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Ventilation

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Basic ventilation class

Ventilation

  1. 1. VENTILATION NFPA Standard 1001 Fire Fighter Professional Qualifications - 2002
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Understand ventilation as a fire service tool </li></ul><ul><li>Know the principles, advantages, and effects of ventilation (NFPA 1001:3-3.10a) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Objectives <ul><li>Identify the considerations for proper ventilation (NFPA 1001:3-3.10a) </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the types of ventilation (NFPA 1001:3-3.10a, 4-3.2a) </li></ul><ul><li>Describe ventilation techniques (NFPA 1001:3-3.10a, 3-3.11a, 3-3.11b) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Objectives <ul><li>Describe the need for roof ventilation (NFPA 1001:3-3.11a, 3-3.11b,4-3.2a) </li></ul><ul><li>Identify safety considerations when venting (NFPA 1001:3-3.10a) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Objectives <ul><li>Describe the obstacles to ventilation (NFPA 1001:4-3.2a) </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the factors affecting ventilation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Delmar, Firefighter’s Handbook, Chapter 18 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Principles, Advantages, and Effects of Ventilation <ul><li>Ventilation is the systematic removal of the byproducts of combustion. </li></ul><ul><li>It relieves the structure of heat. </li></ul><ul><li>It channels smoke out of the structure. </li></ul><ul><li>It removes toxic gases from the structure. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Considerations for Proper Ventilation <ul><li>Vertical ventilation is the removal of heat and smoke through vertical channels. </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal ventilation is the removal of smoke and gases through horizontal openings. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Types of Ventilation <ul><li>Natural </li></ul><ul><li>Opening of doors and windows </li></ul><ul><li>Cutting a hole in the roof </li></ul>
  9. 10. Types of Ventilation <ul><li>Mechanical </li></ul><ul><li>Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) </li></ul><ul><li>Smoke fans </li></ul><ul><li>Positive pressure </li></ul>
  10. 12. Types of Ventilation <ul><li>Hydraulic </li></ul><ul><li>Fog stream out a window or other opening </li></ul><ul><li>Smooth bore with partially opened nozzle out a window or other opening </li></ul>
  11. 14. Ventilation Techniques <ul><li>Break windows </li></ul><ul><li>Open doors </li></ul><ul><li>Rope and a tool </li></ul><ul><li>For ventilating upper floor windows from above </li></ul><ul><li>Hook or pike pole </li></ul><ul><li>Halligan </li></ul><ul><li>Axe </li></ul>
  12. 15. Ventilation Techniques <ul><li>Portable ladder </li></ul><ul><li>Aerial ladder tip </li></ul><ul><li>Negative pressure ventilation </li></ul><ul><li>Positive pressure ventilation </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction opening should be larger than exhaust opening </li></ul><ul><li>Cone of air should be larger than opening </li></ul>
  13. 17. Roof Ventilation <ul><li>Quickest way is to use building features </li></ul><ul><li>Skylight </li></ul><ul><li>Scuttle cover </li></ul><ul><li>Bulkhead door </li></ul><ul><li>When making holes, cut directly over the fire when possible </li></ul>
  14. 19. Roof Ventilation <ul><li>Types of cuts </li></ul><ul><li>Expandable cut </li></ul><ul><li>Produces hole as large as needed </li></ul>
  15. 20. Roof Ventilation <ul><li>Louver cut </li></ul><ul><li>A series of cuts parallel to the roof joists, keeping them in the middle. When opened, they look like hinged louvers </li></ul><ul><li>Triangular cut </li></ul><ul><li>Good for Q-decking over open web bar joists </li></ul>
  16. 22. Roof Ventilation <ul><li>Trench cut or Strip cut </li></ul><ul><li>Defensive in design and execution </li></ul><ul><li>Used to cut off fire extension </li></ul><ul><li>Examination holes </li></ul><ul><li>Kerf cut – cutting blade lowered into roof material and pulled out </li></ul><ul><li>Triangular cut – three intersecting kerf cuts </li></ul>
  17. 23. Safety Considerations <ul><li>Will ventilation permit fire to extend? </li></ul><ul><li>Will the escape route be cut off? </li></ul><ul><li>Will ventilation endanger others? </li></ul><ul><li>Work in teams </li></ul>
  18. 24. Obstacles to Ventilation <ul><li>Access </li></ul><ul><li>Security devices </li></ul><ul><li>Height </li></ul><ul><li>Unfamiliar building layout </li></ul><ul><li>Timing </li></ul>
  19. 25. Factors Affecting Ventilation <ul><li>Partial openings </li></ul><ul><li>Partially broken windows </li></ul><ul><li>Screens </li></ul><ul><li>Roof material </li></ul>
  20. 26. Factors Affecting Ventilation <ul><li>Dropped or hanging ceilings </li></ul><ul><li>Building size </li></ul><ul><li>Weather </li></ul><ul><li>Opening windows </li></ul>
  21. 27. Lessons Learned <ul><li>Ventilation is a tool that is to be used like any other tool. It must be understood, used to its advantage, and applied carefully. </li></ul>
  22. 28. The End

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