Fina ows officials school base slides 19-01_2012


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Curso de treinamento para Árbitros de Maratonas Aquáticas da Fina

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Fina ows officials school base slides 19-01_2012

  1. 1. Fina Open Water Official’s School [venue, month YEAR] [Lecturer/s]
  2. 2. Housekeeping, Health & Safety  Restrooms  Evacuation  Accident Questions are OK!
  3. 3. Fina Open Water Clinic [Venue, Month Year]  Purpose:  To establish a universal, standardised judges training and testing system to: • expand the pool of qualified Fina list judges • prepare and deepen the knowledge of Fina qualified officials • ensure a consistent, clear, competition conduct in Fina Open Water events.
  4. 4. Fina Open Water Clinic [Venue, Month Year]  Sessions will cover:  Origins of the Open Water Swimming  The Structure of FINA  Rules for the Competition & Duties of Officials  Risk Management  Details on running Open Water Events
  5. 5. Fina Open Water Clinic [Venue, Month Year] Day 1:  Welcome and Introduction  Introduction of Participants  School Objectives  Origins of Open Water Swimming  History  Definition  Marathon Swimming  Fina Events & Olympic event  Organisation of FINA & Structure  General Rules  Technical Rules  By-laws Refreshment Break (1030-1045)
  6. 6. Fina Open Water Clinic [Venue, Month Year] Day 1 (Cont):  Introduction of Officials  Roles proscribed by Fina  Duties & Powers of Officials  Chief Referee  Referee  Starter  Chief Timekeeper • Determining the swimmers returned time  Timekeeper Lunch Break (1230-1330)
  7. 7. Fina Open Water Clinic [Venue, Month Year] Day 1 (Cont): Duties & Powers of Officials… cont  Chief Finish Judge • Determining the manual finish placing  Finish Judge  Race Judge (& feeding platform responsibilities)  Turn Judge Refreshment Break (1500-1515)
  8. 8. Fina Open Water Clinic [Venue, Month Year] Day 1 (Cont):  Duties & Powers of Officials… cont  Safety Officer  Course Officer  Clerk of Course  Reserves End of Session (1700 Approx)
  9. 9. Fina Open Water Clinic [Venue, Month Year] Day 2: Race Rules  The Start  Venue  The Race  Disqualification Procedure  Emergency Abandonment  Finish Refreshment Break (1030-1045)
  10. 10. Fina Open Water Clinic [Venue, Month Year] Day 2:  Race Rules… cont  Confirmation of Finish Placings & Times  Application of Rule SW 11  Use of Video recording/Slo-mo equipment  Risk Management  Safety Considerations  Planning for Risk minimisation  Assistance & Support  Relationship with Organising Committee  Boats/Escort Craft  Communications  Pre-Race briefings – Officials / Teams / Safety Support  Head count – in & out of the water Lunch Break (1230-1330)
  11. 11. Fina Open Water Clinic [Venue, Month Year] Day 2:  Competition Management:  Local Standards  FINA Standards – World Championships / Marathon World Cup / Grand Prix Series / Other events  Event planning • Operational considerations & Permissions • Water Quality & temperature • Venue Planning & layout • Entry Information to Teams/Swimmers • Technical Officials Meeting • Team Leaders Meeting Refreshment Break (1500-1515)
  12. 12. Fina Open Water Clinic [Venue, Month Year] Day 2:  Officials’ Decision Making  Protests  FINA OW Swimming Officials Lists  Criteria  Selection of Officials for World Championships and Olympic Games  The Professional Official End of Session (1700 Approx)
  13. 13. Fina Open Water Clinic [Venue, Month Year] Day 3:  Questions & clarifications  Examination  Summary & wrap-up Conclusion of FINA Open Water Swimming Judges School
  14. 14. Fina Open Water Clinic [Venue, Month Year] Introduction of participants
  15. 15. Origins of Open Water Swimming  Modern marathon and open water events take us back to the source of life and the origins of swimming.  The first three Olympic Games all held swimming in open- water environments.  The resurgent interest in recreational and Adult swimming has spurred renewed interest in open water competition.  Pool and open water swimmers have competed for the first Olympic marathon swim, over 10km in Beijing in 2008.
  16. 16. Fina Structure  FINA – founded on 19 July 1908 at the Manchester Hotel, London (GBR)  Founding Federations: • Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Hungary and Sweden  Current Federations: • 201 Federation members by 2009
  17. 17. Fina Structure Organisation of FINA:  General Congress  Technical Congresses  FINA Bureau • Fina Executive  Committees (permanent)  Commissions (discretionary)
  18. 18. Fina Structure Congresses: General Congress is highest authority within FINA Technical Congresses Swimming Diving Water Polo Synchronised Swimming Open Water Swimming Masters
  19. 19. Fina Structure 22 Bureau Members •President •Vice Presidents (5) •Honorary Secretary •Honorary Treasurer •Members (14) Non-Voting Members •Honorary Life President •Honorary Members •FINA Executive Director
  20. 20. Fina Structure FINA Committees:  Swimming (1908)  Diving (1928)  Water Polo (1928)  Synchronised Swimming (1956)  Sports Medicine (1968)  Masters (1986)  Open Water (1992)
  21. 21. Fina Structure FINA Commissions:  Doping Panel  Athletes Commission  Coaches Commission  Press Commission  Doping Control Review Board  Legal Commission  Swimsuit Approval Commission  Technical Commissions at World Championships and Olympic Games (Bureau Liaison, Technical Committee Chairman, Technical Committee Vice Chairman and Technical Committee Honorary Secretary)
  22. 22.  Fina Rules  General – apply to all disciplines  Open Water Swimming (OWS) – specific Technical Rules  Medical – Health & Medical aspects  Doping Control – WADA Rules & obligation  Fina Bylaws  General  Marathon Series – Regulations  Grand Prix Series – Regulations  Security & Safety  Decisions of Fina Bureau (normally via Bylaw)  Competition specific conditions & regulations  Stated in conditions of entry Open Water Swimming: Rules
  23. 23.  Swimming rules exist for no other purpose than to regulate fair-play.  They are designed not only to keep swimming competition consistent, pure and correct, but also to ensure that all swimmers in a particular race are subject to the same restrictions and regulations Open Water Swimming: Rules
  24. 24. Open Water Swimming  FINA events include:  World Championships distances of 5 km, 10 km & 25 km (every uneven year)  Junior Championships –in age groups over 5km or 7.5 km (even years)  Marathon World Cup events of 10 km (Annual Series)  Grand Prix Series of events more than 10km (Annual Series)  Olympic event: 10 km  Olympic qualifying event/s
  25. 25. Break
  26. 26. Open Water Swimming OWS 1.1 Open Water Swimming shall be defined as any competition that takes place in rivers, lakes, oceans or water channels except for 10km events. 1.1.1 Marathon Swimming shall be defined as any 10 km event in open water competitions. 1.2 The age limit for all FINA Open Water Swimming events must be at least 14 years of age.
  27. 27. Open Water Swimming  Races are swim in a wide variety of Open Water environments:  Ocean Swims  Lake Swims  River Swims  In a wide variety of courses:  Point to point swims  Large single circuits  Small closed circuit courses comprising multiple laps
  28. 28. Open Water Swimming Officials are key to successful Open Water Swimming competitions. Objectives are:  Promote & improve Open Water Swimming  Develop interest & participation in Open Water Swimming  Encourage physical fitness & improve the quality of competitive swimming  Fairness & consistency  Develop life skills Water Safety Positive discipline Attitudes to life Fair play & respect Fitness & Health
  29. 29. Open Water Swimming Why Officiate ?  Are we there for our son or daughter ?  For our own ego, personal objectives, likes, dislikes, emotions, prejudices ?  Some other reason?
  30. 30. Open Water Swimming Officials Culture & Values  We are there for the swimmers  We are there to help youth grow physically and mentally and to participate personally and actively  Our goals are to demonstrate for youth the benefits of discipline and perseverance  We must try to create a school of life  To help youth learn to respect and accept decisions  From every experience – good and bad – one can learn positively It is important in all that we do to maintain objectivity and a sense of responsibility to all swimmers
  31. 31. Open Water Swimming Officials have the opportunity to contribute to consistent officiating throughout the world in the following ways:  To promote positive attitudes  To expand opportunities for training & experience  To maintain honesty & integrity  To encourage openness  To acknowledge the use of good judgement  To display decisiveness  To demonstrate a willingness to admit mistakes These behaviours reflect the actions of successful officials as well as provide a common foundation for the skill of officiating
  32. 32. OWS 2: Officials  Chief Referee  Referees  Chief Judge  Chief Timekeeper plus 2 Timekeepers  Chief Finish Judge plus 2 Finish Judges  Safety Officer  Medical Officer  Course Officer  Clerk of Course  Race Judges  Races over 10km – 1 per competitor  10km Races – Feeding platform (Race Judge role is dependent on Course)
  33. 33. OWS 2: Officials  Turn Judges  each course change  Starter  Announcer  Recorder Officials may not act in more than one capacity simultaneously – a new duty can only be undertaken once the previous duty is concluded
  34. 34. OWS 3.1: Chief Referee 3.1 Have full control & authority over all officials & shall approve their assignments and instruct them regarding special features or regulations related to the competition. The Referee shall enforce all the Rules and decisions of FINA and shall decide all questions relating to the actual conduct of the competition, the final settlement of which is not otherwise covered by these Rules . 3.2 have authority to intervene in the competition at any stage to ensure rules are observed.
  35. 35. Open Water: Chief Referee 3.2.1 In cases of hazardous conditions that jeopardize the safety of the swimmers and officials, in conjunction with the Safety Officer, can stop the race. 3.3 Adjudicate on all protests related to the competition in progress 3.4 Give a decision where judges & timekeepers results disagree
  36. 36. Open Water: Chief Referee 3.5 Signal to swimmers, by raised flag and short whistle blasts on a whistle, that the start is imminent & when satisfied indicate by pointing the flag at the starter that the race may commence. 3.6 Disqualify any swimmer for any violation of the rules personally observed, or which is reported by other authorised officials.
  37. 37. Open Water: Chief Referee 3.7 Ensure that all necessary officials for the conduct of the competition are at their respective posts. He may appoint substitutes for any who are absent, incapable of acting, or found to be inefficient. He may be appoint additional officials if considered necessary 3.8 Receive all reports prior to the start of the race from the Clerk of the Course, Course Officer and Safety Officer
  38. 38. Open Water: Referee 3.9 Have authority to intervene in the competition at ay time to ensure that FINA rules are observed. 3.10 Disqualify any competitor for any violation of the Rules that he personally observes.
  39. 39. Open Water: Starter 3.11Start the race in accordance with OWS 4, particularly : 4.6 The Starter shall be positioned so as to be clearly visible to all competitors. 4.6.1 On the starter command “take your marks” they shall take up a starting position with at least one foot at the front of the platform. 4.6.2 The Starter will give the starting signal when he considers all swimmers are ready. 4.7 The start signal shall be both audible and visual.
  40. 40. Open Water: Chief Timekeeper 3.12 Assign at least three Timekeepers to their positions for the start and finish. 3.13 Ensure that a time check is made to allow all persons to synchronise their watches with the official running clocks 15 minutes before start time. 3.14 Collect from each Timekeeper a card showing the time recorded for each swimmer, and, if necessary, inspect their watches. 3.15 Record or examine the official time on the card (Watch*) for each swimmer.
  41. 41. Open Water: Timing Rules  OWS 7.2.1 directs that times should be determined by following the procedure in SW11:  SW 11.1 The operation of Automatic Officiating Equipment shall be under the supervision of appointed officials. Times recorded by Automatic Equipment shall be used to determine the winner, all placing and the time applicable to each lane. The placing and times so determined shall have precedence over the decisions of timekeepers. In the event that a break- down of the Automatic Equipment occurs or that it is clearly indicated that there has been a failure of the Equipment, or that a swimmer has failed to activate the Equipment, the recordings of the timekeepers shall be official (See SW 13.3).
  42. 42. Open Water: Timing Rules  SW 11.2 When Automatic Equipment is used, the results shall be recorded only to 1/100 of a second. When timing to 1/1000 of a second is available, the third digit shall not be recorded or used to determine time or placement. In the event of equal times, all swimmers who have recorded the same time at 1/100 of a second shall be accorded the same placing. Times displayed on the electronic scoreboard should show only to 1/100 of a second.  SW 11.3 Any timing device that is terminated by an official shall be considered a watch. Such manual times must be taken by three timekeepers appointed or approved by the Member in the country concerned. All watches shall be certified as accurate to the satisfaction of the governing body concerned.
  43. 43. Open Water: Timing Rules  SW11.3 (Cont.) Manual timing shall be registered to 1/100 of a second. Where no Automatic Equipment is used, official manual times shall be determined as follows: SW 11.3.1 If two (2) of the three (3) watches record the same time and the third disagrees, the two identical times shall be the official time. Watch # Time 1 1:34:12.30 2 1:34:19.29 3 1:34:12.30 Official time 1:34:12.30
  44. 44. Open Water: Timing Rules Following SW11: SW 11.3.2 If all three (3) watches disagree, the watch recording the intermediate time shall be the official time. Watch # Time 1 1:34:12.27 2 1:34:12.28 3 1:34:12.31 Official time 1:34:12.28
  45. 45. Open Water: Timing Rules Following SW11: SW 11.3.3 With only two (2) out of three (3) watches working the average time shall be the official time. Watch # Time 1 1:34:12.27 2 1:34:12.28 3 -- -- -- -- Official time 1:34:12.28
  46. 46. Open Water: Timekeeper 3.18 Promptly after each finish record the time and swimmers' number on the timecard and turn it over to the Chief Timekeeper. Note: When Automatic Officiating Equipment is used, the same complement of hand timers is to be used 3.16 Take the time of each swimmer assigned. The watches must have memory and print out capability and shall be certified correct to the satisfaction of the ManagementCommittee. 3.17 Start their watches at the starting signal, and only stop their watches when instructed by the Chief Timekeeper.
  47. 47. Break
  48. 48. Open Water: Chief Finish Judge 3.19 Assign each Judge to a position. 3.20 Record and communicate any decision received from the Referees during the competition. 3.21 Collect after the race, signed results sheets from each Judge and establish the result and placing which shall be sent directly to the Chief Referee.
  49. 49. Open Water: Finish Order  Similar process to Swimming & Timekeeping  Record the placing order from all judges  Determine the result on precedence order (the number of times one swimmer placed ahead of another) Rk J1 J2 J3 Pl 1 4 5 4 2 5 3 3 3 3 2 5 4 2 4 7 5 8 8 2 6 6 7 6 7 7 6 8 8 1 1 1
  50. 50. Open Water: Finish Order  Similar process to Swimming & Timekeeping  Record the placing order from all judges  Determine the result on precedence order (the number of times one swimmer placed ahead of another) Rk J1 J2 J3 Pl 1 4 5 4 4 2 5 3 3 5 3 3 2 5 3 4 2 4 7 5 8 8 2 6 6 7 6 7 7 6 8 8 1 1 1
  51. 51. Open Water: Finish Order  Similar process to Swimming & Timekeeping  Record the placing order from all judges  Determine the result on precedence order (the number of times one swimmer placed ahead of another) Rk J1 J2 J3 Pl 1 4 5 4 4 2 5 3 3 5 3 3 2 5 3 4 2 4 7 2 5 8 8 2 8 6 6 7 6 7 7 6 8 8 1 1 1
  52. 52. Open Water: Finish Order  Similar process to Swimming & Timekeeping  Record the placing order from all judges  Determine the result on precedence order (the number of times one swimmer placed ahead of another) Rk J1 J2 J3 Pl 1 4 5 4 4 2 5 3 3 5 3 3 2 5 3 4 2 4 7 2 5 8 8 2 8 6 6 7 6 7 7 7 6 8 6 8 1 1 1 1
  53. 53. Open Water: Finish Judge 3.22 Be positioned in line with the finish where they shall have at all times a clear view of the finish. 3.23 Record after each finish the placing of the swimmers according to the assignment given. Note: Finish Judges shall not act as Timekeepers in the same event.
  54. 54. Open Water: Race Judge 3.24 Be positioned in an escort safety craft (where applicable), assigned by random draw prior to the start, so as to be able to observe, at all times, his appointed swimmer. 3.25 Ensure at all times that the Rules of competition are complied with, violations being recorded in writing and reported to a Referee at the earliest opportunity.
  55. 55. Open Water: Race Judge 3.26 Have the power to order a swimmer from the water upon expiry of any time limit so ordered by the Referee. 3.27 Ensure that his appointed swimmer does not take unfair advantage or commit unsporting impediment on another swimmer and if the situation requires instruct a swimmer to maintain clearance from any other swimmer.
  56. 56. Open Water: Race Judge  In circuit races where a feeding platform is present, the judge assigned to each platform shall manage the platform to ensure:  Only authorised people are present on the platform  The swimmer’s authorised representatives act appropriately to ensure all swimmers are able to feed Note: This is not yet a rule but a practise utilising the current rules
  57. 57. Open Water: Turn Judge 3.28 Be positioned so as to ensure all swimmers execute the alterations in course as indicated in the competition information documents and as given at the pre-race briefing. 3.29 Record any infringement of the turn procedures on the record sheets provided and indicate the infringement to the Race Judge at the time of infringement by blasts on a whistle. 3.30 Promptly upon completion of the event deliver the signed record sheet to the Chief Judge.
  58. 58. Break
  59. 59. Open Water: Safety Officer 3.31 be responsible to the Referee for all aspects of safety related to the conduct of the competition. 3.32 check that the entire course, with special regard to the start and finish areas, is safe, suitable, and free of any obstruction. 3.33 be responsible for ensuring that sufficient powered safety craft are available during the competition so as to provide full safety backup to the escort safety craft.
  60. 60. Open Water: Safety Officer 3.34 provide prior to the competitions to all swimmers a tide/current chart clearly indicating the time of tide changes on the course and showing the effect of tides or current on a swimmer's progress along the course. 3.35 in conjunction with the Medical Officer advise the Referee if, in their opinion, conditions are unsuitable for staging the competition and make recommendations for the modification of the course or the manner in which the competition is conducted.
  61. 61. Open Water: Medical Officer 3.36 be responsible to the Referee for all medical aspects related to the competition & competitors 3.37 Inform the local medical facilities of the nature of the competition and ensure that any casualties can be evacuated to medical facilities at the earliest opportunity. 3.38 In conjunction with the Safety Officer, advise the Referee if, in their opinion, conditions are unsuitable for staging the competition and make recommendations for the modification of the course or the manner in which the competition is conducted.  Ensure the First Aid facilities identified under Bylaw BL 12.14 are provided  Observe the Medical Rules
  62. 62. Open Water: Course Officer 3.39 Responsible to the Management Committee for the correct survey of the course 3.40 Ensure that the start and finish areas are correctly marked and all equipment has been correctly installed and, where applicable, is in working order 4.41 Ensure all course alteration points are correctly marked and manned prior to the commencement of the competition 4.42 With the Referee and Safety Officer inspect the course and markings prior to the commencement of the competition 4.43 Ensure that Turn Judges are in position prior to the start of the competition and report this to the Referees.
  63. 63. OWS: Clerk of Course 3.44 Assemble & prepare competitors prior to each event and ensure proper reception facilities at the finish are available for all competitors 3.45 Ensure each competitor is identified correctly with their race number & that all swimmers have trimmed fingernails, toenails and are not wearing any jewellery, including watches. 3.46 Be certain all swimmers are present, in the assembly area, at the required time prior to the start.
  64. 64. OWS: Clerk of Course 3.49 Ensure that all competitors leaving the water at the finish have the basic equipment required for their well being should their own attendants not be present at the time  Issue & return of transponders  Monitor withdrawals & inform the Recorder 3.47 Keep swimmers & officials informed of time before start at suitable intervals until the last five minutes, when 1 minute warnings shall be given 3.48 Be responsible for ensuring that all clothing & equipment left in the start area is transported to the finish area and kept in safekeeping
  65. 65. Open Water: Recorder 3.50 Record withdrawals from the competition, enter results on official forms, and maintain records for team awards as appropriate 3.51 Report any violation to the Chief Referee on a signed card detailing the event, and the rule infringement
  66. 66. Open Water: Officials Summary  Arrive on site in plenty of time & report promptly on-site. Find out where you need to be and when  Be prepared – make sure you are familiar with the rules and bring the correct equipment for your role & personal wellbeing  Comfort – remember you could be on a small boat for a long period of time with minimal facilities  Reserves – include reserves in the officials assignment plan to cover sickness, unavailability or incapacity  DO NOT LEAVE THE VENUE after the race until cleared to do so by the Chief Referee - pass all relevant documentation to the recorder should it be required for reference  Have fun !
  67. 67. Break
  68. 68. Open Water : Race Rules - Start 4.2 The Clerk of Course shall keep competitors and officials informed of the time before the start at suitable intervals and at one minute intervals for the last five minutes 4.1 All Open Water competitions shall start with all competitors standing on a fixed platform or in water depth sufficient for them to commence swimming on the start signal. 4.1.1 When starting from a fixed platform competitors shall be assigned a position on the platform, as determined by random draw.
  69. 69. Open Water : Race Rules - Start 4.3 When the number of entries dictate the start shall be segregated in the Men's and Women's competitions. The Men's events shall always start before the Women's events. 4.4 The start line shall be clearly defined by either overhead apparatus or by removable equipment at water level
  70. 70. Open Water : Race Rules - Start short blasts on a whistle when the start is imminent and indicate that the competition is under Starter's orders by pointing the flag at the starter. 4.6 The Starter shall be positioned so as to be clearly visible to all competitors 4.6.1 On the starter command “take your marks” they shall take up a starting position with at least one foot at the front of the platform. 4.6.2The starter will give the signal when considers all swimmers are ready 4.5 The Referee shall indicate by a flag held upright and
  71. 71. Open Water : Race Rules - Start 4.7 The start signal shall be both audible & visual 4.8 If in the opinion of the Referee an unfair advantage has been gained at the start the offending competitor will be given a yellow or red flag in accordance with OWS 6.3.
  72. 72. Open Water : Race Rules - Start 4.9 All escort safety craft shall be stationed prior to the start so as not to interfere with any competitor, and if picking up their swimmer from behind shall navigate in such a way as not to manoeuvre through the field of swimmers 4.10 Although they may start together, in all other respects the men's and women's competitions shall be treated as separate events.
  73. 73. Open Water : Race Rules - Venue 5.1 World Championships and FINA competitions shall be for Open Water distances, 25 kilometres, 10 kilometres and 5 kilometres, conducted at a venue and course approved by FINA. 5.2 The course shall be in water that is subject to only minor currents or tide and may be salt or fresh water. 5.3 A certificate of suitability for use of the venue shall be issued by the appropriate local health and safety authorities. In general terms the certification must relate to water purity and to physical safety from other considerations.
  74. 74. Open Water : Race Rules - Venue 5.4 The minimum depth of water at any point on the course shall be 1.40 meter. 5.5 The water temperature should be a minimum of 16°C. It should be checked the day of the race, 2 hours before the start, in the middle of the course at a depth of 40 cm. This control should be done in the presence of a Commission made up of the following persons present: a Referee, a member of the Organising Committee and one coach from the teams present designated during the Technical Meeting
  75. 75. Open Water : Race Rules - Venue 5.6 All turns/alterations of course shall be clearly indicated. 5.7 A clearly marked craft or platform, containing a Turn Judge, shall be positioned at all alterations of course in such a manner as not to obstruct a swimmer's visibility of the turn.
  76. 76. Open Water : Race Rules - Venue 5.8 All Feeding Platforms, turning apparatus and Turn Judges craft/platforms shall be securely fixed in position and not be subject to tidal, wind or other movements. 5.9 The final approach to the finish shall be clearly defined with markers of a distinctive colour. 5.10 The finish shall be clearly defined and marked by a vertical face.
  77. 77. Open Water : The Race 6.1 All Open Water competitions shall be Freestyle events. 6.2 Race Judges shall instruct any swimmer who is, in their opinion, taking unfair advantage by pacing or slip streaming with the escort craft to move clear
  78. 78. Open Water : Disqualification 6.3 If in the opinion of the Chief Referee or Referees, any swimmer, or swimmer’s approved representative, or escort safety craft, takes advantage by committing any violation of the rules or by making intentional contact with any swimmer, the following proceeding shall apply: 1st Infringement: A yellow flag and a card bearing the swimmer's number shall be raised to indicate and to inform the swimmer that he is in violation of the Rules.
  79. 79. Open Water : Disqualification  2nd Infringement: A red flag and a card bearing the swimmer's number shall be raised by the Referee (OWS 3.6) to indicate and to inform the swimmer that he is for the second time in violation of the Rules. The swimmer shall be disqualified. He must leave the water immediately and be placed in an escort craft, and take no further part in the race.
  80. 80. Open Water : DQ / Escort Craft 6.3.2 If in the opinion of a Referee, an action of a swimmer or an escort safety craft, or a swimmer’s approved representative is deemed to be ‘unsporting’ the referee shall disqualify the swimmer concerned immediately. 6.4 Escort safety craft shall manoeuvre so as not to obstruct or place themselves directly ahead of any swimmer and not take unfair advantage by pacing or slip streaming. 6.5 Escort safety craft shall attempt to maintain a constant position so as to station the swimmer at, or forward of, the mid point of the escort safety craft.
  81. 81. Open Water : The Race 6.6 Standing on the bottom during a race shall not disqualify a swimmer but they may not walk or jump. 6.7 With the exception of 6.6 above swimmers shall not receive support from any fixed or floating object and shall not intentionally touch or be touched by their escort safety craft or crew therein. 6.7.1 Rendering assistance by an official medical officer to a swimmer in apparent distress should always supersede official rules of disqualification through “intentional contact” with a swimmer (OWS 3.1).
  82. 82. Open Water : The Race 6.8 Each escort safety craft shall contain: a Race Judge, a person of the swimmer's choice, and the minimum crew required to operate the escort safety craft. 6.9 No swimmer shall be permitted to use or wear any device which may be an aid to their speed, endurance or buoyancy. Goggles, a maximum of two (2) caps, nose clip and earplugs may be used. 6.10 Swimmers shall be allowed to use grease or other such substances providing these are not, in the opinion of the Referee, excessive.
  83. 83. Open Water : The Race 6.11 The pacing of a swimmer by another person entering the water is not permitted. 6.12 Coaching and the giving of instructions by the approved swimmer’s representative on the feeding platform or in the escort safety craft is permitted. No whistle shall be allowed. Feeding poles are not to exceed 5m in length when extended. No objects, rope or wire may hang off the end of feeding poles except national flags. National flags are allowed to be attached to the feeding pole but may not exceed the size of 30cm x 20 cm.
  84. 84. Open Water : The Race 6.13 When taking sustenance swimmers may use Rule OWS 6.6 provided Rule OWS 6.7 is not infringed. 6.14 All swimmers shall have their competition number clearly displayed in waterproof ink on their upper back, arms and hands. 6.15 Each escort safety craft shall display the swimmer's competition number so as to be easily seen from either side of the escort safety craft, and the national flag of the swimmer's Federation.
  85. 85. Open Water : Race Time Limits 6.16.1In all events, time limits shall apply as follows from the finish time of the first swimmers:  Events under 25 km 30 minutes  Events of 25 km 60 minutes  Events over 25 km 120 minutes 6.16.2 Competitors who do not finish the course within the time limits shall be removed from the water except that the referee may allow a competitor outside the time limit to complete the course but not participate in any points or prizes awarded.
  86. 86. Open Water : Emergency Abandonment 6.17.1 In cases of emergency abandonment of races of 10 km or less, the race will be restarted from the beginning at the earliest possible moment. 6.17.2 In cases of emergency abandonment for any race of longer than 10km, where the lead swimmer has accomplished at least ¾ of the race, the final ranking will be as reported by the Chief Referee. If the lead swimmer has not completed ¾ of the race, it will be restarted from the beginning at the earliest moment possible.  Safety of Athletes, Coaches and Officials is PARAMOUNT
  87. 87. Open Water : Race Rules – Race Finish 7.1 The area leading to the finish apparatus should be clearly marked by rows of buoys which narrow as they get closer to the finish wall. Escort safety craft should be stationed at the approach to and entrance of the finish lane to ensure that only the escort safety craft authorized to do so enter or cross this entrance.
  88. 88. Open Water : Race Rules – Race Finish 7.2 The finish apparatus should, where possible, be a vertical wall at least 5 metres wide fixed if necessary to floatation devices, securely fastened in place so as not to be moved by wind, tide or the force of a swimmer striking the wall. The finish should be filmed and recorded by video system with slow motion and recall facilities including timing equipment.
  89. 89. Open Water : Race Rules – Race Finish 7.2.1 When automatic Officiating Equipment is used for timing of competitions in accordance with rule SW 11, microchip transponder technology capable of providing split times is mandatory and should be added to the Equipment. Use of microchip transponder technology is mandatory for competitions at the World Championships and Olympic Games. Microchip transponder timing technology will be recorded officially in tenths of seconds. The final places will be determined by the referee based upon the finish judges’ report and the finish video tape.
  90. 90. Open Water : Race Rules – Race Finish 7.2.2 It is mandatory for all swimmers to wear a microchip transponder on each wrist throughout the race. If a swimmer loses a transponder the Race Judge or other authorised.Official, will immediately inform the Referee who will instruct the responsible Official on the water to issue a replacement transponder. Any swimmer who finishes the race without a transponder will be disqualified.
  91. 91. Open Water : Race Rules – Race Finish 7.3 The Finish Judges and Timekeepers shall be placed so as to be able to observe the finish at all times. The area in which they are stationed should be for their exclusive use.
  92. 92. Open Water : Race Rules – Race Finish 7.4 Every effort should be made to ensure that the swimmers' representative can get from the escort safety craft to meet the swimmer as they leave the water. 7.5 Upon leaving the water some swimmers may require assistance. Swimmers should only be touched or handled if they clearly display a need, or ask for assistance.
  93. 93. Open Water : Race Rules – Race Finish 7.6 A member of the medical team should inspect the swimmers as they leave the water. A chair, in which the swimmer can sit while an assessment is made, should be provided. 7.7 Once cleared by the medical team, swimmers should be given access to refreshment.
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  95. 95. Escorted Swims  Races over 10Km usually require escort craft for each swimmer, dependant on the course.  Escort Craft need to be sufficiently large to accommodate Swimmers Representative, Race Judge, & necessary boat crew  Safety escort craft can be kayak / canoe / surf-ski / rowboat or other manually powered craft to provide close support to the race but must be supported by powered safety craft capable of taking competitors to medical support if required (Applies to all swims including those circuit based and/or 10km or less)
  96. 96. Safety Craft Considerations  Paddlers need to be sufficiently fit to complete the course in variable weather conditions or in sufficient numbers to “rest & rotate” during the race  Powered safety craft must be capable of running at low speed & should include basic medical support equipment to provide first response assistance to swimmers removed from the water.  Have back-ups for both manual & powered craft to cover no- shows & breakdowns
  97. 97. Open Water : Risk Management  Local boat, canoe, rowing & kayak clubs  Local amateur radio organisations  Local Life Saving Association  Sea & Boy Scouts  The Red Cross  EMS Groups  Safety is the paramount issue in the organisation and conduct of any open water swimming event  The first step in planning an open water swim is the consideration of safety factors.  Assistance and support (get contact details prior to race day):
  98. 98. Open Water : Risk Management Risk management plan – document and action as appropriate Risk 1 Assessment Action & by Whom Risk 2 Assessment Action & by Whom Risk 3 Assessment Action & by Whom
  99. 99. Open Water : Risk Management Reasonably Practicable steps need to be taken to manage identified risk
  100. 100. Open Water : Risk Management  Assistance and support  Local Hospital  Police  Local media  Fire Service  Coastguard  Independent Rescue groups  Local Harbour-master  Public Liability Insurance
  101. 101. Open Water Organisation  Organising a competition requires a team of personnel with specific responsibilities in the lead up during & following the event  Organisers involved in the planning need to include the following responsibilities in their structure:  Event Organiser/OC Chair – leading the Event team  Event Administrator – Assists & back-up to the Organiser  Course Officer – Course planning, implementation &, de-rig  Safety Officer – development of Safety & Risk Management plans, sourcing, briefing & managing the Safety crews on the water  Medical Officer – Development of the Medical plan for the event, sourcing, briefing & managing the Safety crews at the event  Chief Referee – liaison to ensure the rules are observed, coordination of Technical officials for the event
  102. 102. Event Planning  Gain the necessary permissions as early as possible  Plan the course well  Use historical information to assess likely race conditions, temperature & environmental factors  Check the distance with GPS if available  Include as much information about the course and race conditions in the call for entries to assist competitors in their preparation  Make sure entry conditions are clear, including any medical check / authorisation if required  Ensure sufficient personnel are available with the right qualifications/skills to run the event  Include sufficient reserves in the planning to cover any that become unavailable at the time of the event
  103. 103. Event Planning  Make sure the craft to be used are suitable to the task with the necessary equipment on board  Sufficient Lifejackets should be available for all personnel on the water  Plan briefings for Event Staff & Safety crew, and Technical team meeting for different times  Ensure appropriate Medical personnel are available on site to render assistance both during the race & immediately after the finish  Identify facilities for Doping Control if required
  104. 104. Open Water : Risk Management  Plan a safe well marked and patrolled open water swimming course  Start & Finish Areas must be highly visible from both land and water  Competition Doctor is mandatory  Escort craft personnel must be alert to symptoms of hypothermia, heat exhaustion and heatstroke  Trained and competent escort craft personnel  Basic medical equipment in safety craft  Platforms of correct size/load
  105. 105. Open Water : Risk Management  Safety Officer & Course Officer should constantly monitor the conditions in the build-up and during the race to ensure conditions remain safe for competitors  Safety & Risk Management plan should be documented & widely distributed to all who may need to know  Identify potential Hazards  Assess impact of hazard & probability of occurrence  Isolate, Eliminate or Minimise the hazard if the risk is considered significant
  106. 106. Open Water : Risk Management  Communications network: two way radios with dedicated channel for Referee and Assistant Referees and shore control. Separate channels for other officials, safety personnel  Mobile Phones if necessary, with a list of phone numbers  Effective public address system  Announcer with knowledge of OWS and who can give progressive race results, instructions and emergency announcements.  Horn for race abandonment
  107. 107.  Strongly recommended not to allow late entries  Conduct pre race briefing: course description, water temperature, surf/water conditions, pinpoint hazards and currents in detail  Establish accurate head count of swimmers before the start, at the start and verify during the race and at the finish  Instruct swimmers and escort personnel of the system to be used to notify race officials if a swimmer withdraws.  Establish a cut off time where swimmers may be removed from the water (events up to & including 10 km - 30 minutes after the first finisher) Open Water : Risk Management
  108. 108. Open Water : Risk Management  Medical and first aid resources at the finish:  massage,  refreshments (sealed containers),  hot water bottles, or Ice  blankets etc.  Ambulance on stand-by .THE RACE ORGANISERS AND OFFICIALS PRIMARY CONCERN IS FOR SAFETY AND THEY NEED TO BE PREPARED TO TAKE PROMPT DECISIVE ACTION DEPENDING ON THE CIRCUMSTANCES.
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  110. 110. Open Water : Competition Management  Plan early to avoid issues closer to the event  Course planning  Safety issue identification  Dialogue with appropriate Authorities, gain necessary permissions  Gain necessary permissions  Provide as much information as possible when calling for entries  Course Map / information  Safety issue identification / Safety Plan  Likely water temperature & climatic conditions  All Entry criteria
  111. 111. Open Water : Competition Management  Teams Leaders meeting is conducted by the Meet/Technical Director  Roll call of Country representatives  Introduction Of Chief Referee & Referees for Men & Women  Confirmation of entry  Course Officer explains the course (Have a map or presentation) • Weather & Climatic Conditions • Start & Finish procedures  Safety issue identification / On-water
  112. 112. Open Water : Competition Management  Teams Leaders meeting is conducted by the Meet/Technical Director  Medical Officer briefing & Doping Control process  Feeding Platform access/restriction (if required)  Draw for Escort craft / Starting platform position (if required)  Other Technical matters / Questions  Organising Committee housekeeping matters
  113. 113. Open Water : Competition Management  Organising Committee: Venue planning  Sustenance for Athletes (post-race) & Officials  Toilets & Showers  Sunscreen  Shade for Athletes  Secure area for Swimmer Gear  Medical treatment area in a secure private area  Secure area for doping control  Liquid for Number removal
  114. 114. Organisation of FINA Events  Applications to host FINA events are approved after consideration of various criteria & a site visit if necessary  World Championship & Olympic Games are under the management of the FINA TOWSC Commission  Other FINA Events are supervised by FINA Delegates
  115. 115. Organisation of FINA Events  The TOWSC Commission manage the assignment of duties to the TOWSC Members and appointed Technical Officials  Other FINA Events are supervised by FINA Delegates  Chief Referees must be FINA list referees
  116. 116. Break
  117. 117. GR 9.2 Protests  GR9.2.1 Protests are possible… a) If the rules and regulations for the conduct of the championships have not been observed; b) If other conditions endanger the competitions and/or competitors, or c) Against decisions of the referee; however, no protest shall be allowed against decision of fact.
  118. 118. GR 9.2 Protests   GR9.2.2 Protests must be submitted a) To the referee b) In writing c) By the responsible Team Leader only d) Together with a deposit of 100 Swiss francs or it’s equivalent, and e) Within 30 minutes of the conclusion of the respective competition or match If conditions causing a potential protest are noted before the event a protest must be lodged before the signal to start is given.
  119. 119. GR 9.2 Protests  GR 9.2.3 All protests shall be considered by the referee. If he rejects the protest, he must state the reasons for his decision. The Team Leader may appeal the rejection to the Jury of Appeal whose decision will be final. In the Olympic Games and World Championships the Commission in each discipline shall consider the protest and give recommendations to the Jury of Appeal.  GR9.2.4 If the protest is rejected, the deposit will be forfeited to the management body of the competition. If the protest is upheld it will be returned.
  120. 120. FINA Officials Lists: Open Water Swimming:  2 Lists of Referees • 3 Referees per Federation on each List, organisers of FINA World Championships & Olympic Games total 8 Referees.  List No. 8 (01.01.2009 – 31.12.2012)  List No. 9 (01.01.2011 – 31.12.2014)  Criteria: • experienced OW official at Conitinental Championship or Fina Event within the last 4 years • Graduated a Fina School  Age limit: 65 years from start of List period
  121. 121. FINA Officials Lists:  Selection of OWS Officials for FINA Events  World Championships – proportional Continental representation  Olympic Games – One per Continent  Criteria: On FINA Lists. Must have been judge at Continental Championships (except Host)  World Championships: Accommodation paid  Olympic Games: Travel & accommodation paid
  122. 122. The Professional Official:  Expect to be challenged  Know the rules  Know what you have to do on site  Prepare yourself  Answer your questions  is there for our sport of Open Water Swimming  Enjoys to be involved  Must have a deep and all around knowledge of the rules  Applies maximum effort to the meet and the work  Is neutral – not in the middle point  Enforces the rules with understanding and not with dictatorship  Applies the rules as witnessed and not as “I think or I heard”
  123. 123. The Professional Official:  Is prepared to listen  Is not afraid to say: I was wrong in my judgment  Is not pedantic about points of rules  Is ready to accept the Referee’s decision  Treats all swimmers equally  Does not pre-suppose a situation  Is someone, who officiates with understanding and respect, not: Me – I’m the official – you're just a swimmer  Is easily accessible through the Referee to swimmers and coaches regarding infractions if requested  Always gives the outward appearance of physical fitness and being in control
  124. 124. The Professional Official:  Appearance, dress, movements around the start & finish areas, race course, gestures, etc., must be smart and respectful  Confirms the meet is conducted in a good sportsman like manner  Maintains dignity at all times  Be attentive, give & show a serious impression  Spectators are watching you as you undertake your duties  Look forward to and enjoy officiating at each meet. Do not show an “I have to be here” attitude  Make certain, that all is in place, to see the competition is conducted in a safe, controlled and fair manner
  125. 125. The Professional Official:  Listens to and considers another point of view put forward  Be impartial applying the rules and interpretations for one and all. Keep a balanced outlook  Work with all other officials, to make sure, it is an event that all swimmers enjoy being part of  When reporting an infraction, write it out as the rule states, not in your own words Finally, be prepared to have the courage to make the tough call when it is necessary
  126. 126. The Professional Official: Equipment:  Sun glasses (if outdoors)  Sun protection material (if outdoors)  Whistle / Pens / Paper / Start list  Flags & whiteboard + pens  FINA Handbook – or rules in your own language
  127. 127. Thank You!  [Lecturer] Email: {email address}