A Comparison of Equations for the Prediction of VO2 max in Elderly Cardiac Patients. Robert C. Lowe, University of Central...
Introduction <ul><li>Milani J ; Fernhall B ; Manfredi T  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimating oxygen consumption during treadm...
Introduction <ul><li>McConnell TR ; Klinger TA ; Gardner JK ; Laubach CA Jr. ; Herman CE ; Hauck CA  </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Introduction <ul><li>Klinger TA ; McConnell TR ; Gardner JK   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prescribing target heart rates without...
Introduction <ul><li>Rankin SL; Briffa TG; Morton AR  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A specific activity questionnaire to measure t...
Equation <ul><li>Ainsworth, et al. (MENH 1993; 75-82)  </li></ul><ul><li>VO2max = 65.0 + 1.8(Frequency) - 10.0 (Gender) - ...
Purpose <ul><li>The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of this equation when applied to an elderly cardiac ...
Methods <ul><li>Prior to performing a GXT, 24 consecutive cardiac patients (19 male and 5 female; 59 [±8] yr.) were asked ...
Methods <ul><li>The predicted VO 2 max (PRED) was then compared to three VO 2 max prediction equations (Bruce cardiac, CAR...
Methods <ul><li>Data was analyzed by two-way ANOVA with repeated measures across prediction equations (CARDIAC, ACTIVE, IN...
Results <ul><li>No significant differences between males and females were observed (p>0.05).  </li></ul><ul><li>The pooled...
Conclusion <ul><li>These results suggested that PRED produced similar results to ACTIVE and INACTIVE.  However, PRED signi...
Caveats <ul><li>VO 2  was not measured. </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy of self-report </li></ul><ul><li>“Such factors as staff...
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AACVPR 2002 Presentation

  1. 1. A Comparison of Equations for the Prediction of VO2 max in Elderly Cardiac Patients. Robert C. Lowe, University of Central Florida Ronald M. Williams, Baptist Medical Center James W. Bryan III, Arkansas Sports Medicine
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Milani J ; Fernhall B ; Manfredi T </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimating oxygen consumption during treadmill and arm ergometry activity in males with coronary artery disease. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation 1996 Nov-Dec; 16(6): 394-401. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Bruce Active Max and Bruce Sedentary Max equations overestimated VO2max from 1 [  2] to 2 [  2] METs, whereas the Bruce Cardiac Max equation accurately estimated oxygen consumption at maximal exercise. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>McConnell TR ; Klinger TA ; Gardner JK ; Laubach CA Jr. ; Herman CE ; Hauck CA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiac rehabilitation without exercise tests for post-myocardial infarction and post-bypass surgery patients. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation 1998 Nov-Dec; 18(6): 458-63. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Patients completing a 12-week cardiac rehabilitation program can be safely progressed in terms of their exercise capacity without an entry exercise test. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>Klinger TA ; McConnell TR ; Gardner JK </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prescribing target heart rates without the use of a graded exercise test. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clinical Exercise Physiology 2001 Nov; 3(4): 207-12, 232-3. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusion: Safe and effective target heart rates can be assigned based on clinical signs, symptoms, and ratings of perceived exertion without the use of a graded exercise test. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Introduction <ul><li>Rankin SL; Briffa TG; Morton AR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A specific activity questionnaire to measure the functional capacity of cardiac patients. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The American Journal of Cardiology, 1996 Jun 1, 77(14):1220-3 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SAQ, a simple 13-item self-administered activity questionnaire, is able to provide a moderately good measure of functional capacity in cardiac patients and may be useful tool in studies of the cardiac population when formal exercise testing is impractical or uneconomical. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Equation <ul><li>Ainsworth, et al. (MENH 1993; 75-82) </li></ul><ul><li>VO2max = 65.0 + 1.8(Frequency) - 10.0 (Gender) - 0.3(Age) - 0.6(BMI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency = number of strenuous exercise sessions (at least 15 minutes) in the past 7 days. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender = 0 (male) or 1 (female) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age = years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BMI = weight(kg)/height(m) 2 </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Purpose <ul><li>The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of this equation when applied to an elderly cardiac population. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Methods <ul><li>Prior to performing a GXT, 24 consecutive cardiac patients (19 male and 5 female; 59 [±8] yr.) were asked how many times in the past 7 days they had performed vigorous exercise. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Methods <ul><li>The predicted VO 2 max (PRED) was then compared to three VO 2 max prediction equations (Bruce cardiac, CARDIAC; Bruce active, ACTIVE; and Bruce inactive, INACTIVE) as described by Milani, et al. (JCR 1996; 16:394-401). </li></ul>
  10. 10. Methods <ul><li>Data was analyzed by two-way ANOVA with repeated measures across prediction equations (CARDIAC, ACTIVE, INACTIVE, and PRED). </li></ul>
  11. 11. Results <ul><li>No significant differences between males and females were observed (p>0.05). </li></ul><ul><li>The pooled results indicated that VO 2 max predicted by CARDIAC (32.2 [  3.9] ml/kg/min) was significantly less (p<0.05) than VO 2 max predicted by ACTIVE (36.2 [  5.6] ml/kg/min), INACTIVE (37.1 [  6.4] ml/kg/min), or PRED (36.7 [  6.1] ml/kg/min). </li></ul>
  12. 12. Conclusion <ul><li>These results suggested that PRED produced similar results to ACTIVE and INACTIVE. However, PRED significantly overestimated VO 2 max compared to CARDIAC. </li></ul><ul><li>In light of Milani and colleagues' (1996) conclusion that only CARDIAC accurately predicts VO 2 max in cardiac patients, the validity of using PRED in an elderly cardiac population must be questioned and warrants further study. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Caveats <ul><li>VO 2 was not measured. </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy of self-report </li></ul><ul><li>“Such factors as staff training and experience, institutional philosophy, patient referral patterns, and facility location must be considered before adopting a no-test policy.” Milani, et al. 1998 </li></ul>
  14. 14. The End

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