BOO Wind Power in EgyptBy:Eng. Lamya Youssef Abd El HadyGeneral Manager for Renewable IPP ProjectsEgyptian Electricity Transmission Co.Beirut May 2013
Egypt Strategy for Renewable Energy• In 2008 the Supreme Energy Council approvedan ambitious plan that the contribution of windenergy will reach about 12% of total generationby the year 2020.•This requires an addition of 7200MW, of which 3000 MW will beinstalled in the Gulf of Suez.•1250 MW of the 3000 MW will beconstructed by private sector which representsabout 67%.
Objectives of IPP/BOO Wind Program• Accelerate development to achieve 2020renewable energy target of 12% of total energy generated• Bankable wind projects with low risk profile :1. Joint Wind Measurement Campaign.2. Clear site.3. Environmental studies.• Competitive kWh price – through effectiveinternational competition through the following phases:• Encourage local manufacturing, create Jobs,transfer of knowhow and capacity building.• Use best industry practice & experience
Steps Completed for the First 250BOO Project In Gulf of Suez• RFPQ issued in May 2009.• 34 offers received in August 2009.• Short list of 10 bidders concluded inNovember 2009.• The RFPQ document gave theopportunity to the bidders either tomeasure individually or jointly.
Steps Completed for the First 250 BOOProject (Cont.)• In January 2011 , a Site Measurement Framework Agreementwas signed between EETC and the short listed bidders.• Nine of the short listed bidders opted to measure jointly(became 8 after the withdrawal of AES), while EDF reserved theright to measure individually.• In July 2010 Garrad Hassan was contracted to do the JointSite Wind Measurements, which started in November 2010,ended in November 2012.• In March 2011 the company Map was contracted to do theJoint Site Topographical Studies .• In November 2011 consultant Hamza was contracted toconduct the geotechnical studies.
Steps Completed for the First 250BOO Project (Cont.)• All three studies completed .• Wind Measurement Extended till November2012.• In March 2011 Fichtner was contracted for The ProjectConsultancy Service( Financed By the WB).• The first draft RFP including the Draft of PPA, interconnectionand usufruct agreements was submitted to EETC by EETCConsultant Fichtner.• Capacity Building was done by Fichtner through differentmissions (Technical-Financial-Legal)• In December 2012 EETC obtained the Sovereign GuaranteeFor the Project.• cooperation between EETC,NREA and Petroleum Authoritiesto facilitate access roads and site permits to successful bidder.
Lessons learned from 250 BOO project• Management of Joint Site Measurement Program financedJointly by the Bidders.• Mitigation of wind projects risks as Bird migration risks.• Technical, Economic, Financial and Legal Experience Gained.• Land allocation procedure and coordination with otherauthorities.• High accuracy of wind measuring equipment and other sitestudies .• The Need for Alternatives Of Sovereign Guarantee.BUT• Consensus between competitors on every step requires time,hard work & diplomatic skills to manage…
Steps Taken for Grid Connection OfLarge Wind Projects• After Announcement of the renewable Strategy in 2008,Studies were done to select the suitable plan to evacuate thislarge amount of wind power to the grid.• This study was done by Cheisi- Tractbell within Egypt MasterGeneration Expansion Plan.• This study has many scenarios but finally, it was agreed toevacuate the 3000 MW wind power through the 500 KVtransmission line Gulf of Suez Samalut with the length of 280 KM.• This project is financed by WB and the European Union and isthe Evaluation stage.1-Evacuation of Wind Power
Steps Taken for Grid Connection OfLarge Wind Projects (cont’d)• The nessacity to establish a grid code was raised due tothe fact of the high amount of wind power targeted.• EETC team hand in hand with the Consultant Fichtnerestablished the first wind grid code conaitining the mainitems as follows:2-Wind Grid Code
Grid Code Main Requirements• Fault ride through (FRT) requirements.• Transmission system voltage and reactive power capabilityrequirements.• System frequency and frequency response requirements;(Active Power Control).• Wind power forecasts requirements.• Power Quality .• Secondary Equipment and Remote operation requirements.
Interface between systemoperator and independent powerproducer (IPP) is the ConnectionPoint or Point of CommonCoupling(PCC).Basic Aspects of Grid CodeDefinitions – PCC
Basic Aspects of Grid Code DefinitionFault Ride Through Requirements
Basic Aspects of Grid CodeDefinitions – PCC (Cont’d)• Connection Conditions should treat the Power Plant as “blackbox”, which means that all conditions should apply to the PCC.• The Utility shall describe ranges of voltage and frequency atthe PCC that comply with actual system behaviour.• The Utility shall define requirements for active and reactivepower output of the Power Plant that guarantee secure systemoperation.
1. Large Scale Wind GenerationFRT Requirement (cont’d)• The FRT requirements also include fast active and reactivepower restoration to the prefault values, after the systemvoltage returns to normal operation levels.• Some codes impose increased reactive power generation bythe wind turbines during the disturbance, in order to providevoltage support, a requirement that resembles the behaviourof conventional synchronous generators in over-excitedoperation.
TEMPORARY VOLTAGE DROPS DUE TO A NON-SUCCESSFUL AUTO-RECLOSUREIn case of automatic reclosing applied….
2. Reactive Power Range /Voltage Control• Reactive power contribution during voltage recoverymust be defined (e.g. no absorbing reactive power).• Very important: Availability of pre-fault active powerafter voltage recovery must clearly be defined.• A wind generator that remains connected is useless ifit doesn’t produce active power during and aftervoltage recovery.
3. System frequency andfrequency response requirements47 48 49 50 51 52Frequency [Hz]continuouslyt≤10mint≤20mint≤30 mint≤30 min575 253550 242450 198425 187Voltage [kV]500220
b) Active power reduction due toover-frequency02040608010012050 50.5 51 51.5activepowerfrequency [Hz]PM
4. Wind power forecasts requirements• A forecast of wind generation is an additional input to thepre-dispatch demand forecasting processes.• Grid Codes specify that controllable wind farms shouldprovide their wind power output forecasts at least once a dayfor the following 48 hours, as an example, each 30-minuteinterval.• A forecast update must also be available in National ControlCenter (NECC).• Still only 80% of all forecasts are being made within 85%accuracy (Forecast error and backup).
5. POWER QUALITY• Harmonics• Flicker• Resonances due to long high-voltage cables• ……….etc
3-WB _Consultancy Service_ Wind Integration to NECC• The services include, but not limited to;Analysis andevaluation of current practice and recommend anddevelop operational guidelines and changes to gridoperating strategy and procedures to accommodate thetechnical constraints arising from integrating large windcapacities into the Egyptian National Power Grid.
•Develop and design wind forecasting tools (andincentives) to integrate wind energy plants into the gridby capturing the smoothed out variability of windpower production time series for the geographicdiversity and examine wind variation in combinationwith load variations, coupled with actual historic utilityload and load forecasts.•Design a real time system to be integrated /interfaced with the upgraded SCADA / EMS systemand future MOS system of the National Control Center(NCC) in order to control and monitor windgeneration.
Completed Activities:•Call and submitting of EOI•Short Listing•Preparation of RFP•Submission of Proposals•Opening of Technical ProposalsProcurement Plan:•Approx. 12 months from WB NO.
4-AFD Consultancy Service ForDynamic StudiesOf Large scale WP• Activities completed:• Call and submitting of EOI• Short Listing• Preparing the RFP
CONCLUSIONS• WP differs from the traditional power generation sourcesbecause of its intermittent varying nature. WP imposes manytechnical requirements and challenges of different aspects.• The fast growing penetration of the WP within the existinggrids has to be faced by adding new equipments andtechnologies to adapt the grid capabilities• New Grid Code requirements are necessary. New philosophyand tools for the protection and control strategy of the grids