Panel on Copyright, Technology and Culture


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  • EDINA is a UK national academic data centre, designated by JISC on behalf of UK funding bodies to support the activity of universities, colleges and research institutes in the UK, by delivering access to a range of online data services ...EDINA is based at the University of Edinburgh. Together with the University Data Library, it is a division of Information Services.
  • Rewards are still focused on ‘publish or perish’. But the new focus on impact may help make the open access and sharing route more attractive.
  • e.g. depositing in Arxiv for Physics community.Generational effects not always intuitive, e.g. senior academics may feel more leeway to share, having achieved their career status.
  • Governments’ role has been huge in pushing the boundaries of open access and providing the drivers, along with funders.Of course, governments are influenced by the public, who are increasingly demanding free access to research literature and data.
  • “Over two billion people now use the broadband Internet, up from perhaps 50 million a decade ago, when I was at Netscape, the company I co-founded. In the next 10 years, I expect at least five billion people worldwide to own smartphones, giving every individual with such a phone instant access to the full power of the Internet, every moment of every day.On the back end, software programming tools and Internet-based services make it easy to launch new global software-powered start-ups in many industries—without the need to invest in new infrastructure and train new employees. With lower start-up costs and a vastly expanded market for online services, the result is a global economy that for the first time will be fully digitally wired—the dream of every cyber-visionary of the early 1990s, finally delivered, a full generation later.”
  • “Another prime example is if Facebook were developed today, it would be a mobile app. If it was designed in the 1990s it would have been a CD-ROM. Nine years ago it was developed as a web based service, which even then was ahead of it’s time. Like it or not, the Internet has become the operating system of choice for software developers. And like it or not, software is increasingly becoming less important than the data that drives it. What we’re witnessing is a rapid decoupling of traditional software to a data driven web services world managed by an ever increasing cloud of connected devices.” - Reuven Cohen, “The Cloud is Eating the World,” Forbes, 14 May 2012. 
  • “In 2009 the U.S. graduated 89,140 students in the visual and performing arts, more than in computer science, math and chemical engineering combined and more than double the number of visual and performing arts graduates in 1985.”
  • Digital devices and content are already becoming a pervasive part of our lives.Users will will increasingly have integrated devices that they use for many different social and leisure pursuits as well as for their education and their paid work....As the ‘network effect’ – the connections of people with all kinds of content at a global level – continues to expand, how content is created and shared will continue to grow. ...Users may contribute to informal learning networks through content that they share, either as part of their formal research or as informal interest – for example, charitable work.As the quality of online content improves, and social technologies become ever more sophisticated online learning will become a mainstream option, using, for example,high quality, low cost, multi-person video conferencing on mobile devices. In a world where flexibility and choice are valued increasingly, and where people are increasingly comfortable with complex social interactions through technical environments, students and their parents will be less focused upon a face-to-face experience and more interested in the other benefits that can be offered in terms of choice, quality of support, flexibility, employability.
  • 5. Intelligent, data-driven systems will work with the student to support them, to analyse their learning behaviour, to propose resources that may help with areas of weakness or further develop areas of interest.6. As the formal boundaries around knowledge break down, and the ability to provide a good educational experience without needing to invest in real estate becomes achievable, modular accreditation will grow. There will be more partnerships between commercial and non-commercial organisations, courses will be made available in more flexible formats ...7. The organisational processes will only survive if they make the provider more competitive, able to offer higher quality experiences, more focused on the changing needs of the end beneficiary – and whoever is paying for the educational experience. Institutional systems will need to be highly flexible and able to conduct real-time transactions with many partners and beneficiaries.
  • Panel on Copyright, Technology and Culture

    1. 1. Panel on Copyright, Technology and Culture SCRIPT: Law and Transformation University of Edinburgh 8 June 2012 Robin Rice, Data Librarian EDINA
    2. 2. Overview• Intro: my base at EDINA and Data Library• Openness and academic culture• Governments‟ role in promoting OA• “Software is eating the world”• “Is this the nerd economy?”• Tech and the future of Higher Education 2
    3. 3. EDINA at the University of Edinburgh EDINA staff on its 15th birthday (January, 2010) 3
    4. 4. Data Library service, Uni of EdinburghHelpingresearchers:• find data• use data• manage & share data• managing Images by ChartsBin and mkandlez on flickr 4
    5. 5. Openness and academic culture (1)• Despite enthusiasm of early adopters in open scholarship, academic culture is steeped in norms and slow to change.• Academic rewards are not yet geared towards openness. Openness by PSD on flickr 5
    6. 6. Openness and academic culture (2)• Unexamined relationship with publishers (on copyright, peer review, price).• Adoption of „open scholarship‟ and sharing practices are dependent on generational and disciplinary effects Copyright Symbols by MikeBlogs on flickr 6
    7. 7. Governments‟ role in promoting OA • Government action on open access can be traced back to principle of public access to publicly funded research. • US government and funders (NIH, NSF) have raised the bar internationally. • National and local govt‟s are opening up their own data, setting a good example. • David Willetts‟ recent speech to the Publishers Association have raised expectations in the UK. • The EC is demanding compliance with open access for funded research projects. 7
    8. 8. “Software is eating the world” (1) “Six decades into the computer revolution, four decades since the invention of the microprocessor, and two decades into the rise of the modern Internet, all of the technology required to transform industries through software finally works and can be widely delivered at global scale.”-Marc Andreessen, co-founder Netscape, in Wall Street Journal, August 2011 8
    9. 9. “Is this the „Nerd Economy‟?” (1) “The future of the economy and economic recovery lies with the „nerds‟- specifically, those nerds that code. And this is a good thing. They are smart. There has never been a better time to be a New Relic is giving away these t-shirts with a free nerdpreneur.” trial of their software. - Patrick Moran, New Relic blog post, April 2012 9
    10. 10. Is this the „Nerd Economy‟? (2)• “Coding is as hot as it‟s ever been and yet we graduated more students with CSci degrees in The Year of Our Orwell as we do today”• “Some of the most innovative companies on the planet are starved for talent while at the same time job prospects for new college graduates are pretty bleak. What will it take to resolve that paradox?”-John Bischke, “They Ain‟t Making Any More of Them: The Great Engineering Shortage of 2012”, Tech Crunch, Apr. 2012 10
    11. 11. Tech and the future of Higher Education (1) 1. The concept of „digital‟ will fade 2. There will be even more personalisation of technology 3. The boundaries between formal research and scholarship, formal education and training will become increasingly blurred 4. The „added value‟ of face to face educational experiences will start to break down (?!) Sarah Porter, head of innovation at JISC, shares her view of the future: “Seven predictions for our technology-enabled universities.” JISC Inform, Issue 33 (2012) 11
    12. 12. Tech and the future of Higher Education (2) 5. The digital environment will provide more opportunities for institutions to provide an enhanced and customised student experience 6. More organisations will accredit chunks of learning 7. Organisations will think about services, not systems 12