Session2 _solar water_heaters_in_egypt_ status and recommendations_moataz soliman
Solar Water Heaters in EgyptStatus and Recommendations Moataz Soliman Materials Science DepartmentInstitute of Graduate Studies and Research Alexandria University Alexandria, Egypt
Outline- Introduction- Market situation and reasons- Feeding industry- Recommendations
Since 1900, a large number of solar collectors has shown to be functional; these have been fallen into two general classes:1- Flat plate collectors,2- Concentrator collectors
These huge parabolic solar collectors were built in Meadi, Egypt, asmall farming community on the Nile River 15 miles south of Cairo (1912).
Market situation today: companies profileThere are about nine companies producing and installing solar water heaters in Egypt:• Eight private• One public
Origins of raw materials for solar water heaters compeletely local 11.11% completely imported 55.56% partially imported 33.33%
Characterization of companiesCharacterization of companies NumberManufacturing and Installation 4Importing and Installation 5
Types of solar water heaters1- Thermosyphone “active and passive” systems2- Thermosyphone indirect systems3- Vacuum tube systems
Range of pricesProduct Specifications Capacity PricesThermosyphone withGalvanized steel tank(Local) 180L 4000Thermosyphone withStainless steel tank(Local) 750L 14000
Materials used for local manufacturing of SWH Materials Local Imported Glass Tempered High transmission Copper tubes Absorber Plate Copper sheet and tubes soldered copper plate Stainless Steel absorber Coating Locally available paints selective coatings Frame Anodized Aluminum Insulation Locally available materials Foam and Polyurethane Tank Galvanized Steel with Magnesium anode or Stainless Steel Piping Polypropylene
The current uses of solar water heaters inEgypt are limited and not adequate with theavailable solar insolation. The reasons forthat are:1- The low prices of conventional energy sources compared with the cost of solar water heaters. No incentives neither for the consumers nor the manufactures2- The high population density led to high height buildings preventing the use of solar water heater in many areas.
3- No enforcement for applying standard testseither for the materials or the systems4- Low performance and low durability solar waterheaters which had been produced by somecompanies caused the abandonment ofdecree number 401 of 1987 concerning theuse of solar water heaters which was issued by the minister of housing of Egypt. Thesecompanies have harmed the market severely.
5- The lack of collaboration between theuniversities and research centers and thecompanies prevents improving theperformance/cost ratio of the solar waterheaters.6- Some customers are not aware of theadvantages and the proper use of solar waterheaters. Some customers run their solar waterheaters dry for many months (stagnationcondition)
Feeding Industry:Except for the high efficiency selective coatings, allthe materials needed for the fabrication of solarwater heaters are locally available in Egypt,namely:- Glass- Polymers: "glazing, piping, insulation"- Copper, Aluminum- Painting Materials- Electrochemical deposition processes: "Black Chrome and Black Nickel"- Storage Tanks: "Stainless Steel, Galvanized Steel, Polymers”
Recommendations to enhance the uses of solar water heaters
1- Acquiring experiences from successful stories in other countries2- Creating the governmental commitment to solar energy:a- Raising the awareness of the general public of the benefits associated with the use of solar water heater systems.b- Stimulating the market i- Provide credit for buyers, ii- Provide governmental financial support (incentives) to the manufacturers of the systems iii- Adopting demonstrations
3- Spending on R&D of solar technologies in order to adopt local available materials to improve the performance/cost ratio and also to make the design of the system more simple4- Preparation of specifications and quality standards for: Collector Storage tanks Installation
5- Legislation:a- Decision to make use of solar energy a legal obligation for New Cities, Resorts, Vilas, Hotels…etc.b- Uniform long-term performance guarantee legislationc- Enforcementd- Listing of approved solar collectors and storage tanks manufacturese- Listing of the approved installersf- Establishment of a governmental advisory office6- Establishing of testing and training facilities at national Institute
7- Supervising the market of solar energy in order to ensure both the quality of the materials used and the performance of the solar water heaters.8- Establishment of a manufactures association in Egypt to promote the use of solar water heating systems and tackle any technical and non-technical obstacles confronting such promotion.