From lab to fab training for the innovation value chain
From Lab to Fab => Training for the Innovation Value Chain Robert D. Cormia Foothill College
Overview• SETM => Innovation Value Chain• Advanced manufacturing• Extensible technicians• Start-up environments• Training for life, building to scale
SRI/Boeing Study• What do technicians do?• What do technicians know?• What don’t they know how to do?• Need relevant experience• Solve relevant problems Nanotechnology, Education and Workforce Development - AIAA Technical Conference 2007 Vivian T. Dang, Michael C. Richey, John H. Belk (Boeing), Robert Cormia (Foothill College), Nora Sabelli (SRI), Sean Stevens, Denise Drane, Tom Mason and …NCLT and Northwestern University
Nanotechnician Competencies• Measurements• Fabrication / process• Modeling / simulation• Knowledge of nanoscale• Work in teams (SETM) Deb Newberry Dakota County Technical College – University of Minnesota
Nanomaterials Engineering• Challenging applications – Novel properties – Novel structures – New processes• New structure – property relationships http://tam.mech.northwestern.edu/joswald/
PNPA Rubric• Application driven process (A)• Properties (P)• Nanostructures (N)• Fabrication (P)• Characterization (N-P)• The ‘Nanoengineering Method’ A Rubric for Post-Secondary Degree Programs in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
PNPA Rubric as a Compass• As you work, as you learn, as you read: – What are the applications? (A) – What properties are needed? (P) – What are the (nano)structures? (N) – How do you fabricate / process it? (P)• Use characterization tools to develop structure property relationships (N-P)• Fine tune process (P) to fine tune (N-P)
PNPA Rubric - Applied• In the workplace… – Think broadly about devices / applications – Visualize structures and their properties – Understand fabrication / processing – Think about characterization – constantly• Are structure-properties characterized?• Can structure-processing be improved?• Apply PNPA in every ‘working discussion’
SETM – Extensible Technicians• We don’t train for multidimensional thinking required in a workplace – Scientific knowledge – Engineering process – Technology know-how – Manufacturing competencies• Technicians need to think from all four corners of SETM – just like PNPA (rubric)
SETM => Innovation Value Chain • Scientific discovery • Engineering prototypes • Technology development • Manufacturing scale-up • From lab to fab => innovation value chain
Training for Success• Workplace effectiveness• Extensible careers• Supporting innovation• Learning platform• Nanomaterials engineering frameworkBill Mansfield, a technician at the New Jersey Nanotechnology Center at Bell Labs in Murray Hill, N.J., holds a reflective 8-inch MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical system) disk in a "clean" room of the nanofabrication lab at Bell Labs.
21 Century Technicians st• Have bachelor’s degrees! – many from 20 to 25 years ago• Need specific knowledge/skills• Support all four ‘edges’ of innovation – Think like a scientist, act like an engineer – Problem solve in real-time – Support manufacturing scale-up
Introduction to Nanotechnology Nanomaterials and Nanostructures•Scale and forces •Nanomaterials vs. ‘traditional’ materials o Dominate forces at all scales of distance •Nanostructures and novel properties•Emergence of properties at scale o Nanofibers, nanoparticles o Melting point, plasticity, thermal and electrical conductance •Process => structure => properties => applications•Self assembly process o Designing structures for end use properties o Crystals, molecular networks, biomolecules •Types of materials•Atom as a building block of materials o Glass, ceramic, metal, alloy, polymers and composites, o Crystals, glasses, metals, liquid / networks •Types of properties•Surface dominated behavior o Strength, plasticity, thermal and electrical conductance, o Surface area vs. volume, surface properties vs. bulk, surface behavior electromagnetic and chemistry •Fabrication basics•Role of quantum mechanics o Fab facilities, tools, processes, CNT o Conduction, phonons, interaction with light •Processing•Applications of nanotechnology / devices o Heat treatment, quenching, alloys, composites, fibers o Solar panels, fuel cells, semiconductors, ink, •Modeling and designing for desired properties•Industries that use nanotechnology o Computer modeling of structure properties relationships o Semiconductor, electronics, energy, medicine, advanced materials •Choice of materials and structures•Characterization tools o Select for properties and applications o Image (AFM/SEM), surface (AES/XPS), structure (XRD/TEM), and bulk •Characterization tools for nanostructures / nanomaterials (XRF/EDX/WDX) o Image, surface, composition, structuralNanocharacterization Nanofabrication•Instruments and characterization tools •Type of fabs o (AFM/SEM), surface (AES/XPS), structure (XRD/TEM), and bulk o Silicon, MEMS, Wafers (XRF/EDX/WDX) o Clean room basics, air filtration, dust•Types of analyses •Safety basics o Materials characterization, process development, failure analysis o Vacuum equipment, High voltage•High vacuum and high voltage basics •Silicon fundamentals o Vacuum t safety, vacuum awareness, high voltage and safety o Deposition, masking, etching•Sample preparation and handling •Virtual / physical tour of a silicon fab o Cleanliness, cleaning, dust and vacuum considerations •MEMS basics•Instrument selection o Silicon and polymer based MEMS o Image, surface, composition, structure, physical properties •Nanochemistry•Data gathering, analysis, and tabulation o Self Assembled Monolayers o Instrumental techniques, data gathering , tabulation interpretation o Dendrimers, Quantum Dots•Interpreting composition and chemistry, modeling structure •Thin film deposition o Building atomic and molecular structure from composition, chemistry, o Vacuum deposition, Sputtering, CVD/PECVD and x-ray data o Roll coating (web), Spin coat•Using a LIMS, searching spectral databases •Plasma deposition o Knowledge management tools to aid future problem solving o Plasma equipment, Gas chemistry•Reporting data, writing formal industry reports •Surface modification•Client management skills o Chemical, gas, plasma
Advanced Manufacturing• Not just ‘high tech’, but ‘high value’• From advanced materials to biofuels• All aspects of clean energy technology• Nanomaterials to specialty alloys• Integrating disassembly into design
Advanced Materials• Thin film coatings• Nanopowders / nanoparticles• Nanocarbon (CNT/CNSC)• Polymers and composites• Specialty metals / alloys• Advanced biofuels
Carbon Nanospheres(Onion Like Carbon) forhigh energy batteriesNanosphere mixed with PolyVinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) areused in high performance energystorage, especially in transportationsolutions. The surface of fullerenesoot is electrophilic and can havedangling bonds, however the keyfeature is the crystallinity ofgraphene sheets. HRTEM (HighResolution Transmission ElectronSpectroscopy) is an important toolin characterizing the degree ofcrystallinity in heat treatedfullerenes. A collaboration betweenindustry, government, andacademia is researching theprocess development andadvanced manufacturing ofnanocarbon sphere chains (CNSC)for a range of applications fromenergy storage to composites. http://www.personal.psu.edu/ckg5046/research.html
Carbon Nanotube Batteries Lithium ion batteries with carbon nanotube electrodes charge faster, safer, and last 10x longerhttp://news.discovery.com/tech/new-lithium-batteries-could-last-10-times-longer.html
Advanced Manufacturing • Clean energy – Wind, solar, fuel cells • Advanced biofuels – 100M gallons/day 2022 target • Biotechnology – Nanomedicine, cancer vaccines • Electric vehicles and batteries
Synthetic and Biosynthetic FuelsBiosynthetic fuels are the key to reducing and eventually eliminating dependenceon petroleum, and blending of low carbon synthetic fuels. Biotechnology andgenetically engineered organisms are central to production of novel biosyntheticfuels including hydrogen from algae.
Why we need biofuels at scale• We can reduce and/or eliminate petroleum – Reduce petrol from 400 M to 100 M gallons/day• Step 1: increase fuel efficiency to 50 mpg – Reduces liquid fuels to 200 M gallons day• Step 2: increase biofuels to 100 M gal/day – Reduces ‘petroleum’ to 100 M gallons/day• Step 3: replace petroleum with ??? – Hydrocarbon engineering, other biofuels, etc.
Biofuel’s high hurdleToday the US produces about 37million gallons a day (mgd) ofethanol, an amount that needs toincrease to about 100 mgd by 2022.This goal is important for tworeasons. First, for resource depletion(peak conventional oil production)and second for GHG emissions.Consider a scenario where vehicleefficiency increases by a factor of 2(from 22-25 mpg to 44-50 mpg). Weuse ~400 mgd of gasoline a day(10% ethanol). Our total ‘gasoline’demand would drop to about 200mgd from 400 mgd. Having 100 mgdof advanced biofuels would provide50% of out 200 mgd liquidtransportation needs, reducing ourreliance on hydrocarbon basedpetroleum by 75% (50% fromefficiency and 50% from advancedbiofuels) providing both price stabilityand significantly reduced GHGs.
Biomass to Biofuels Berkeley Lab Opens Advanced Biofuels Facility
SETM => Advanced Biofuels• Laboratory Research (S) – Bioscience – Bioengineering• Pilot facility (E) – Prototype 1,000 gal a day• Demonstration facility (T) – 10,000 gallons a day• Commercial facility (M) – 1M gallons a day / $1B yr
Evolution of Algal Biofuelshttp://www.chem.info/Articles/2010/03/Alternative-Energy-Algae-Investment-Trends-Advanced-Biofuels-Insight/
Clean Energy – What is it Worth?• Wind => $500 billion to offset coal by 50%• PV => $500 billion to offset natural gas• Biofuels => $150 billion a year in US fuels• Electric Vehicles (EV) => $1 trillion – 15% of current US fleet (30 million cars, ~ CA)• Energy storage => $100 B grid storage, $1 trillion if 50% of cars were PHEV/EV (2020)• Smart energy => $1 trillion for a modern grid
Hydrogen Fuel Cells Push conversion efficiency from 50 to 60 %, and ultimately to 75%Develop a low carbon source of hydrogenfor fuel – and this is a real game changer!
Demanufacturing -RemanufacturingIn a high technology economy wheresome raw materials are both preciousand scarce, products will requiredemanufacturing to recovercomponents and materials forreprocessing, and remanufacturing.Electric motor and battery technologymay be such an industry. Technicianstrained in complex disassembly,materials safety, and advancedmanufacturing (problem solving skills). These jobs will range in skills, andmay be very good training /therapeutic for returning veterans withTraumatic Brain Injury (TBI). Theseare extremely important jobs andcompetencies in an emerging‘sustainable manufacturing economy’.
Training for R&D• Internships matter!• Developing ‘competency’• Hands on learning• Current technology• Real-world problems• Real-world mentors
Summary• Innovation matters, scale matters more!• US needs to ‘reclaim’ advanced manufacturing, esp. clean energy• Technicians support SETM model• Training needs to support SETM• Internships are essential to a SETM technician’s academics!