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Integral assistance to refugees: an anthropological approach - Dr. M. Lafuente #1


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Since the beginning of the year, 60,656 non-EU immigrants landed in Italy, of which 51,596 in Lampedusa and other islands in the Pelagian
This presentation afford the definition of human being and Integral Development based on Fernando Rielo's philosophy

This workwas presented during the II Workshop on Medical Anthropology in Rome, on October 14th-15th 2011.

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Integral assistance to refugees: an anthropological approach - Dr. M. Lafuente #1

  1. 1. " Integral assistance to refugees: an anthropological approach" Dr. Montserrat Lafuente, Ph D Fondazione Idente di Studi e di Ricerca
  2. 2. Progetto Accoglienza Rifugiati Avvenire , mercoledì 21 settembre 2011 Since the beginning of the year, 60,656 non-EU immigrants landed in Italy, of which 51,596 in Lampedusa and other islands in the Pelagian
  3. 3. Definition of the person <ul><li>Double anthropology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unity of beings: body and psyche or body and soul (Plato) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tridimentional anthropology: Unity of 3 dimensions : spiritual, psychological and somatic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ the human person is a psycho-somatic-spiritual unity in relation with the Absolute Subject and others”. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Genentic Model (Rielo) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rielo, F. Trattamento psicoetico nell’educazione. In Le mie meditazioni secondo il modello genetico. FFR. 2003 </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Each of the dimensions of the person transcends the previous one, but does not exclude or canceled it. </li></ul>SOMATIC PSYCHOLOGICAL SPIRITUAL
  5. 5. PERSON Psyche Spirit Soma
  6. 6. Dimensions of the person: <ul><li>Physical: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organs and somatic systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Instincts and pulses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stimuli and reflexes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internal and external senses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Function: conservation of existence </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Dimensions of the person <ul><li>Psychological </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Faculty and language: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Faculty of mind (intellect)   </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Faculty of will (desire)   </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Faculty of union (freedom) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Energies: feelings, emotions, passions, impulses, tendencies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The phyche is a complex of psychobiological and psychospiritual functions. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Dimensions of the person <ul><li>Spiritual: our consciousness and empowerment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Values: codification of the Genetic Patrimony </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Energy allowing to love and create. (extatic) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Function: give a meaning and a sense to human existence / relation. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Rielo F, Introduzione alla Ontologia, in via di pubblicazione The power of union : The spirit, as the power of union, percives and effects the unity of all personal functions:
  10. 10. Constitutive structures of psychosomatized spirit <ul><li>Belief </li></ul><ul><li>Hope </li></ul><ul><li>Love </li></ul><ul><li>Truth </li></ul><ul><li>Goodness </li></ul><ul><li>Beauty </li></ul><ul><li>Prudence </li></ul><ul><li>Fortitude </li></ul><ul><li>Temperance </li></ul>Justice and unity
  11. 11. DEFINITION <ul><li>Etymology: Dal gr. Traûma, ‘wound’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Definition: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trauma : that experience that goes beyond the range of usual experiences and is experienced with intense terror, fear and feelings of despair. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. TRAUMATIC EVENT <ul><li>Trauma events in most cultures can be placed in eight general categories. These include: </li></ul><ul><li>Material deprivation </li></ul><ul><li>War-like conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Bodily injury </li></ul><ul><li>Forced confinement and coercion </li></ul><ul><li>Forced to harm others </li></ul><ul><li>Disappearance, death or injury of loved ones </li></ul><ul><li>Witnessed violence to others </li></ul><ul><li>Brain injury </li></ul><ul><li>(Mollica et al 1992. The Harvard trauma Questionnarie: validating a cross-cultural instrument for measuring torture, trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder in Indochinesse refugees.” J Ner Ment Dis; 180; 111-116 </li></ul>
  13. 13.  Will Union: Freedom Mind
  14. 14. Why do traumatic events call into question basic human relationships?
  15. 15. <ul><li>They breach the attachments of family, friendship, love and community </li></ul><ul><li>They shatter the construction of the self that is formed and sustained in relation to others </li></ul><ul><li>They undermine the belief systems that give meaning to human experience </li></ul><ul><li>They violate the victim´s faith in natural or divine order and cast the victim into a state of existential crisis </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Intentionality means more risk of PTSD </li></ul>When the pathogenic agent is a human being
  17. 17. <ul><li>“ Violence could be defined as a kind of pathology of this principle of relation that unites us all, of this element of social cohesion by which I participate in other people’s life” </li></ul>When the pathogenic agent is another human being... Colasanti R. Etica Relacion y violencia. Atti Seminario “Violencia en Latinoamerica. 12-14 Marzo 2004. Lima. Peru.
  18. 18. Risk of PTSD ? <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>From Viktor Frankl´s perspective, the right question to ask is not the status quo question: “What is the meaning of my life?”- but rather the chance question- “How can I live so that my life has meaning?” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>If trauma means a rupture of relations… </li></ul><ul><li>The therapist has to look for the way to provide the victim with a re-connection with the deepest values and experiences. </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Psycoethic <ul><li>The psychoethics is the science which studies theanthropic action in the psychological and ethical structures of the human being as illuminated by an ontology proper to the spirit, whose dynamic is ecstasy or ecstasiology . </li></ul>
  21. 21. The Psycoethic <ul><li>This science presupposes two constitutive conditions for freedom: the capacity for ethical evaluation and the capacity for decision in each and every theanthropic act. </li></ul>
  22. 22. The Psycoethic approach <ul><li>of human relation: </li></ul><ul><li>Interculturalità: complementarity relation – behind the diversity </li></ul><ul><li>that the individual exists in </li></ul><ul><li>relation to another who exists, and not without the other </li></ul>
  23. 23. The Psycoethic approach <ul><li>of human relation: </li></ul><ul><li>taking care of one’s neighbour also means re-establishing his dignity and unicity, activating a research for the ‘healthy and positive nucleus’ with which to make alliance and carry out the process of social and functional integration. </li></ul>
  24. 24. The Psycoethic approach <ul><li>of terapy: the therapist and the patient and a commitment so as to allow treat the psychological disorder with the aim of overcoming it and healing the patient. </li></ul>
  25. 25. In this way… can man be a deity for man, manifesting — over against the dictum homo homini lupus, based solely on response to stimuli— the motivational content of homo homini deitas . Fernando Rielo
  26. 26. Requirements of traumatic event <ul><li>Intensity </li></ul><ul><li>Unpredictable </li></ul><ul><li>Dangerous </li></ul><ul><li>Colombo et al. 2001 </li></ul>
  27. 27. TRAUMATIC EVENT <ul><li>Humiliate, v. [from Latin humiliare]. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Make humble in position, state, or feeling </li></ul><ul><li>2. Injure the dignity or self-respect of an individual </li></ul>
  28. 28. PARTICIPATION IN THE TRAUMA <ul><li>Direct </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect </li></ul>Witnessing From hearing
  29. 29. PARTICIPATION IN THE TRAUMA <ul><li>Direct </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Military battle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kidnapping /Highjacking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrorist attack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Torture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>War prisoner in a concentration camp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural or provoked catastrophes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Car crashes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Receiving of a diagnostic of a serious illness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal aggression (sexual violence, attack...) </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Indirect as a witness </li></ul><ul><li>Includes being the observer of the produced trauma in another person or death produced by: </li></ul><ul><li>Violent attack </li></ul><ul><li>War or catastrophe </li></ul>PARTICIPATION IN THE TRAUMA
  31. 31. Traumatic Experience = Structured psychological trauma?
  32. 32. <ul><li>Different factors intervene that favour a traumatic experience to lead to the production of a structured psychological trauma: these are: </li></ul><ul><li>Intensity of the violating agent </li></ul><ul><li>Personality (resistance and vulnerability) </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic trauma </li></ul><ul><li>Vital happenings </li></ul><ul><li>Structure of the social network </li></ul><ul><li>Caretti et al 2008, Resnick et al, 1992; Beslau and Davis 1995; Brewin et al 1999) </li></ul>
  33. 33. Traumatic experience = Structured psychological trauma? <ul><li>The main part is resolved in 1 to 4 months. The victims of natural disasters reach spontaneous decrement in 16 months. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Foa et al. 1995; Solomon e Grenn 1992) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The victims of severe interpersonal violations: 3 years after the trauma, 41% of the women, victims of violations, still showed symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Helzer, 1987) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Risk of PTSD ? <ul><li>Symptomology: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoidance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissociation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Shalev et al.2002) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>