Re: (Thinking) Manufacturing

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Re: (Thinking) Manufacturing

  1. 1. Re(thinking) Manufacturing Robert D. Cormia Foothill College
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>A new paradigm </li></ul><ul><li>Re => ‘cycling’ </li></ul><ul><li>Remanufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Demanufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Local manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Repair and reuse </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Value of Materials Materials Manufacturing Material Reprocessing Product Recycling
  4. 4. How Would Nature Do It? <ul><li>Not like us! </li></ul><ul><li>Systems and cycles </li></ul><ul><li>Waste = food </li></ul><ul><li>Cradle to Cradle </li></ul><ul><li>Biomimetic </li></ul>
  5. 6. New Materials Paradigm <ul><li>Minimize extraction </li></ul><ul><li>Maximize reuse </li></ul><ul><li>Repurpose by design </li></ul><ul><li>Learn to re: ‘cycle’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Up-cycling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Down-cycling </li></ul></ul>Re- ‘Cycle’ Reduce Reuse Repurpose
  6. 7. http://www.mcdonough.com/cradle_to_cradle.htm Remaking the Way We make Things
  7. 8. Cradle to Cradle <ul><li>Roundtrip materials use – ‘end-to-end’ </li></ul><ul><li>Manufactured using a minimum of new (virgin) material </li></ul><ul><li>Mandated demanufacturing and recovery of existing material </li></ul>
  8. 10. Waste => Food <ul><li>Material waste is the driver of more extraction, more energy use, and more pollution to the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Deconstruction and reuse is the ‘natural cycle’ approach. </li></ul>
  9. 11. Story of Stuff
  10. 12. Single Use Batteries Remote controls, toys, flashlights, smoke detectors—these are just some of the products that require batteries in our daily lives. Over three billion dry cell batteries are sold each year in the U.S. Because batteries disposed of in municipal landfills and trash incinerators can disperse significant amounts of heavy metals and other toxic substances into the air and water, battery waste prevention and recycling strategies are essential. http://earth911.com/hazardous/single-use-batteries/
  11. 13. Material Scarcity <ul><li>Declining metal / mineral production across the globe </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing energy to extract metals from lower grade ore </li></ul><ul><li>Competition for scarcer resources </li></ul>
  12. 14. Recycling as an Ethic <ul><li>Plastic </li></ul><ul><li>Glass </li></ul><ul><li>Metal </li></ul><ul><li>Paper </li></ul><ul><li>Biowaste </li></ul><ul><li>Cardboard </li></ul><ul><li>Batteries </li></ul><ul><li>E-waste </li></ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul>
  13. 15. Benefits of Recycling <ul><li>Local jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Local wages </li></ul><ul><li>Balance of payments </li></ul><ul><li>Reuse of material </li></ul><ul><li>Lower energy </li></ul><ul><li>Lower ‘consumption’ </li></ul><ul><li>Cheaper than trash </li></ul>http://www.recycling-revolution.com/recycling-benefits.html
  14. 16. Material Cycling Value <ul><li>Down-cycling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conserving value </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Up-cycling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adding value </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Re-cycling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preserving value </li></ul></ul>
  15. 17. duraflame stax / Java Log Repurposing – Waste => Food Coffee grinds can be 100% composted Recycled material => post waste Blended with renewable materials Lower carbon – cleaner burning
  16. 19. As Good as Wood? Or Better?
  17. 20. The Green Cycles <ul><li>Recycling  is processing used materials into new products, which results in less waste of potentially useful materials, less consumption of fresh raw materials, less energy usage and less water and air pollution. </li></ul><ul><li>Precycling  is thinking ahead before you buy. This can reduce the buildup of waste, items to landfills and even can save you money. </li></ul><ul><li>Freecycling  is giving away items for free instead of throwing them away. A great reusing network can be created. </li></ul><ul><li>Upcycling  is creating useful items from recycled material. This results in less waste and even can save money through reusing and not having to buy again. </li></ul><ul><li>Downcycling  is reusing or recycling of a product for an alternative lesser-quality purpose to keep it out of landfills or elsewhere. </li></ul><ul><li>E-cycling  is the recycling of electronics. E-cycling helps to prevent some e-waste such as lead, mercury, cadmium and other toxins to enter the environment. </li></ul>http://www.examiner.com/x-17027-Louisville-Green-Living-Examiner~y2009m8d5-The-green-cycles-recycling-precycling-freecycling-upcycling-downcycling-and-ecycling
  18. 21. Industrial Ecologies http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_ecology
  19. 22. Extended Producer Responsibility <ul><li>OEM ‘take it back’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cradle to grave approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient ‘reintegration’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pooled take-back (consortia) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leverage best practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop economies of scale </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Third party (vendor) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial ecosystems </li></ul></ul>
  20. 23. Remanufacturing Lifecycle
  21. 24. Remanufacturing Institute http://www.reman.org/
  22. 26. Toner Cartridges <ul><li>Most are recycled </li></ul><ul><li>Ten lives or more </li></ul><ul><li>Copiers may someday be ‘downcycled’ </li></ul>
  23. 27. Demanufacturing <ul><li>Demanufacturing is the disassembly and recycling of obsolete consumer products. The goal is to remove and recycle every component in an appliance. For example, the motherboard and metal parts of a computer are smelted and the metals are recovered. The TV tube in the monitor is recycled and turned into a new TV tube. The computers plastic housing is recovered and turned into new computer housings. The goal of the process is to reuse all of the materials that make up the computer, not throw them away. </li></ul>http://www.greenbiz.com/feature/2001/07/16/the-demanufacturing-difference
  24. 28. Demanufacturing Jobs These are good jobs for hardworking people who are both industrious and diligent, doing precision work which often requires a lot of care!
  25. 29. The Value of These Jobs? <ul><li>Local employment </li></ul><ul><li>All regions of US </li></ul><ul><li>Growing in number </li></ul><ul><li>All levels of skill </li></ul><ul><li>Transportable </li></ul><ul><li>Open to all walks of life / ‘preparedness’ </li></ul>
  26. 30. Remanufacturing <ul><li>Rebuilding machines </li></ul><ul><li>Reclaiming tools at end of life </li></ul><ul><li>Recondition and refurbished </li></ul><ul><li>Cost effective replacement parts </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce virgin material extraction </li></ul>http://www.airbrakecomponents.net/
  27. 31. Industrial Applications <ul><li>Electronics </li></ul><ul><li>Automobiles </li></ul><ul><li>PHEV retrofits </li></ul><ul><li>Buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Furniture </li></ul><ul><li>Clothing </li></ul><ul><li>Toys </li></ul>
  28. 32. APRA Automotive Parts Remanufacturers Association <ul><li>APRA is a non-profit trade association whose members rebuild/remanufacture automotive and truck related &quot;hard&quot; parts for passenger cars, trucks, off-road, marine, equipment and industrial uses. These parts include, but are not limited to, alternators, armatures, generators, starters, carburetors, clutches, distributors, connecting rods, crankshafts, cylinder blocks, engine assemblies, fuel pumps, brakes, master and wheel brake cylinders, power brakes, starter drives, solenoids, automatic transmissions, regulators, springs, windshield wiper motors and water pumps.  http://www.apra.org/ </li></ul>
  29. 33. Automotive Parts <ul><li>Engines </li></ul><ul><li>Transmissions </li></ul><ul><li>Clutch </li></ul><ul><li>Drive shafts </li></ul><ul><li>Bearing assemblies </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel injection </li></ul><ul><li>Alternators </li></ul>
  30. 34. Engine Reassembly <ul><li>Diesel (passenger) </li></ul><ul><li>Diesel (truck) </li></ul><ul><li>Older engines </li></ul><ul><li>Turbo chargers </li></ul><ul><li>Salvage </li></ul>
  31. 35. Engine Reassembly
  32. 36. Engine Reconditioning
  33. 37. Automotive Batteries <ul><li>Lead acid batteries </li></ul><ul><li>Nickel metal hydride </li></ul><ul><li>Lithium ion phosphate </li></ul><ul><li>PHEV batteries </li></ul><ul><li>EV battery racks </li></ul><ul><li>NEV batteries </li></ul>www.batterymd.com
  34. 38. http://www.intergears.co.uk/
  35. 39. Modular Building Solutions Almost end of life condition for this building Almost brand new condition for these buildings
  36. 40. LEED Building – Success! We are beginning to make progress on both ‘reuse’ and reduction of virgin material
  37. 41. Manufacturing Energy?
  38. 42. Biosynthetic Fuels <ul><li>Agrifuels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diverted food </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biofuels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diverted waste </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biosynthetic fuels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recycled CO 2 </li></ul></ul>
  39. 44. Biomimetic Process <ul><li>Waste = Food </li></ul><ul><li>Self-assemble, from the ground up </li></ul><ul><li>Evolve solutions, don't plan them </li></ul><ul><li>Relentlessly adjust to the here & now </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperate AND compete, not just one or the other </li></ul><ul><li>Diversify to fill every niche </li></ul><ul><li>Gather energy & materials efficiently </li></ul><ul><li>Optimize the system rather than maximizing components </li></ul><ul><li>The whole is greater than the sum of its parts--design for swarm </li></ul><ul><li>Use minimal energy & materials &quot;Don’t foul your nest“ </li></ul><ul><li>Organize fractally </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical reactions should be in water at normal temperature & pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Vogel's mechanical-engineering-specific principles </li></ul>http://www.worldchanging.com/archives/003680.html
  40. 45. Design by Intention
  41. 46. Repair and Reuse <ul><li>A second life </li></ul><ul><li>Not remanufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Extends original product value </li></ul><ul><li>Adds skilled labor </li></ul><ul><li>Builds local labor </li></ul><ul><li>Low materials cost </li></ul><ul><li>Strong customer satisfaction </li></ul>
  42. 47. Organ Recycling - Reuse <ul><li>There are things which cannot be (re)manufactured (at least not yet). </li></ul><ul><li>Be a blood donor </li></ul><ul><li>Be an organ donor </li></ul><ul><li>Realize the living potential of reuse </li></ul>
  43. 48. The Road Ahead <ul><li>Nanomanufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Human reassembly </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous redesign </li></ul><ul><li>Like software </li></ul><ul><li>Biomimicry </li></ul>
  44. 49. Where to Learn More <ul><li>The Remanufacturing Institute - http://www.reman.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>ARPA – http://www.arpa.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>Battery MD - http://www.batterymd.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>Intergears – http://www.intergears.co.uk/ </li></ul><ul><li>Green Citizen - http://www.greencitizen.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.recycling-revolution.com/ </li></ul>

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