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Redundancy Principle


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Covers the Redundancy Principle as it relates to multimedia instruction

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Redundancy Principle

  1. 1. Chapter 10: The Redundancy Principle<br />"The redundancy principle suggests that redundant material interferes with rather than facilitates learning" <br />
  2. 2. What Is the Redundancy Principle?<br />Presented info results in less learning compared to less presented info<br />Additional info has negative effect on learning<br />Two Variations<br />Identical info presented in different ways (same medium)<br />Additional info such as a summary (different media)<br />
  3. 3. Cognitive Load Theory & Redundancy Principle<br />Assumption that intent of education is to alter the contents of long-term memory<br />Working-memory has limitations when processing new information<br />Instruction should be designed to keep in mind the human cognitive architecture<br />Working memory is limited in respect to capacity and duration<br />Redundancy in instruction increases cognitive load<br />To reduce cognitive load, redundant information must be coordinated with essential information<br />
  4. 4. Experimental Evidence for the Redundancy Principle<br />Evidence is obtained when elimination of information results in improved learning<br />Miller (1937) studied young children learning how to read<br />Learning new words accompanied with a picture (cow with a picture of a cow)<br />Learned new words and speaking the word (no picture included<br />Students learned better without the pictures<br />Task of looking at picture requires cognitive resources (takes away from learning of words)<br />
  5. 5. Activity<br />
  6. 6. Answers to Activity<br />C<br />D<br />B<br />B<br />C<br />
  7. 7. Experimental Evidence 2<br />Reder & Anderson (1980, 1982)<br />Presented learners with chapters from textbooks in a variety of areas<br />Provided second group with summaries of the original text<br />Students learned better and retained information longer from summarized texts<br />
  8. 8. Experimental Evidence 3<br />Carroll (1990) & Carroll, Smith-Kerker, Ford & Mazur-Rimetz (1987) – Minimal Manual<br />Computer manuals that minimized explanatory text proved superior to conventional manuals<br />Mayer, Bove, Bryman, Mars, and Tapangco (1996) – Summary/Full-text redundancy<br />Students given information re lightning formation<br />Summaries with illustrations & captions superior to full-text versions<br />Despite early research, it was assumed that presentation via multiple formats would at worst have neutral effects, not negative<br />
  9. 9. Split Attention Effect<br />When multiple sources of information must be integrated to be intelligible<br />When learners split attention, cognitive load is increased<br />Text placed near graphic (geometry example) would be considered redundant<br />When text is integrated, it is easy to ignore<br />
  10. 10. Experimental Evidence 4<br />Bobis, Sweller and Cooper (1993) – Textual redundancy<br />Textual explanations added to graphics resulted in worse performance on tests<br />Text was redundant<br />Adding more diagrams had negative effect<br />
  11. 11. Experimental Evidence 5<br />Sweller & Chandler (1996), Chandler & Sweller (1996) – Computer Application<br />Computer and work done on computer were redundant<br />Users presented computer manual but no computer<br />Users presented both computer and manual<br />Learners who had use of computer performed more poorly than those who did not<br />
  12. 12. Experimental Evidence 6<br />Kalyuga, Chandler and Sweller (1999) – Written/Spoken Text Redundancy<br />Demonstrated modality effect by finding diagram and written text was worse than same diagram and spoken text<br />Having same written and spoken text was redundant <br />
  13. 13. The Centrality of the Redundancy Effect to the Expertise Reversal Effect<br />Expertise Reversal Effect – when instructional technique that is effective loses advantage and effectiveness when levels of expertise increase<br />As levels of expertise increase, additional explanations become unnecessary and redundant<br />Information that may be essential for novices may become redundant as expertise increases<br />
  14. 14. Instructional Implications of the Redundancy Principle<br />Eliminate all redundant materials presented to learners and all redundant activity that instruction may encourage learners to engage in<br />Redundancy principle does not indicate what may or may not be redundant<br />Information that is redundant under one set of circumstances may be essential under another<br />
  15. 15. Instructional Implications 2<br />Redundancy principle is not a simple, universally applicable rule<br />Redundancy principle can be explained by cognitive load theory and should always be considered in conjunction with the theory<br />Decisions regarding element interactivity should be made from the learner's point of view (novice vs. expert)<br />
  16. 16. Conclusions<br />Redundancy principle often seen as counterintuitive<br />Easy to assume that additional information or explanation could be advantageous<br />This assumption ignores knowledge of human cognitive structure<br />Large amount of experimental evidence spanning several decades supports the idea that redundant information is not neutral<br />