Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Escaping the cave - Changing the metaphors of social marketing


Published on

Are needs, target audiences, barriers, benefits and risks illuminating solutions for social marketers or keeping them in the cave? What are the questions to ask to step out into a different light? What other metaphors lurk in the shadows?

Published in: Health & Medicine
  • Be the first to comment

Escaping the cave - Changing the metaphors of social marketing

  1. 1. Escaping the Cave: Changing the Metaphors of Social Marketing
  2. 2. It Is Just Semantics Semantics: The relation of words to thoughts and reality – the way that speakers commit themselves to a shared understanding of the truth, and the way their thoughts are anchored to things and situations in the world. Also the relation of words to community… emotions… social relationships (S Pinker, 2007. The stuff of thought).
  3. 3. “Needs” • A need is something required for a safe, stable and healthy life (e.g. food, water, shelter). • Needs Assessment: “A gap in actual and desired results.”
  4. 4. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  5. 5. Mapping of Universal Values S Schwartz (2006). Basic Human Values: Theory , Methods, and Applications.
  6. 6. Universal Declaration of Human Rights (United Nations, 1948) 22. Social Security. We all have the right to affordable housing, medicine, education, and childcare, enough money to live on and medical help if we are ill or old. 25. Food and Shelter for All. We all have the right to a good life. Mothers and children, people who are old, unemployed or disabled, and all people have the right to be cared for. 26. The Right to Education. Education is a right. Primary school should be free. See all 30 rights in the Declaration at
  7. 7. Questions Outside the Cave Is human autonomy and dignity always honored? Are satisfying needs the road to sustainable behavior and social change? How can peoples’ values inform social marketing? Are human rights a ‘need,’ an ethical framework, or a call for action?
  8. 8. “Target Audiences” The intended audience or readership of a publication, advertisement, or other message. “Target market:” A particular group of consumers at which a product or service is aimed.
  9. 9. Top-down and Seeker Models
  10. 10. Methods Top-Down • Policy and regulation • Enforcement • Guidelines • Research for problem description and analysis • Expert (evidence)-based interventions • Change behavior Seeker • Citizen engagement • Policy advocacy • Normative changes • Research for understanding, empathy and insight for solutions • Co-creation • Learn new things
  11. 11. Questions Outside the Cave • Who empowers whom? • How and when to identify and harness individual and community assets? • How and when to tap, nurture, expand and weave together social networks for learning and change? • How and when to build and sustain social capital? • How and when to shift markets and society?
  12. 12. “Barriers” • A fence or other obstacle that prevents movement or access. • A circumstance or obstacle that keeps people or things apart or prevents communication or progress.
  13. 13. What Barriers Do To Us We generate lists of barriers rather than analyzing which ones - A. Are important to people. B. Are theory and evidence based. C. Can be addressed by social marketing. Focus on removing them rather than – A. More important determinants or constraints on behaviors. B. Changing the conditions that led to them being there in the first place. C. Allowing people to be active agents in getting around them. D. Designing facilitators for new behaviors.
  14. 14. For Example Food Deserts Residents of the intervention neighborhood received a new 41,000-square-foot supermarket. Residents of the comparison neighborhood did not.  Few residents adopted the new market as their main food store.  Exposure to the new market had no statistically significant impact on BMI or daily fruit and vegetable intake at 6 months.  The new market appeared to have a positive impact on perceptions of food accessibility. Cummins et al. (2014) New Neighborhood Grocery Store Increased Awareness Of Food Access But Did Not Alter Dietary Habits Or Obesity. Health Affairs; 33(2): 283-291.
  15. 15. Benefits and Risks
  16. 16. Why Not? • Used only in Health Belief Model and Stages of Change Model. • Reinforces a ‘rational person’ approach to explanation and intervention. • Assumes people have the cognitive capacity (attentional bandwidth, self-control and understanding) to stop, think and make ‘rational’ choices. • There are better predictors of behavior (self- efficacy).
  17. 17. Naming the Shadows • “Nanny state” & “Liberal paternalism” • Containers • Control • Power • Tradition
  18. 18. Implications for Life Outside the Cave Language and metaphors can constrain or illuminate new ways to think about social marketing and wicked problems. Think critically about the frame, or theory, you use in social marketing projects. Talk about and treat others as you would want to be talked about and treated. That’s the core exchange!