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  1. 1. Introduction to Sociology: Society
  2. 2. Introduction ● society is a group of people who share a defined territory and a culture ● society is also the social structure and interactions of that group of people ● social structure is the relatively enduring patterns of behavior and relationships within a society
  3. 3. Societal Development ● Societal development refers to the changes that take place in societies over time ● Such development can focus on the economics (i.e., means of subsistence) or the politics (i.e., governance structure
  4. 4. Hunter-Gatherer ● The hunter-gatherer way of life is based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals ● The majority of hunter-gatherer societies are nomadic. ● Hunter-gatherer societies also tend to have very low population densities as a result of their subsistence system ● Hunter-gatherer societies also tend to have non-hierarchical social structures ● Archeological evidence to date suggests that prior to 13,000 BCE, all human beings were hunter-gatherers
  5. 5. Pastoralist ● a society in which the primary means of subsistence is domesticated livestock ● pastoralists are typically nomadic, moving seasonally in search of fresh pastures and water for their animals ● mployment of a pastoralist subsistence system often results in greater population densities and the development of both social hierarchies and divisions in labor as it is more likely there will be a surplus of food
  6. 6. Iranian Nomads
  7. 7. Horticulturalist ● societies in which the primary means of subsistence is the cultivation of crops using hand tools ● the cultivation of crops increases population densities and, as a result of food surpluses, allows for a division of labor in society ● Horticulture is typically a “between stage” in the transition to agriculture ● Horticulture differs from agriculture in that agriculture employs animals, machinery, or some other non-human means to facilitate the cultivation of crops while horticulture relies solely on humans for crop cultivation
  8. 8. Agrarian ● societies in which the primary means of subsistence is the cultivation of crops using a mixture of human and non-human means (i.e., animals and/or machinery) ● agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber, and other desired products by the cultivation of plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock) ● Two types of agriculture: subsistence or industrial ● Agriculture allows a much greater density of population ● The ability of farmers to feed large numbers of people whose activities have nothing to do with material production was the crucial factor in the rise of surplus, specialization, advanced technology, hierarchical social structures, inequality, and standing armies.
  9. 9. Industrial ● a society in which the primary means of subsistence is industry. ● Industry is a system of production focused on mechanized manufacturing of goods. ● industrial societies increase food surpluses, resulting in more developed hierarchies and significantly more division of labor.
  10. 10. Post-Industrial ● a society in which the primary means of subsistence is derived from service-oriented work ● Post-industrial societies are often marked by: – an increase in the size of the service sector or jobs that perform services rather than creating goods (industry) – either the outsourcing of or extensive use of mechanization in manufacturing – an increase in the amount of information technology, often leading to an Information Age – information, knowledge, and creativity are seen as the new raw materials of the economy
  11. 11. The Implications of Societal Development
  12. 12. Classical Views on Social Change ● Weber and Rationalization – Bureaucracy ● Marx and Alienation – Capitalism ● Durkheim and Solidarity – Anomie