Session2_ solar water heaters in jordan (samar jaber, nerc)
NERC – JordanSolar Water Heaters in Jordan Eng. Samar Jaber
Energy Situation in JordanEnergy Resources:► Most of Jordan’s Energy Requirements are Imported► Natural Gas is utilized for Power Generation► Wind Energy (for power generation & water pumping)► Solar Energy (electricity for remote areas & hot water)► Oil Shale is available in huge quantities
Energy Consumption ( Tones ) Transport 1,822,000 (37%) Industry 1,846,000 (24%) Household 1,064,000 (22% ) Others 821,000 (17 %)
Fils/liter 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 0 1960 1962 1964 1966 Kerosene-Fils/Liter Diesel - Fils/Liter 1968 19701 JD =1.41 USD1 JD =1000 Fils 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 Fuel Prices 1984 1986 1988 LPG Heavy Fuel Oil-JD/ton 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2005 2007 Feb 2007 May 2007 sep 2008 Mar 2008 Jun 2008 Aug 2008 Oct 2008 Dec 2009 Feb 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 LPG JD / 12.5 kg
Solar Water Heater Story in Jordan 1970 RSS designed and produced pilot systems. 1973 Two local workshops produce 50 units a year 1986 12% of all dwellings in Jordan use solar water heaters. 1992 more than 20% of all houses in Jordan use solar water heaters (about 158,700 units) 2002 25 workshop and factories producing 4,000 units annually (17,000 m2 of solar collectors) for local market and export to neighboring countries.
Available Collector in Jordan According to EN 12975-2 0.9 0.8 G = 800 W/m2 0.7 V-German 0.6Efficiency 0.5 V-Chinese F-Aus&Ger 0.4 F-French F-Russian 0.3 L. scale V-Chinese 0.2 0.1 F- RSS 0 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1 dT/G
Total Area Installed of Solar Collectors Flat Plate Vacuum Collector (m2) Tubular (m2)Private households 660,000 10,500Hotel 82,000 ---------Industrial 82,000 1,500The total solar thermal capacity of 196 MWth is installed
Yearly Market Share Flat Plate Type Vacuum Tubular (m2/a) Type (m2/a)Produced Solar 6,262 --------Thermal CollectorImport and Sell 1,404 3,500Solar ThermalCollector
Solar Thermal Applications•Water heating for domestic, commercial andindustrial applications.•Solar space heating and cooling.•Heating of outdoor and indoor swimming pools.•Electric power generation by using CSP.•Desalination of sea water and brackish water.•Solar cookers.•Drying crops.
Feasibility of Solar Thermal SystemConventional Heater payback period Life Cycle SavingElectrical Heater 1.8 5,892 JD(Efficiency =90%)Diesel Oil 3.7 2,076 JD(Efficiency =59%)LPG 3.8 2,047 JD(Efficiency =70%)
Potential Fields of ApplicationLow temperature level Swimming Pool HeatingT<60° C: Domestic Hot water Under floor heatingMedium temperature Space heatinglevel 60<T<250 Air ConditioningHigh temperature level Air Conditioning250<T Desalination Electricity Generation
Potential Fields of ApplicationHot water preparation -Residential Sector 1.1 GWthSpace Heating – Residential Sector 16 GWthLarge Scale 137.5 MWth
Major BarriersPolicy barriersAbsence of regulations, rules and energy provisions tocontrol the quality and the effectiveness of the locallymanufactured, imported or used equipment.
Consumption Forecast of the PrimaryEnergy When Applying the RE & EE
Major BarriersTechnical barriers • Absence of professional calculation tools or technical handbooks for design and sizing of large solar systems. • Absence of compulsory testing regulations that forces the manufacturers and importers to test their collectors, although a national testing facility to test solar collectors exist at the RSS. • High cost of high specification materials/component such as double-glazing, selective coating material, sheet metal, pipes. This results in hindering the development of designs and quality. • Hard Water, water freezing in the pipes of collectors in cold regions.
The height of the bottom of the storage tank isbeneath the collectors water outlet.
A SWH system installed near a chimney thatcontaminates the system with soot and othercombustion gases.
A SWH system installed in front of a high climbingplants.
Major BarriersMarket barriers• Lack of incentives & financing options.• The majority of manufacturers are located in Amman which makes it difficult and more expensive for people living in other cities to install solar collectors and have periodic maintenanceSocial barriersRecently, most of the buildings are multi-floor withinsmall floor area. The floor area is usually used formany purposes such as, water tanks, dishes ….. etc,therefore, there is no enough space for installingsolar water heating systems for all residence.
RESULTSThe penetration of solar thermal technology to themarket can be achieved by the following: Modifying the existing solar system through transfer of EU technological know-how. Enhancing of awareness of using the solar systems. Incentives for using the solar systems, such as decreasing the taxes and customs on imported solar system and on the materials that are used in local manufacturing of the solar systems. Implementation of norms, standards and certification schemes
Next Steps1. Proper Financing Schemes2. Risk Mitigation: can be achieved through a regional marking program similar to the European Solar Keymark.3. Implementation of regulations, rules and energy provisions to control the quality and the effectiveness of the locally manufactured, imported collectors.
Thank YouSamar J. JaberRational Use of Energy & Solar Thermal DivisionNational Energy Research CenterP.O.Box 1945, Amman11941, JordanPhone: 962-6-5344701 ext 2704Mobile: 962-79- 5255213Fax: 962-6-5338043www.nerc.gov.jo