Presentacio FrançA Bona AngléS


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Presentacio FrançA Bona AngléS

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION When we speak about problems related to the water we refer to the five following ones: · Sea level increase · F reshwater shortage · Expansion of desert areas · Floods · Shrinkage of glaciers
  3. 3. MAIN REGIONAL PROBLEMS <ul><li>In our region the most serious problems related to the water are, in order of importance, the following ones: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion of desert areas and floods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freshwater shortage </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Shrinkage of glaciers and sea level increase, are not a problem, the first one given the latitude to wich we are and the climatic conditions and the second one, at the moment it is only a future threat. Nevertheless, a sea level increase would provoke catastrophic consequences in many areas of our region, given the geological and topographics characteristics of the same one, with the presence of extensive areas placed to level of the sea, where they agree important cores of population and areas of high agricultural productivity.
  5. 5. Expansion of desert areas <ul><li>For desertification we understand the process for wich a territory that does not possess the climatic conditions of the desert ends up by adquiring the characteristics of these. This happens as a result of the destruction of the vegetation, the erosion of the soil and the lack of water . </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Human activities that accelerate the desertification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>· Inmoderate shepherding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>· Bad use of the soil and of the water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>· Compactation of the soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>· Salinitation of the soil because of the use of agricultural technologies and abuse of fertilizers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Natural disasters </li></ul><ul><li>The FOREST FIRE destroy a lot surface of vegetal cover leaving the soil naked of and exposed to a strong erosion. If we add the scanty but torrential rainfalls in autum season to all this, just after the summer the result is an important loss of soil. </li></ul>Reasons that favor the desertification
  7. 7. FLOODS <ul><li>Floods are produced by the torrential rains (though in some regions of Spain they are produced for the thaw) that are generated in autumn and spring mainly . </li></ul><ul><li>A situation of instability is created between the cold air from the north and the high temperature of the sea that propitiates a great quantity of water steam.Convective big clouds are created that precipitate with great force and intensity. The impermeability of the soil of the zone propitiates that the water passes by on the surface without infiltration. </li></ul>
  8. 8. FRESHWATER SHORTAGE <ul><li>This is the problem that most influences our community both in economics terms and when it comes to basic needs. </li></ul><ul><li>This factor is what causes the expansion of the desert areas and, therefore, the loss of growing soil. In the summer period, when the rainfalls are scanty or void, the water shortage becomes more evident, having to resort on occasions to the restrictions in the homes. </li></ul><ul><li>The possible solutions for this problem (desalination plants, pourings, water recycling...) imply a great economic expense, and often these solutions turn out to be inefficient. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Our region belongs to a Mediterranean climate, with scanty and irregular rains, with a very dry and warm summer where the evaporation is very well-known, presenting a dry period of at least three months   </li></ul>REASONS OF THE SHORTAGE <ul><li>CHANGEABLE CLIMATE </li></ul>
  10. 10. The agriculture consumes more than 80 % of the total demand of water in the countries in the south of the Mediterranean. There exists the perception of which the adverse effects of the drought are associated with the agrarian activities. The deforestation and the overgrazing favour the surface run-off and prevent the water infiltration REASONS OF THE SHORTAGE <ul><li>AGRICULTURE </li></ul>
  11. 11. The first natural reason is the prolongation of the periods of drought due to the global warming. In those regions near arid zones this incident of major arid cycles is much more evident than in the rest of the world, since it happens in the Mediterranean area REASONS OF THE SHORTAGE <ul><li>GLOBAL WARMING </li></ul>
  12. 12. In the Mediterranean, the climate is an essential component of the natural capital and constitutes an important element in the sustainable development. The water is not only a socioeconomic main element but also a cultural essential one. The Convention of the United Nations for the Fight against the Desertification attributes the origin of the desertification both to climatic variations and to human activities. The Convention insists on the fact that &quot; the desertification is caused by complex interactions among physical, biological, political, social, cultural and economic factors ” REASONS OF THE SHORTAGE <ul><li>SOCIOPOLITICS QUESTIONS </li></ul>