A world wide perspective


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Energy Efficiency Policies for the SEMED/Arab Region Workshop.
15-16 April 2013. Amman,Jordan

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A world wide perspective

  1. 1. Energy efficiency policies implementationA world wide perspectiveThe WEC energy efficiency 2012-13 surveySEMED/Arab Region , Jordan, APRIL 15-16 2013Dr Didier Bosseboeuf (ADEME, FranceBruno Lapillonne , Carine Sebi and Karine Pollier (Enerdata France)
  2. 2. Outline1. Introduction2. Overview of energy efficiency measures3. Energy efficiency measures by sector4. Conclusion and recommandations
  3. 3.  Non-profit international Energy association, created in 1997. 12 Mediterranean countries national agencies: 5 from North, 7 fromSouth3Rotating presidency:2010/2012 Morocco ADEREE2012/2014 France ADEMERessources:- Members contributions- Subsidies or financial aid- Remuneration for servicesMediterranean Association of the National Agencies for Energy Conservation.The Medener network
  4. 4. The MEDENER Network4ADEME, Agency forEnvironment and EnergyManagement, FranceADEREE, National Agency forRenewable Energies andEnergy EfficiencyDevelopment, MoroccoADENE, Energy Agency,PortugalAPRUE, National Agency forthe Promotion and theRationalization of the use ofEnergy, AlgeriaALMEE, Lebanese Associationfor Energy Management andEnvironment, LebanonANME, National Agency forEnergy Management, TunisiaENEA, National Agency forNew Technologies, Energy andSustainable EconomicDevelopment, ItalyNERC, National EnergyResearch Center, JordanCRES, Center for RenewableEnergies and EnergyEfficiency, GreeceIDAE, Institute forDiversification and EnergySavings, SpainNERC, National EnergyResearch Center, SyriaPEC, Palestinian Energy andEnvironment Research Center,Palestinian Authorities
  5. 5. MEDENER : Objectives and activities5Fields of activities Rational use of Energy Development of renewable energy sources Environment protection linked to energy issuesObjectives To be a reference for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy at regionallevel To share members know-how and experiencesAsset Public bodies in charge of EE and RE national policies with membersexpertise capacities
  6. 6. Activity: exemple 1Supporting EE and RE policies and measuresExample of publications Overview of policies and good energy efficiency practices in the Southernand Eastern Mediterranean countries6Eco-Lumiere Algerian Program
  7. 7. Activity: exemple 2Identifying emblematic programs in EE and RE7Example of program Efficiency Energy in buildings in Morrocco : ADEREE/ADEMECooperationExtension of successfull projects implemented in southern countries(Tunisia, Lebanon…) 36% of energy consumption for the building sector Need more 200 000 new buildings a year A new building code in Morrocco2010 – 2013: 13,2 millions euros for a global projectwith several financial partners(UNDP, UE, AFD, FFEM…) Demonstration projects Training for new building code Promotion of good practices
  8. 8. Activity: exemple 3Implementing energy conservation observatoriesEnergy efficiency indicators8Example of observatory National and regional had hoc data bases gathering MEDENER countries Comparable indicators using the ODYSSEE methodology National and regional reporting on energy efficiency trends to performbenchmark analysis*Temporary Data September 2012National macrodata base percountriesComparisonbetween countries
  9. 9. Activity : exemple 4Making the go-between with European and internationalfinancial investors and energy companies9Example of sources of funding European Programm : Solar Result Guarantee– Industry and tertiary sector– All members Medener– Thermal collective solar Future Project– Answer for call for tender : « Como Sud »
  10. 10. Medener : Perspectives A regional exchange platform to promote the role of publicagencies in charge of national policies A better connection between the Union for theMediterranean and MEDENER Network through a technicalexpertise A strenghtened governance and sustainable means10
  11. 11. The WEC- ADEME 2012-2013 survey overviewWEC - Overview of energy efficiency policies 11 A survey on policies and measures has been carried out withnational WEC member committees and other organisations in2012-13; updates the previous survey of 2009 This survey covered :o The existing institutions (energy agencies) and energyefficiency programmes and targets.o The energy efficiency measures by type: financial, fiscal,regulation and voluntary agreement In total 85 countries are covered All the survey results have been included in an on line data baseavailable at http://www.wec-policies.enerdata.eu/wec_policies-test/#BC-services
  12. 12. Countries covered by 2012-13 survey: 85 countries*WEC - Overview of energy efficiency policies 12Latin America: 10Asia PacificOECD: 4Africa:13MiddleEast : 8Other Asia : 12Europe: 34CIS: 2NorthAmerica: 2Source: WEC survey 2012
  13. 13. Measures covered in the surveyWEC - Overview of energy efficiency policies 13 Regulations:– Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards (MEPS) and labels forelectrical appliances and cars, buildings;– Other regulatory instruments: Mandatory energy audits, mandatoryenergy managers, mandatory energy saving plans, energy saving quotas;– Mandatory training for professionals,– Energy saving obligations. Financial measures:– Subsidies for audits by sector– Subsidies or soft loans (i.e with subsidised interest rates) for energyefficiency investment and equipment by sector and type of equipment Fiscal measures:– Tax credit for efficient equipment, and tax on inefficient appliances– Accelerate depreciation by sector,– Tax reduction for efficiency investment by type of tax and equipment
  14. 14. Outline1. Introduction2. Overview of energy efficiency targets & measures3. Energy efficiency measures by sector4. Conclusion and recommendations
  15. 15. As a whole, 73% of surveyed countries (i.e. 62 countries) have a national energyagencies ; around half of surveyed countries have local or regional agencies. Agencyrecently created: China, Indonesia, Senegal and Ukraine150%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%LatinAmericaNorthAmericaMiddleEastAfrica Total AsiaOECDEurope AsiaotherCISNational Local/regionalWEC - Overview of energy efficiency policiesCountries with a national energy agencySource: WEC survey 2012
  16. 16. 160%20%40%60%80%100%2006 2009 2012WEC - Overview of energy efficiency policiesIncreasing number of countries with quantitative targetsProgression in all regions  more ambitious policies60% have end-use sector targets, around 20% have targets on primaryconsumption.Different focus according to regions: in Europe target on final consumptionbecause of an EU Directive0%20%40%60%80%100%Primary Final consumptionEnd-use sectors Energy SuppliersCountries with quantitative targets2006: 1rst WEC survey2009: 2nd WEC survey Source: WEC survey 2012
  17. 17. Predominance and increasing share of regulation (around 70% ofmeasures on average in 2012), followed by financial measures (20%), thatare dominant in North America.17Distribution of measures by type2009201220092012200920122009201220092012200920122009201220092012Africa Middle East Europe Asia other LatinAmericaTotal Asia OECD NorthAmerica0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%Regulation Financial Fiscal Others*WEC - Overview of energy efficiency policies*Others correspond to voluntary agreements, ESCO and certificationSource: WEC survey 2012
  18. 18. Measures on residential sector are dominant in all regions (60% on average);Regulation are important in services and residential sectors ;Financial incentives are more important in industry (e.g. grants for energy audits)180%20%40%60%80%100%Transport Service Industry ResidentialFinancial Fiscal Regulation OtherWEC - Overview of energy efficiency policiesDistribution of measures by sector, by type and region0%20%40%60%80%100%EUROPECISNorthAmericaLatinAmericaAsiaOECDAsiaotherMiddleEastAfricaTotalTransport Services Industry Residential*Others correspond to voluntary agreements, ESCO and certificationSource: WEC survey 2012
  19. 19. Labeling is the dominant regulation (55% on average).Minimum energy performance standards are also important with around 40% oftotal regulatory measures.Other regulations (~ 5%) correspond mainly to mandatory requirements for largeconsumers (e.g. energy audits, energy managers, energy consumption reportingand energy savings)19Distribution of regulation by type and world region0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%Europe CIS NorthAmericaLatinAmericaAsiaOECDAsiaotherAfrica MiddleEastTotalLabel MEPS Other*WEC - Overview of energy efficiency policies*Other: mandatory energy audits, mandatory energy managers, mandatory energy consumption reporting; mandatoryenergy savings plans, mandatory energy training, and incandescent lamp phase-outSource: WEC survey 2012
  20. 20. All countries in OECD have implemented labels; 90% in non OECD Asia andMiddle East; 50% in Africa. In total, 71 surveyed countries have a labelscheme, that are mandatory in 87% of them. Some labels planned in 2009are now implemented in Asia for instance.20Distribution of labels by typeWEC - Overview of energy efficiency policies051015202530352009 2012 2009 2012 2009 2012 2009 2012 2009 2012 2009 2012Europe North America Latin America Asia Middle East AfricaMandatory Voluntary Planned2009: previous WEC surveySource: WEC survey 2012
  21. 21. ~90% of surveyed countries have implemented at least one MEPS. Normson lamps, appliances (refrigerators, washing machines and AC) and newconstructions are implemented in 80% of surveyed countries. Norms onvehicles and solar water heaters are less common.21Surveyed countries with MEPSWEC - Overview of energy efficiency policies0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%Appliances* NewdwellingsLamps ElectricmotorsExistingdwellingscars/trucksand lightvehiclesSolar waterheatersSource: WEC survey 2012
  22. 22. 70% of surveyed countries have implemented fiscal or financial measures.Financial incentives are dominant compared to fiscal measures in allregions, fiscal measures are absent most Middle East countries220%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%MiddleEastAfrica AsiaotherTotal LatinamericaEU CIS NorthamericaASIAoecdFinancial FiscalWEC - Overview of energy efficiency policiesCountries with financial/fiscal measuresSource: WEC survey 2012
  23. 23. Among financial measures, investment subsidies are dominant andrepresent on average 60% of financial measures, followed by audit subsidies(~20%). Soft loans are more important in Europe/CIS, and America.23Distribution of financial measures by type and world region0%20%40%60%80%100%EUROPE CIS NorthAmericaLatinAmericaAsia OECD Asia other MiddleEastAfrica TotalEnergy audit Subsidies Soft loanTax reduction Tax credit Tax inefficientAccelerated depreciationWEC - Overview of energy efficiency policiesSource: WEC survey 2012
  24. 24. Outline1. Introduction2. Overview of energy efficiency measures3. Energy efficiency measures by sector3.1 Industry3.2 Transport3.3 Buildings4. Conclusion and recommendations
  25. 25. 25WEC - Overview of energy efficiency policiesOn average 70% of countries have implemented measures in the industrysector, where incentives are dominant.Some heterogeneities among WEC regions: regulations are for instancedominant in Asia0%20%40%60%80%100%Africa MiddleEastTotal Europe AsiaotherLatinAmericaCIS NorthAmericaAsiaOECDFinancial Fiscal* Regulation Voluntary agreementMeasures on industry by type*Accelerated depreciation onlySource: WEC survey 2012
  26. 26. 26WEC - Overview of energy efficiency policiesLabels on electric motors are rarely implemented, while MEPS is on averageimplemented in 65% of surveyed countries0%20%40%60%80%100%CIS MiddleEastAfrica Asia other Asia OECD LatinAmericaEurope NorthAmericalabel electric motors Regulation other* MEPS electric motorsRegulation in industry sectorSource: WEC survey 2012*Other: mandatory energy audits, mandatory energy managers, mandatory energy consumption reporting; mandatoryenergy savings plans, mandatory energy training
  27. 27. Outline1. Introduction2. Overview of energy efficiency measures3. Energy efficiency measures by sector3.1 Industry3.2 Transport3.3 Buildings4. Conclusion and recommandations
  28. 28. Around 80% of countries have measures on transport: from 38% in MiddleEast to almost 100% in OECD countries. Measures targeting cars (mainlynew cars specifically) are dominant : more than half of countries haveimplemented measures on cars (except CIS and Middle East )28Countries with measures on transport0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%MiddleEastCIS Africa LatinAmericaTotal Europe Asia other NorthAmericaAsia OECDcars others*WEC - Overview of energy efficiency policies*others correspond to measures targeting transport sectror as a whole and transport companiesSource: WEC survey 2012
  29. 29. As a whole, regulation (e.g. labels on cars) are largely dominant.Financial (e.g. energy audit of transport companies or subsidies for efficientcars) and fiscal measures (e.g. tax reduction on cars) represent each onaverage 20%.29Distribution of transport measures by typeWEC - Overview of energy efficiency policies0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%MiddleEastCIS Africa LatinAmericaTotal Europe AsiaotherNorthAmericaAsiaOECDFinancial Fiscal Regulation Voluntary agreementsSource: WEC survey 2012
  30. 30. Regulations (e.g. labels) represent on average more than 50% of measuresimplemented on cars, and fiscal (e.g. car purchase tax based on CO2performance) measures represents each around 35%.30Car measures by typeWEC - Overview of energy efficiency policies0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%CISMiddleEastAfricaLatinAmericaAsiaotherTotalEUROPENorthAmericaAsiaOECDFinancial Fiscal Regulation0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%CISMiddleEastAfricaLatinAmericaASIAotherTotalEuropeNorthAmericaASIAOECDCountries with labels on carsSource: WEC survey 2012
  31. 31. Measures on trucks Regulation for transport companies such as mandatory audits ;mandatory energy managers, mandatory energy consumptionreporting; mandatory energy savings plans; mandatory ecodriving; MEPS and labelling only implemented in Japan for heavy truck; notimplemented elsewhere because of the heterogeneity of vehicles; MEPS and labelling exist for small trucks (vans) (e.g. EU, USA, Canada)for other countries; Regulation for truck components: e.g. speed regulator, tyre pressuremonitoring systems (e.g USA since 2007); Subsidies. Speed limits31
  32. 32. Outline1. Introduction2. Overview of energy efficiency measures3. Energy efficiency measures by sector3.1 Industry3.2 Transport3.3 Buildings4. Conclusion and recommandations
  33. 33. 0%20%40%60%80%100%MiddleEastCIS Africa AsiaotherTotal LatinAmericaEurope NorthAmericaAsiaOECDNew buildings Existing buildings All buildings Lighting Elec. Appliances33Countries with targetsWEC - Overview of energy efficiency policiesThe banishment of incandescent lamps is widely applied (in70% of surveyed countries)Targets on energy efficiency of new/existing/all buildings are significant inAsia, north America and EU.83% of targets concern residential, 13% public sector and 4% servicesSource: WEC survey 2012
  34. 34. 34WEC - Overview of energy efficiency policiesRegulation: dominant measures in residential and service sectorsLabeling & MEPS (or lamp banishment) are the dominant measures followedby financial measures (subsidies and soft loans) ; Fiscal measures (e.g. tax oninefficient appliances, or tax reductions) are marginalVery few voluntary agreements in commercial/public buildings0%20%40%60%80%100%EUROPE CIS NorthAmericaLatinAmericaAsia OECD Asia nonOECDMiddleEastAfrica TotalFinancial Fiscal Regulation Voluntary agreementsMeasures on buildings by typeSource: WEC survey 2012
  35. 35. The most common measures is regulation, e.g.building codes.Labelling of buildings is a new approach that hasbeen implemented recently in EU countries and isspreading to other regions (e.g. Chile)Labelling of lamps is well spread now.MEPS to remove the least energy-efficient lighting(incandescent lamp banishment) and HAVC productsfrom the market  usually linked to label classFinancial or fiscal incentives (i.e. subsidies or taxreduction) for efficient heat/ AC equipment andbuilding retrofitting are less common in non OECDcountriesMeasures on thermal uses and lightingWEC-energy efficiency in Buildings 35
  36. 36. Except in North America where financial incentives are significant, regulationsare dominant (e.g. building codes); on average 3 labels and 3 MEPS implementedper country.360%20%40%60%80%100%EuropeCISNorthAmericaLatinAmericaAsiaOECDAsiaotherMiddleEastAfricaVoluntary agreements RegulationFiscal Financial0. MEPSNumber of regulation* per countryMeasures aiming at improving building efficiency* in residentialMeasures by type**Includes measures on buildings (residential & service), heating/AC systemsSource: WEC survey 2012
  37. 37. 60 countries (~70% of surveyed countries) with building codes for newdwellings or buildings in service sector (90% are mandatory); in additionplanned in 4 countries fro dwellings and 6 countries in servicesWEC-energy efficiency in Buildings 37Source: WEC survey 2012
  38. 38. 380%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%AfricaLatinAmericaTotalEuropeCISNorthAmericaAsiaOECDOtherAsiaMiddleEastSubsidies Soft loans Labels MEPSSource: WEC survey 2012Distribution of measures on ACLabel represents 45% of measures and MEPS 40%However financial or fiscal incentives exist in some regions: tax reductionfor efficient AC (North America , Australia) and/or scrappage of old ones(e.g. Greece).In EU countries: obligation of maintenance
  39. 39. The most common measures is labelling, with an increasingnumber of appliances labelled (e.g. 9 in EU country, above ten10 in Canada, China and Brazil, up to 19 in USA).Labelling to be effective should be mandatory which is thecase in most countries  measure usually classified asregulationDynamic labelling to create new efficiency class (e.g. EU withA+, A++ and A+++) to account for the fact that most of thesold appliances are already in the most efficient class (toprunner programme in Japan)MEPS to remove the least energy-efficient products from themarket  usually linked to label classFinancial or fiscal incentives (i.e. subsidies or tax reduction)for efficient appliances are also quite commonMeasures on electrical appliancesWEC-energy efficiency in Buildings 39
  40. 40. Measures aiming at improving appliance* efficiency40WEC - Overview of energy efficiency policies0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%AsiaotherAfricaMiddleEastTotalLatinAmericaCISEuropeAsiaOECDNorthAmericaFinancial Fiscal Regulation0. MEPSNbre of regulation/country on applianceSource: WEC survey 2012Mandatory minimum energy efficiency requirement and mandatory energylabelling are the most important legislative measures addressing electricalappliances*Includes measures on refrigerator, washing machine, office equipment and other appliancesMeasures on appliances
  41. 41. Outline1. Introduction2. Overview of energy efficiency measures3. Sectoral analysis of energy efficiency measures4. Conclusion and recommendations
  42. 42. WEC-Top 15 of energy efficiency measures420%20%40%60%80%WEC survey on energy efficiency policies: frequency of measuresBuilding for non residential, dwelling for residential; MEA= mandatory energy auditSource: WEC survey 2012Labels & MEPS on household appliances are the most frequent measures…
  43. 43. Trend in top 10 measures430%20%40%60%80%2009 2012Surveyed countries on energy efficiency policies - frequency of measuresSource: WEC survey 2012And are continuously increasing across time
  44. 44. 441. Incentive pricesEnergy prices should be adjusted to long term marginal cost(growing in the future) to give the right signals to consumers ……. But need appropriate measures to limit budget constraints for lowincome households.2. Sustainable institutional support for policies and involvementNeed for programmes with medium to long term, overall andsectoral quantitative targets and energy efficiency laws to give long–term signals to market actors and to have a sustainable regulatoryframework: avoid stop and go
  45. 45. 453. Innovative financing to support consumers at a limited cost for thepublic budgetDedicated and relevant budget for energy efficiency policiesEnergy efficiency funds (revolving, guarantee…) for EE investmentsGrouping of projects for multilateral funding (e.g. CDM projects)Energy savings obligations for utilitiesPublic private partnership (e.g. ESCO’s)Combined tax and subsidy schemes (e.g “bonus malus”)Zero or very low interest loans4. Improving quality of EE equipment, services and practices to giveconfidence to consumers and avoid negative feedbacksCertification of equipment, installers, auditorsQuality control of locally produced and imported products,harmonisation of testing procedures for certificationEconomic support conditioned to quality labels
  46. 46. 465. Regulations should be regularly strengthened, enforced and expandedDynamic revision of MEPS for buildings and equipmentembedded in regulationsExpand MEPS to a larger set of appliancesCompliance and Random controls integrated in regulations6. For each end-use , address all steps of the deployment process ofenergy efficient equipment /actions with packages of measuresrather than single measuresCombination of different measures (e.g. information &communication, regulations, subsidies, soft loans, training,certification); Complementary or alternative measures
  47. 47. 477. Better address the situation of less developed countriesRegulations on second-hand appliances and cars (including ban)Adapted incentives for efficient biomass stoves and CFLR&D in improved biomass stoves and solar cookersCapacity building8. Address behaviours as much as technologyStudy and take into account the impact of behavioursDevelop technologies that can limit the impact of inefficientbehaviours (e.g. speed limiters, programme set to saving modes)Promote informative billing and in house display devicesImprove communication toolsDevelop training activities
  48. 48. 489. Need to monitor achievements and impacts of measuresDevelop data collection system for end-usesDevelop energy efficiency indicators to monitor progress achievedon a yearly basisEvaluate the measures that work and do not work to better tunethem; evaluate rebound effects, free rider effects10. Enhance international and regional cooperation :towards regional policies and programmesRegional certification and international standardRegional benchmarkingRegional testing facilitiesExchange of experience on measuresCommon and harmonised data collection at regional levelsEncourage institutional cooperation