hundred men to the Springfield Courthouse to prevent the hearing once againCourthouse to prevent the hearing once again  In retaliation, Governor James Bowdoin sent forty-four hundred soldiers inIn retaliation, Governor James Bowdoin sent forty-four hundred soldiers in the militia to force down the uprisingthe militia to force down the uprising
  6. 6. Main Events of the RebellionMain Events of the Rebellion (cont’d)(cont’d)  Shays did not receive thisShays did not receive this information, so he continued towardsinformation, so he continued towards the arsenalthe arsenal  General William Shepherd, who wasGeneral William Shepherd, who was the head of the militia, commandedthe head of the militia, commanded that the men stop, but the farmers didthat the men stop, but the farmers did not, so the general fired a cannon shotnot, so the general fired a cannon shot over themover them  However, the farmers pressedHowever, the farmers pressed onwards and the militia once againonwards and the militia once again fired a cannonfired a cannon  The cannon shot landed in the centerThe cannon shot landed in the center of the rebelsof the rebels  Three rebels were killed and a fourthThree rebels were killed and a fourth severely wounded, and who later diedseverely wounded, and who later died  After the shot had killed the men, theAfter the shot had killed the men, the rest of the rebels fledrest of the rebels fled  Following, the rebels planned to take over the arsenal located in Springfield before preventing a hearing in the Hampshire County Court on January 25th  However, Luke Day, another leader of the rebellion, attempted to notify Shays that there was a delay due to heavy snows
  7. 7. Who Participated in the Rebellion?Who Participated in the Rebellion?  Former soldiers of theFormer soldiers of the Revolutionary WarRevolutionary War  FarmersFarmers  Surprisingly, manySurprisingly, many wealthy familieswealthy families Source: http://www.bycamera.co.uk/gallery/pages/image1.html
  8. 8. Effects and Outcomes of theEffects and Outcomes of the RebellionRebellion  Rebels were captured on February 3Rebels were captured on February 3rdrd of 1787of 1787  Shays and the men he led were all sentenced to treason, but most wereShays and the men he led were all sentenced to treason, but most were pardoned by the John Hancock, who was a newly elected governorpardoned by the John Hancock, who was a newly elected governor  Though they were pardoned, Shays and the rebels were prohibited fromThough they were pardoned, Shays and the rebels were prohibited from running in office, serving in juries, and votingrunning in office, serving in juries, and voting  Shays’s Rebellion exposed the flaws of the Articles of confederationShays’s Rebellion exposed the flaws of the Articles of confederation  Congress could not raise any taxes, so debts were unable to be paid (stateCongress could not raise any taxes, so debts were unable to be paid (state governments, however, were enable to raise taxes)governments, however, were enable to raise taxes)  Congress was able to call upon a militia, yet the soldiers were not paidCongress was able to call upon a militia, yet the soldiers were not paid  In addition, though Congress could pass laws to regulate the actions of theIn addition, though Congress could pass laws to regulate the actions of the states, but the states were not obliged to obey themstates, but the states were not obliged to obey them  Congress could not pass amendments unless all thirteen states approved ofCongress could not pass amendments unless all thirteen states approved of them, so the Articles of Confederation could not be editedthem, so the Articles of Confederation could not be edited  Furthermore, Congress could not make certain decisions due to the factFurthermore, Congress could not make certain decisions due to the fact that each side of the discussion could not gain any majoritythat each side of the discussion could not gain any majority
  9. 9. Effects and Outcomes of theEffects and Outcomes of the Rebellion (cont’d)Rebellion (cont’d)  A Constitutional Convention in 1787 was heldA Constitutional Convention in 1787 was held from influence of Shays’s Rebellion called forfrom influence of Shays’s Rebellion called for a stronger federal governmenta stronger federal government  This lead to the development of the UnitedThis lead to the development of the United States Constitution todayStates Constitution today
  10. 10. Annotated BibliographyAnnotated Bibliography Books:Books: American Journey, TheAmerican Journey, The (2000) Glencoe/McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.(2000) Glencoe/McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Provided a brief overview of the rebellion in general, and explained theProvided a brief overview of the rebellion in general, and explained the causecause Richards, Leonard L.Richards, Leonard L. Shays’s Rebellion: The American Revolution’s FinalShays’s Rebellion: The American Revolution’s Final BattleBattle (2002)(2002) Explained the individuals who participated in the rebellion and whatExplained the individuals who participated in the rebellion and what caused them to join itcaused them to join it Starkey, Marion L.Starkey, Marion L. A Little RebellionA Little Rebellion (1955)(1955) Provided accurate information with no event missing. In addition, theProvided accurate information with no event missing. In addition, the book explains the causes and effects of the rebellion.book explains the causes and effects of the rebellion.
  11. 11. Annotated Bibliography (cont’d)Annotated Bibliography (cont’d) Internet sites:Internet sites: Calliope Film Resources (2000) Shays’ RebellionCalliope Film Resources (2000) Shays’ Rebellion http://www.calliope.org/shays/shays2.htmlhttp://www.calliope.org/shays/shays2.html Provided cause, effect and detailed events of the rebellion. Important individuals are also established.Provided cause, effect and detailed events of the rebellion. Important individuals are also established. O’Neill, Stephen C. (1998) Supreme Judicial Court Historical Society http://www.sjchs-history.org/Shays.htmlO’Neill, Stephen C. (1998) Supreme Judicial Court Historical Society http://www.sjchs-history.org/Shays.html Provided essential information on the rebellion, starting with the petitions then to the violent uprising. InProvided essential information on the rebellion, starting with the petitions then to the violent uprising. In addition, the consequences of the rebels and outcome of the rebellion.addition, the consequences of the rebels and outcome of the rebellion. Vest, Rose (2005) Shay’s Rebellion http://www.homeofheroes.com/hallofheroes/1st_floor/birth/1bc3b.htmlVest, Rose (2005) Shay’s Rebellion http://www.homeofheroes.com/hallofheroes/1st_floor/birth/1bc3b.html Discusses position of farmers as well as Shays. Events, causes, and effects are explained elaborately.Discusses position of farmers as well as Shays. Events, causes, and effects are explained elaborately. Encyclopedias:Encyclopedias: Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, The, 6Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, The, 6thth Edition (2005) Columbia University PressEdition (2005) Columbia University Press http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0844765.htmlhttp://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0844765.html Important information on the rebellion explained, as well as a brief description of the aftermath.Important information on the rebellion explained, as well as a brief description of the aftermath. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc; Wikipedia Encyclopedia (2005) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ShaysWikimedia Foundation, Inc; Wikipedia Encyclopedia (2005) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shays %27s_Rebellion%27s_Rebellion Information on leaders and overview of the uprising is clearly recognized.Information on leaders and overview of the uprising is clearly recognized.

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