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Teaching method ....ppt

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Teaching method ....ppt

  1. 1. Teaching methods 1R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS
  2. 2. • Instructional strategies determine the approach a teacher may take to achieve learning objective. • Instructional methods are used by teachers to create learning environments. 2R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS
  3. 3. Definition • Teaching methods is the stimulation, guidance, direction and encouragement for learning. 3R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS
  4. 4. Teaching strategies classification • Teacher controlled teaching( monologue, autocratic teaching) • Interactive procedure of teaching ( Democratic, dialogue teaching) • Learning controlled teaching ( self study, lassies – fair teaching) • Group controlled teaching ( Action oriented, democratic teaching) • Clinical teaching method 4R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS
  5. 5. Teacher controlled teaching( monologue, autocratic teaching) • Lecture methods • Demonstration methods • Lecture demonstration • Team teaching methods • Individualized instruction • Historical 5R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS
  6. 6. Interactive procedure of teaching (Democratic, dialogue teaching) • Question answer method • Interactive procedure • Group discussion methods • Tutorial methods • Seminar methods • Panel methods • Symposium 6R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS
  7. 7. Learning controlled teaching ( self study, lassies – fair teaching) • Programmed instruction • Self directed learning (SDL) • Library methods • Computer assisted instruction • Laboratory methods • Assignments 7R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS
  8. 8. Group controlled teaching ( Action oriented, democratic teaching) • Project methods • Simulation instruction • Filed trip • Field work, survey • Workshop • Problem- solving method • Problem based learning • Role play • Narrative • Conducting experience • Story telling • Field observation • Model building • Buzz sessions 8 R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS
  9. 9. Clinical teaching method 1. Client family centered methods 2. Observation 3. Conference i. Clinical conference ii. Individual conference iii. Group conference iv. Staff conference v. Nursing care conference vi. Team conference 9R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS
  10. 10. Cont…Clinical teaching method 4. Bedside clinic 5. Nursing rounds and medical rounds 6. Demonstration and re-demonstration of procedure 7. Ward teaching 8. Ward class 9. Ward clinic 10. Case study/ case presentation/ case history methods 10R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS
  11. 11. 11. Group discussion 12. Brain storming methods 13. Process recording 14. Laboratory methods 15. Planned health talks 16. Nursing care study 17. Organizing exhibition 18. Incidental teaching 19. Problem solving methods 20. Research projects Cont…Clinical teaching method 11R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS
  12. 12. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 12
  13. 13. Lecture methods • The lecture is a teaching procedure consisting of the clarification or the explanation of facts, principles or relationships. • A lecture (from the French 'lecture', meaning 'reading' [process]) is an oral presentation intended to present information or teach people about a particular subject, R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 13
  14. 14. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 15 L- Lively E- Educative C- Creative T- Thought provoking U- Understanding R- Relevant E- Enjoyable.
  15. 15. PLANNING THE LECTURE • Before starting to prepare a lecture, the teacher must be able to answer four basic questions:- – Who is your audience?- Who – What is the purpose of your lecture?- Why – How much time is available- How long – What is the subject matter?- What R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 16
  16. 16. Lecture delivery • Speaker- audience distance • Body movement and stand • Facial expression • Gesture • Voice • Strength R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 17 •Enunciation •Pronunciation •Rate of speech •Variety •Pauses
  17. 17. Advantage of lecture methods • Factual information • Useful for large gathering • Cost effective • Quick and straight forward way • Useful methods for auditory learner • Easier to create • Familiar methods • Time saving R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 18
  18. 18. Disadvantage of lecture methods • Content centered • One sided affair • Need proficient oral skills- teacher need special oral skill in delivering lecture. If they don’t have this skill then lecture become boring, and uninteresting. • Passive audience • Minimizes feedback from students. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 19
  19. 19. Cont… Disadvantage of lecture methods • No place for any practical activity, observation experimentation and demonstration. • Failure with the student of lower class. Not appropriate for children below grade 4. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 20
  20. 20. How to improve lecture methods- • Fit the lecture to the audience • Focus your topic • Prepare an outline that includes 5-9 major points you want to cover in one lecture • Organize your points for clarity • Repeat point when necessary • Be aware of your audience- notice their feedback • Be enthusiastic R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 21
  21. 21. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 22 A GOOD LECTURE Avoid annoying mannerisms Tailor speech & writing proper use of body language Topic based on need & interest Clarify concepts with examples Lecture with respectivity of students Manage lecture in time
  22. 22. Discussion Methods • Discussion involves two-way communication between participants • In the classroom situation an instructor and trainees all participate in discussion. • During discussion, the instructor spends some time listening while the trainees spend sometimes talking R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 23
  23. 23. Cont… • The discussion is, therefore, a more active learning experience for the trainees than the lecture. • A discussion is the means by which people share experiences, ideas and attitudes. • As it helps to foster trainee’s involvement in what they are learning, it may contribute to desired attitudinal changes. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 24
  24. 24. Definition • The group discussions defined as the process of reaching and counter reaction between two or more than two person on a common subject with the objective of achieving some specific conclusion or result. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 25
  25. 25. Advantage of discussion methods • Effective learning • Emphasis on students experience • Development of critical thinking • Participation by everybody • Self expression • Peer learning is one of the most direct benefits resulting from the discussion methods. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 26
  26. 26. Disadvantage • May dominate with personal feeling • Chances of deviation from topic • Dominance by one person R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 27
  27. 27. Small Group Discussion R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 28
  28. 28. introduction • Small group have fewer than 5-20 or so members, making it easier for people to actively participate. • They meet as small gathering or as break- outs of large meetings and offer may opportunities for- – creative, – flexible interchange of ideas. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 29
  29. 29. Important feature • Actively participated and interaction • There is time limit for given activity • Specific task them or goal • Participation is improved • Group members are activated • Enhance contribution from members R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 30
  30. 30. Specific small group technique include • Breakout groups • Workshop • Roundtable • Study circle R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 31
  31. 31. Buzz Method • The buzz group technique is a patent discussion group with a high degree of student involvement in which small group of 2-3 participants discuss a specific question or issue in order to come-up with many ideas in a short-time. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 32
  32. 32. Cont…. • Buzz groups is a cooperative learning technique consisting in the formation of small discussion groups with the objective of developing a specific task (idea generation, problem solving and so on) or facilitating that a group of people reach a consensus on their ideas about a topic in a specific period of time. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 33
  33. 33. Features of Buzz Group Method- • Small group (2-3 participants) • Method is informal • No need to move for discussion/no need of syndicate rooms • Discussion on only one issue, question, or point (no need of in depth analysis) R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 34
  34. 34. Cont…. • Less time consuming (5-15 Min.) • Can be used as “Ice Breaker” • Buzz group leader is not there. • Can be used as a supplemented method of other methods. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 35
  35. 35. Process of Buzz Group Method • Decide the appropriateness of the method • Prepare specific question/issues for discussion • Prepare key learning points related to the issues • Present question/issues. • Ask individual participants to write down their views • Form groups of 2 – 3 participants to write down their views R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 36
  36. 36. Cont… • Allocate 5 – 10 min. time for discussion • Have them share and discuss on their points within the group • Supervise each group and encourage individuals to participate • Stop discussion after the allocated time has expired R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 37
  37. 37. • Ask each group to share their points preferably one points from each group at a time • Record them on the board or chart sheet • Discuss on the points and conclude • Relate them with the key learning points R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 38 Cont…
  38. 38. Advantage • Every person in group is involved in discussion • Produce useful resulting in minimum time • Wholesome effects on group members • Creates informal atmosphere R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 39
  39. 39. Disadvantages • Effectiveness of the group may be lowered by the immature behavior of a few. • It may not be effective for younger groups or groups that know each other too well to take each other's opinions seriously. • It can be time-consuming when dealing with very large groups. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 40
  40. 40. Limitation • Depends on the leader. • Cannot be used in all situations. • It is useful in defining problem or questions, developing a list of possible goals, refining ideas. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 41
  41. 41. Fishbowls R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 42
  42. 42. • The fishbowl is a method to facilitate a group discussion in an event. • An inner circle, the fishbowl, is created, in which members of the audience participate and in which the discussion starts. • This method is easy to organize and allows a good involvement of the audience. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 43
  43. 43. • Fishbowl Discussions are designed to improve communication skills. • The fishbowl strategy involves seating students in two concentric circles. • Those in the inner circle do the talking, and those in the outer circle listen, take notes, and evaluate the communication skills and the content of the discussion. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 44
  44. 44. • It is used for dynamic group involvement • This activity required 60-90 minute • Fish bowl discussion can be open and closed. • In a fishbowl 4-5 chairs are arranged in an inner circle. The remaining chairs are arranged in outer circle of the fishbowl. • The moderator introduces the topic and the participants start discussing the topic. The audience outside the fishbowl listens in on the discussion. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 45
  45. 45. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 46
  46. 46. The Layout Student will be arranged in a circle With the small group in the middle.
  47. 47. Type Fishbowl open fishbowl closed fishbowl R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 48
  48. 48. Open fishbowl • In an open fishbowl, any member of the audience can, at any time, occupy the empty chair and join the fishbowl. • When this happens, an existing member of the fishbowl must voluntarily leave the fishbowl and free a chair. • The discussion continues with participants frequently entering and leaving the fishbowl. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 49
  49. 49. Cont… open fishbowl • Depending on how large your audience is you can have many audience members spend some time in the fishbowl and take part in the discussion. • When time runs out, the fishbowl is closed and the moderator summarizes the discussion. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 50
  50. 50. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 51
  51. 51. Closed fishbowl • In a closed fishbowl, the initial participants speak for some time. • When time runs out, they leave the fishbowl and a new group from the audience enters the fishbowl. • This continues until many audience members have spent some time in the fishbowl. • Once the final group has concluded, the moderator closes the fishbowl and summarizes the discussion. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 52
  52. 52. Seminar R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 53
  53. 53. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 54 • Seminars are simply a group of people coming together for the discussion and learning of specific technique and topics. • The word seminar is derived from Latin word “Seminarium” meaning “seed plot”.
  54. 54. DEFINITION • Seminar is an instructional technique of higher learning which involves paper reading on a theme and followed by the group discussion to clarify the complex aspects of theme. • Seminars are simply a group of people coming together for the discussion and learning of specific techniques and topics. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 55
  55. 55. Types of seminar R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 56 Sl. No Type Example 1 mini seminar class room level 2 main seminar dept / institutional level 3 national seminar national level 4. international seminar international level
  56. 56. CLASS ROOM SEMINAR
  57. 57. DEPARTMENTAL SEMINAR
  58. 58. NATIONAL SEMINAR
  59. 59. INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR
  60. 60. CHARATERISTICS • Teacher is the leader. • The group generally consists of 10 to 15 participants. • An ideal seminar lasts for 1-2 hrs.
  61. 61. • The topic is initially presented by the presenter followed by group discussion. • The leader should keep the discussion within limits so the focus of discussion can be mentioned. • care should be taken to avoid stereotypes.
  62. 62. • In student seminars, students present their data in an informal way under the leadership of the teacher, followed by a teacher monitored discussion. • All members take part in discussion in an informal but orderly manner.
  63. 63. • The chairman should be skilled in encouraging the timid participants. • A student secretary may record the problems that come up and the solutions given to them.
  64. 64. Requirement of seminar • Teacher is a leader (student can also function as leader). • 10-15 members are participants. • The topic is presented by the student taking 15-20minute- time. • Duration is 1 to 2 hours. • Leaders should keep the discussion within the limits of the problem discussed. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 70
  65. 65. Cont…. • Students present their data in an informal way under the leadership of the teacher. • Care should be taken part in discussion in an informal way but orderly in manner. • The chairmen should be skilled in encouraging the timid participants. • A student secretary should record the problem which arise and the solution given. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 71
  66. 66. Roles of Seminar Technique • In organizing a seminar the following roles are performed:- • ORGANIZER • CHAIRMEN • PARTICIPANT • OBSERVERS R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 72
  67. 67. Advantages of seminar method • Stimulation of thinking. • Tolerance of other views develops. • Cooperation with others develops. • Openness of ideas occurs. • Represents the norms of behaviors. • It has great instructional values. • Natural way of learning R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 73
  68. 68. Limitation of seminar • Seminar cannot be organized on all the content of subject matter. • Technique cannot be used in all levels of education • Seminar is a time consuming process. • It cannot be applied to new students. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 74
  69. 69. Cont….. • Timid students may initially feel nervous. • If subject knowledge is poor, unnecessary discussions arise. • The approach to problem solving extends to student's professional and personal activities. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 75
  70. 70. ASK YOUR DOUBTS
  71. 71. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 77
  72. 72. Panel Discussion R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 78
  73. 73. • It is designed to provide an opportunity to a group to hear several people knowledgeable about a specific issue or topic. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 79
  74. 74. Objective • To provide information and new facts • To analysis the current problem from different angle. • To identify the values • To organize for mental reaction. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 80
  75. 75. Type panel discussion Public panel discussion Educational panel discussion R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 81
  76. 76. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 82 A U D I E N C E
  77. 77. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 83
  78. 78. Identify the Goal and purpose of your panel discussion. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 84
  79. 79. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 85
  80. 80. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 86
  81. 81. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 87 Determine the rules For the panel discussion.
  82. 82. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 88 ❖ Write questions for the panelists.
  83. 83. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 89 Arrange For the panel discussion to be recorded.
  84. 84. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 90 Present and introduce the panelists at the beginning of the panel discussion.
  85. 85. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 91 Conduct the discussion as planned, following the established rules.
  86. 86. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 92 Conclude the panel discussion with a summary and closing remarks.
  87. 87. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 93 Send thank you notes to the panelists and moderator For their participation
  88. 88. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 94
  89. 89. Workshop R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 95
  90. 90. • A workshop is similar to a seminar but with a greater degree of attendance participation, interaction, and hand-on experience, is usually a full day where participants learn and practice the knowledge and skills that is the workshop’s focus. • An educational seminar or series of meeting emphasizing interaction and exchange of information among a usually small number of participants. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 96
  91. 91. Characteristics of workshop • Activity based • Active engagement of participants during the workshop • High production values • Information sharing meeting • Limited number of participants R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 97
  92. 92. Cont…Characteristics of workshop • Less formal, include more discussion • Emphasizing practical applications • Requiring some preparation in advance of the workshop • Thorough minute-by-minute planning of workshop sessions. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 98
  93. 93. Strength • Involves collaborative problem- solving • The participants feel they are part of a learning community • Group building • Useful for small group where there is a common interest or concern • Encourage communication and acceptance of other viewpoints • It is useful when the solutions to problem are not clear. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 99
  94. 94. Weakness • Dominance by member • It can be difficult to keep focused and clear about and desired outcome. • Working session • Limited numbers of participant. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 100
  95. 95. STEPS IN PREARATION OF A WORKSHOP 101
  96. 96. STEPS IN ORGANIZING A WORKSHOP OPENING A FILE FORMULATION OF AIMS & OBJECTIVES ARRANGEMENT OF FUNDS DATE & PLACE OF WORKSHOP SELECTION OF EXPERTS SELECTION OF PARTICIPANTS COMMITTEE OF SPONSORS WORKING LANGUAGE INVITATION TO PARTICIPANTS 102
  97. 97. OPENING A FILE • A file is opened which contains information on – • budget, • sitting arrangements, • selection of participants, • documentation and equipment • checklist, • publicity press and • Evaluation. 103
  98. 98. FORMULATION OF AIMS & OBJECTIVES • Aims & objectives are formulated both for the organizers and the participants. • At first stage of the workshop theoretical aspects are discussed by experts. 104
  99. 99. ARRANGEMENT OF FUNDS • The organizer has to arrange funds boarding & lodging both for the experts and the participants. • The whole programme schedule is prepared by the organizer. 105
  100. 100. CHOOSING THE DATE & PLACE • A non working day is usually chosen for the first day of workshop. ( Ensure that at least one working day precedes the opening of the workshop.) • The place of workshop is selected keeping in mind the feasibility of the participants to reach the venue. 106
  101. 101. IDENTIFICATION OF RESOURCE PERSONS • The success of the workshop depends on the quality of the resource persons chosen, experience, qualification, knowledge & importance should be given while selecting the resource persons. 107
  102. 102. IDENTIFICATION OF SPONSORS • Sponsoring agencies and individuals are to be identified and contacted so as to aid in the organization of the workshop and in managing it's funds. 108
  103. 103. WORKING LANGUAGE • The workshop is usually carried out in a national language or preferred official language. 109
  104. 104. INVITATION TO PARTICIPANTS • A personal letters should be sent to the participants selected with the following points. 1. Aims of the workshop. 2. What is implied by the workshop. 3. Working methods of the workshop. 4. Theme of the workshop. 110
  105. 105. ROLES IN WORKSHOP • Role of Organizer of the Workshop Technique. • Role of Convener in First Stage. • Role of Experts or Resource persons. • Role of Participants or Trainees 111
  106. 106. ROLE OF AN ORGANIZER • The program and schedule is prepared by the organizer. • He has to arrange for boarding and lodging facilities for participants as well as for the experts. 112
  107. 107. ROLE OF A CONVENOR • At first stage of the workshop, the theoretical aspects are discussed by the experts on the theme of the workshop. • Therefore, a convener is nominated or invited who is well known with theme. 113
  108. 108. ROLE OF EXPERTS • In organizing a workshop, resources persons play an important role in providing theoretical and practical aspects of theme. • They provide guidance to participants at every stage and train them to perform the task effectively 114
  109. 109. ROLE OF A TRAINEE • The participants should be keep interested in the theme of the workshop. • At the first stage, they have to acquire understanding of the theme. 116
  110. 110. Cont…. • At the second stage, they have to practice and perform the task with great interest and seek proper guidance from the experts. 117
  111. 111. OUTCOMES OF THE WORKSHOP • Workshop widens specified knowledge. • Results in personal and professional growth. • Results in friendship, team spirit and human relations. 118
  112. 112. ADVANTAGES 119
  113. 113. • It is a technique which can be effective used for developing understanding and proficiency for the approaches and practices in education. • It is used for developing and improving professional efficiency, eg. Nursing, medical, dental etc. • Facilitates learning by doing R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 120
  114. 114. • It develops the feeling cooperation and group work. • The new practice and innovations are introduced • It is a problem solving methods • Active participation is possible • Leadership quality can be develop and enhanced. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 121
  115. 115. Disadvantage of workshop • Generally follow up are not organized in workshop technique. • It requires a lot of time for participant and staff • A large number of staff members are needed to handle participation. • It demands special facilities or materials. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 122
  116. 116. • Participants do not take interest in practical work or to do something in productive form. • The workshop cannot be organized for large group so large number of persons cannot be not trained. • Time consuming • Resource person should be available. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 123
  117. 117. Symposium R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 124
  118. 118. Symposium • It is also one of the techniques of higher learning. • “Symposium consists of a set of program of prepared speeches followed by audience discussion” • “Symposium is a technique in which two or more person under the direction of a chairman presents several speeches, which give several aspect of one question”. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 125
  119. 119. • The word Symposium is also has several dictionary meaning.- • Firstly, Plato has used this term for “good dialogue” to present the view towards GOD. • Another meaning of the term is the intellectual reaction or enjoyment. • The recent meaning of the term is a meeting of persons to discuss a problem. • The main purpose of the symposiums to provide the understanding to the students or listeners on them or problem specification to develop certain values and feelings. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 126
  120. 120. DEFINITION • “Symposium consists of a set of program of prepared speeches followed by audience discussion” • “Symposium is a technique in which two or more person under the direction of a chairman presents several speeches, which give several aspect of one question”. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 127
  121. 121. OBJECTIVES • identify and understand two various aspects of the theme. • To develop the ability to decision and judgment regard a problem. • To develop the values and feeling regarding a problem. • To enable the listeners to form policies regarding problem. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 128
  122. 122. Characteristics of Symposium • It provides the broad understandings of a topic or a problem. • The opportunity is provided to the listeners to take decision about the Problem. • It is used for higher classes to specific theme and problem. • It develops the feeling of co-operation and adjustment. The objectives as synthesis and evaluation are achieved by employing the symposium. • It provides the different views on the topic of the symposium. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 129
  123. 123. Scope for the use of symposium • Scope for the distance education in our education. • Use of essay and objective type of test. • Semester system in education. • Quality control of education research. • Use of microteaching in teacher education • Use of team teaching in school. • Use of action research in classroom teaching. • Scope of education technology in our education. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 130
  124. 124. Advantages • It is suitable to a large group or classes. • This method can be frequently used to present broad topics for discussion at conventions and organization meetings. • Organization is good because of the set speeches prepared beforehand. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 131
  125. 125. • Gives deeper insight into the topic. • This method can be use in political meetings. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 132
  126. 126. Disadvantages • Inadequate opportunity for all the students to participate actively. • The speeches are limited to 15-20 minutes. • Question and answer limited to 3 or 4 minutes. • Possibility of overlapping the subjects. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 134
  127. 127. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 135
  128. 128. Micro - Teaching R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 136
  129. 129. Introduction • Micro-teaching is a teacher training and faculty development technique whereby the teacher reviews a recording of a teaching session, in order to get constructive feedback from peers and/or students about what has worked and what improvements can be made to their teaching technique. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 137
  130. 130. • Micro-teaching was invented in the mid-1960s at Stanford University by Dr. D. W. Allen, and has subsequently been used to develop educators in all forms of education. • Microteaching is a technique aiming to prepare teacher candidates to the real classroom setting (Brent & Thomson, 1996). R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 138
  131. 131. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 139 Dr. Allen and his group evolved Microteaching in 1960 in America.
  132. 132. • Microteaching is a technique aiming to prepare teacher candidates to the real classroom setting (Brent & Thomson, 1996). R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 140
  133. 133. • Microteaching can be defined as a training context in which a teacher’s situation has been reduced in scope or simplified in some systematic ways. There are three ways in which teaching may be scaled down- – The teacher’s task may be simplified and made very specific. – The length of the lesson may be shortened. – The size of class may be reduced. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 141 DEFINITION
  134. 134. Cont… DEFINITION • According BM shore “microteaching is real teaching, reduced in time, number of students and range of activities”. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 142
  135. 135. Characteristics of microteaching • It is real teaching situation • Scaled down teaching:- it is reduce the complexity of the classroom teaching situation in term of the number of student, the amount of time and the amount of learning contents. • Development of specific teaching skill • Controlled practice • Immediate feedback R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 143
  136. 136. Skills of Micro teaching- • Set Induction (Introduction Skill) • Skill of questioning • Skill of Explanation • Skill of Stimulus Variation • Skill of Black-board Writing R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 144
  137. 137. 145 Cont… Skills of Micro teaching Techniques The components of the skill of Blackboard Writing Are: i. Legibility ( Easy to read ) ii. Size and alignment ( In a straight line ) iii. Highlighting main points iv. Utilization of the space v. Blackboard summary vi. Correctness vii. Position of the teacher and viii.Contact with the pupils.
  138. 138. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 146 2. Skill of Probing Questions 1. Introduction Skill 3. Skill of Explanation 4. Skill of Stimulus Variation 5. Skill of Black- board Writing Skills of Micro Teaching 6. Skill of Achieving Closure
  139. 139. Phase of microteaching R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 147
  140. 140. 148 Microteaching Cycle (Procedure) Step- I : Micro Lesson Plan ( may take 2 hours / a day) Step-II : Teach 5 Min. Step-III : Feedback Session 5 Min. Step-IV : Re-plan 10 Min. Step-V : Re-teach Another group 5 Min. Step-VI : Re-feedback 5 Min. --------------- Total 30 Min. (Appr.) Teach → Feedback → Re-plan → Re-teach → Re-feedback
  141. 141. PLANRE-TEACHING 6 MINUTES TEACHING 6 MINUTES FEEDBACK 6 MINUTES RE-PLAN 12 MINUTES
  142. 142. Advantage of microteaching • Reduced complexity • Individualized teaching • It develops confident by having the practice of skill in microteaching under simulated condition. • Behavior modification technique. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 150
  143. 143. Cont…Advantage of microteaching • More understanding of teaching • Real teaching • Self – evaluation is possible by analyzing one’s teaching performed. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 151
  144. 144. Limitation of microteaching • Costly- video recording • Narrowing scope- • For training in microteaching sufficient time is required. • Teacher needs training of this method which generally they lack. • Micro teaching is skill-oriented rather than content-oriented • Scope of micro teaching is narrow R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 152
  145. 145. Summary Microteaching • Microteaching involves presentation of micro lesson • Audience….small group of peers. • Feedback given by peers role playing as students • Participants learn about strengths & weakness in themselves as teachers • Plan strategies for improvement in performance. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 153
  146. 146. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 154
  147. 147. Simulation • In general terms, simulation is a technique or device that attempts to create characteristic of the real world. • Simulation allows the educator to control the learning environment through scheduling of practice, providing feedback, and minimizing or introducing environmental distractions. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 155
  148. 148. What can be simulated? Almost anything can and almost everything has...
  149. 149. Simulation • In general terms, simulation is a technique or device that attempts to create characteristic of the real world. • Simulation allows the educator to control the learning environment through scheduling of practice, providing feedback, and minimizing or introducing environmental distractions. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 157
  150. 150. What can be simulated? Almost anything can and almost everything has...
  151. 151. • In health care, simulation may refer to “a device representing a simulated patient or part of patient; such a device can respond to and interact with the action of the learner. • To simulate is to try to duplicate the characteristics of a real system. • Simulation is one of the most widely used decision modeling techniques. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 159
  152. 152. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 160
  153. 153. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 161
  154. 154. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 162
  155. 155. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 163
  156. 156. Definition • Simulations are defined “activities that mimic the reality of a clinical environment and are designed to demonstrate procedures, decision- making and critical thinking through technique such as role playing and the use of device such as interactive videos or mannequins”. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 164
  157. 157. Principal of simulation • Clear stated objective • Actual patient care experience • Proper orientation of proceedings/ scenario • Use of problem- solving and critical reasoning R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 165
  158. 158. Characteristics of simulated teaching • Can be in research work • It can be used for rehearsal before going to classroom teaching • Effective for practice of teaching skills by the pupil teacher • Effective feedback can be provided • It is very convenient method R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 166
  159. 159. Cont…Principal of simulation • Role of educator must be as a facilitator • Simulation should be collaborative approach between educator and simulator • Feedback and evaluation of stimulator session. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 167
  160. 160. The Process of Simulation R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 168
  161. 161. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 169
  162. 162. Values of simulation Techniques • Enable the learner to learn directly from experience. • Promotes high level of critical thinking • Develops in the student an understanding of the decision- making process. • Enable the individual to empathies with the real- life situation R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 170
  163. 163. Cont… Values of simulation Techniques • Provides feedback to the learners on the consequences of action and decision made. • Motivates the students by making real life situations exciting and interesting. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 171
  164. 164. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 172
  165. 165. Programmed instruction
  166. 166. 174R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
  167. 167. • Programmed learning (or programmed instruction) is a research-based system which helps learners work successfully. 175R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
  168. 168. • It is a learning in which the student works from the known to unknown, from the familiar to unfamiliar. • It is a self- testing technique for acquiring factual learning. • It is an integrated structional system which may employ programmed books, teaching machine, films in various forms of audio- visual devices. 176R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
  169. 169. Definition • It is a kind of learning in which a ‘program’ takes the place of a tutor for the student, and leads him through a set of frames of specified behaviors designed and sequenced to make it more probable that he will behave in a give desired way. (Kochhar, S.K.1992) 177R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
  170. 170. Type • Linear programming • Branching programming • Mathetics programming • Computer assisted instruction 179R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
  171. 171. 180R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
  172. 172. 181R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
  173. 173. Step for development of Programmed Instruction 182R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
  174. 174. Selection of the topic to be programmed Identifying the objectives. Content analysis for developing the instruction procedure. Writing objective in behavioral terms. Construction of criterion test. 183R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
  175. 175. Cont… Deciding appropriate strategy of programme. Writing programme frames and individual try out. Group try out, revising and editing the programmed and preparing final dealt. Master validation or evaluation of programmed in terms of internal and external criteria. 184R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
  176. 176. R DH@KER, Lecturer, PCNMS 185
  177. 177. Technique of programmed instruction • Necessary information broken down into very small steps. • After understanding each step the student must take a response, answer a question, work out a problem or make a choice, usually by writing in a space provided. 186R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
  178. 178. Cont… Technique of programmed instruction • The student response is immediately checked with the right answer. • Programmed instructions an attempt to provide effective instruction without requiring the physical presence of human teacher. 187R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
  179. 179. Characteristic of programmed instruction Individualized Instruction Logical Sequence of material (Small Steps) Interaction between the learner and the programmed Immediate Knowledge of results Organized nature of Knowledge Learners Own Speed (Self Pacing) Constant Evaluation 188R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
  180. 180. Principle • Small steps • Active responding • Immediate confirmation • Self- pacing • Student- testing 189R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
  181. 181. Small steps • The subject- matter is broken down into a sequence of small step. • A student can take a step at a time. He has to read a small step by being active. 190R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
  182. 182. Active responding • The student learns best if he is active responds as he learns. • The learner has to construct the response. • It is an integral part of learning. Active responding on the part of the learner means learner involvement in the learning process is active. 191R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
  183. 183. Immediate confirmation • The student learns best if he confirms his response immediately. • The confirmation provides the reinforcement to the learner. 192R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
  184. 184. Self- pacing • In programmed instruction, the learner decides the rate at which he progresses through the programmed. • He adjusts the pace of work to his own ability and motivation level. • He is not forced to work with the speed of other student of the class. 193R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
  185. 185. Student- testing • A student leaves the record of his student because he has to write a response for each step on a response sheet. • This reminds the principle of student testing. 194R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
  186. 186. Advantage • It helps to develop high efficiency. • It facilitates self evaluation. • It gives individual instruction. • The student is actively involved. • The student proceeds at his own pace. • The student is provided with immediate knowledge of result. • It permits mass teaching. • It can lead to high availability. 195R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
  187. 187. Disadvantage • Require experts on programmed instruction. • Preparation is difficult and time- consuming. • Material is not available. • Necessary special education competence. • It cost high additional investment cost in teacher’s time and money. • There will be no group dynamics. 196R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
  188. 188. Conclusion • Programme instruction is the procedure of guiding the participants strategically through the information in a way that facilitates the most effective and efficient learning. • It provides immediate feedback to trainee response. 197R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
  189. 189. Bibliography • KP Neeraja, text book of Nursing education, 1st edition 2003, Jaypee brothers medical publishers (p) ltd, page no.267-272 • BT Basavanthappa, Nursing Education, Jaypee brothers Medical publisher (p) ltd, page no. 413-416. • Elsa santombi devi, Manipal manual of Nursing education, CBS publisher and distributor New Delhi,1st edition 2006, page no. - 155- 170. 198R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS
  190. 190. 199R Dh@ker, Asst. Professor, PCNMS

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