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report of product design with rush grass weaving by Fangwu Tung

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going rush

  1. 1. /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// GOING RUSH: A STUDY FOR REINVENTING THE LOCAL RUSH-WEAVING INDUSTRY Fang-Wu Tung National Taiwan University of Science and Technology fwtung@ntust.mail.edu.twABSTRACT within their historical, cultural, and social contexts. This design-led research explores how leveraging Jaykar (1989) indicated, “craft is an economic design creativity can reveal new opportunities for activity before it is a cultural activity. The center of local rush-weaving crafts of Yuan Li in Taiwan, the development process is marketing." Craftspeople expanding the market potential of the crafts are skilled at using local materials to create products through the development of new products. This whose production and sales can generate income. study matched design students with local Once similar products manufactured with alternative craftspeople to form a cooperative team to or newer materials were introduced into the market, expand the craft vocabulary and tapping the demand for traditionally crafted products contemporary markets. The design process in the declined sharply. In addition to diminished markets, study was implemented in four phases, including factors such as unfamiliarity with market tastes, design research, design strategy exploration, needs, and limited access to working capability have design execution, and design promotion. Seven often rendered these crafts unavailable to cope with works were delivered under four design concepts market demands. Regarding the preservation of including diversity and authenticity, emphasis of local traditional crafts, more effort is necessary to the aesthetics of rush weaving, introduction of help revive these crafts and contribute to self- rush-weaving to other industries, and product sustained local communities. Developing cultural design based on rush rather than rush-weaving. products based on traditions and cultural heritage This research is conducted with the consideration has been viewed as a means to promote and sustain of the alliance of craft and design as a fulfilling local economic development (Santagata, 2000). learning experience, where both sides can Local crafts, such as a type of craft of a specific exchange learning information to enhance their cultural heritage (Moreno et al, 2004), can be used professional capability. Drawing from this as a strategic asset for local communities by collaborative experience, this study highlights the providing them with opportunities for economic value of collaborative approaches to craft and participation, the ability to create small-sized contemporary design practice, and outlines design businesses, and the sustainability of local or principles such as presenting the aesthetics of community industries. While local cultural heritage crafts, reviving old craftsmanship, and discovering receives attention, areas experiencing economic the uniqueness of local industries, which serve as downturn or local crafts being neglected hence face valuable references for design education and great prospects for economic revival. The concept of practice. the “One Village One Product” (OVOP) or “One Town One product” (OTOP) movement, originating fromKeywords: Design, Rush weaving, Local Craft, Japan and being promoted in numerous AsianCultural Product countries, is meant to encourage local residents to manufacture distinctive products through the use ofINTRODUCTION locally available resources and resident skills to introduce the products into the local or globalLocal crafts such as cultural heritages reflect a market (Rana, 2008). As globalization increasesrelationship between humans and their environment standardization and homogenization, a growing
  2. 2. DIVERSITY AND UNITYmarket searching for unique and authentic products producing mats, hats, and handbags. The rush-has emerged, creating a niche for creativity, weaving industry has power over local economy,innovation, and uniqueness (McIntyre, 2010). culture, and life. A golden age of exporting rush-Designers can adopt crafts as a genre of material woven hats and mats abroad was present. During thiscultural heritage to create product differentiation. golden age, almost every household was involved inFor consumers, handmade crafted products using rush weaving and contributed to the prosperity ofnatural materials and employing traditional the local industry. After a period of prosperity, akincraftsmanship prove a delight and demonstrate to numerous other local craft industries, due touniqueness compared to mass-produced goods. The changing times and industrialization, the market forcrafted products are compelling, distinctive, and rush weaving gradually eroded because of thewelcomed in the modern market. The market for availability of diverse alternatives, rendering thecrafted products has the potential to stretch across a craft unsustainable. In Yuan Li, the craft of rushnumber of markets, from accessories to home-ware weaving was transferred down generationallyand other categories beyond the traditional without institutionalized teaching. In this manner,segments. In this context, the demand for rush weavers were taught to produce rush-wovenappropriate design is increasing, opportune on hats and mats with specific techniques because theseeking new economic growth for traditional craft two items had been major products of the past;industries (UNESCO, 2005). Furthermore, designers craftspeople are thus accustomed to using their skillsface a new challenge and direction of regarding local to make certain products in similar styles, renderingcultural idiosyncrasies as a source of inspiration and their products less appealing to modern tastes.congealing cultural symbolism in products and Though machine-made rush-weaving products areimbuing them with authentic character to enhance replacing hand-made products, their overall qualityplace-specific competition (Scott, 2004). This implies and style are inferior. However, the lower price ofthat designers must now design products reflecting machine-made products is a threat to handmade rushtheir own culture and environments, which can also weaving (Chang, 2002; Yang & Yeh, 2007; Lu, 2010).distinguish their products from others in the market. Designers can therefore serve as an interface to linkIn summation, design can function as a strategy to tradition and modernity, helping match rush-wovenstimulate local craft industries, and the crafts can be products to the demands of modern societies.integrated into product design to attain Furthermore, the design intervention could bringdifferentiation with the authentic expression of new concepts to enhance their performancecreativity. This study thus grouped design students regarding techniques, materials, and processes. Thiswith rush weavers to explore the possibilities that study hence attempted to bridge the rush-weavingrush-weaving offers, developing innovative product craft and design to enhance design and creativity,tapping of contemporary markets. This study can be enabling people to grasp the potential in the rush-considered a new attempt at introducing local craft weaving craft, consequently effectuating thetechniques to the curriculum of product design. By sustainability of the local industry. Concerning craftcombining the design abilities of students and the preservation, this study examines modes ofrush-weaving knowledge of Yuan Li, the objectives of expanding the range of application by utilizing thethis research are as follows: (1) develop new product craft and rush material to reach contemporarylines to meet modern market demands; (2) gain an markets. In addition to exploring what contributionsunderstanding of the contributions industrial designers can make to revive the rush-weavingdesigners can make to the rush-weaving community; industry, this study provides a learning experience byand (3) explore the integration of local crafts into integrating local material and traditional craft intodesign education. the design curricula. The rush and rush weaving composed in Yuan Li possess uniqueness worthRUSH WEAVING IN YUAN LI examining further, as follows:Rush weaving is Yuan Li’s century-old indigenous  Eco-friendly: Rush is a green material, derivedcraft industry. Weaving made use of stalks of rush, from the cyperaceae perennial herb, with an 2
  3. 3. PRODEEDINGS IASDR2011 average length of 1 to 2 m. The rush from Yuan Li is planted in paddy fields and can be harvested twice or thrice annually. Unlike the round-shaped rush from other areas, the rush from Yuan Li has a Figure 1. The Design Process triangular shape with tough fiber, and is uneasily broken or discolored. Rush-woven products made DESIGN RESEARCH in Yuan Li are thus quite durable. These features In the early stages, field studies in Yuan Li were support the fact that the rush is a great green- essential for students to understand the local design material that is friendly to the context and to assess the craft techniques, materials, environment. Because eco products are becoming products, markets, resources, traditions, and most dominant trends in the international market, this importantly, the bottlenecks. Through field studies, type of eco focus creates a niche market for students could interact with the rush weavers products composed of rush. directly, by helping build a partnership between the Natural characteristics: The stomas and gaps both sides. Furthermore, activities associated with among cells of triangle-shaped rush from Yuan Li design research, such as material exploration, are larger compared to that of other species. Its market research, interpretation, and analysis semi-open stomas have characteristics of required implementation. Results of design research moisture absorption, air permeability, and enabled participants to indentify artisan skill bases, deodorization. Moreover, it emits a distinct strengths, and bottlenecks in the functions of rush pleasant aroma. weaving as a viable economic activity. Delicate Touch: The texture of rush-woven products is highly delicate, and the secreted plant DESIGN STRATEGY wax can also smoothen the surface to be more According to the results of design research, the delicate; rush-woven products could therefore be internal strengths of rush weaving involve the artistic comfortable to the touch of users, and its texture quality and delicate touch, the natural is vastly superior compared to other grass-woven characteristics of rush, and its rich resources. The products. internal weaknesses involve insufficient craftspeople, little product range, and limited design skills forMETHODOLOGY innovation and product development. Regarding the opportunities and threats arising from externalA cooperative design-led research was conducted environments, the former is referred to as thebetween university students majoring in Industrial emerging market for authentic products, the ecoDesign and rush-weaving craftspeople from Yuan Li. chic trend, and environment-friendly awareness. TheThis collaborative experience provided students with latter is mainly from the shrinkage of the originala chance to learn the related local materials and market and the increasing competition from low-costcrafts. By integrating traditional crafts into the machine-made grass-woven products.curriculum of product design, students gained hands- Design could therefore contribute to the rush-on experience by working with craftspeople and weaving industry by designing new product lines toobtaining their tacit knowledge. With the enhance traditional items to appeal to prospectiveparticipation of seven design students and five rush- clients, introducing appropriate manufacturingweaving craftspeople, the study occurred over an processes and other materials to reduce drudgery,approximate period of nine months. This study was and creating visibility for the craft. Through theconducted and implemented in four phases, collaboration, transferring design knowledge andincluding design research, design strategy information to the members of the community isexploration, design execution, and design promotion, crucial to helping the community become self-as shown in Figure1. The design process is described sustainable. Therefore, the community’s capabilityas follows: of production or their access to resources, such as manufacturing methods or materials, should be 3
  4. 4. DIVERSITY AND UNITYconsidered. Scott (1996) devised three of rush weaving can be applied to accessoriescharacteristics of successful cultural products, which particularly in the use of emphasizing personal styles.serve as useful references to plan design strategy, asfollows: (1) The products are of high quality anddiversity, and the producer displays a capacity forconstantly changing design configuration over time;(2) The producers are innovative in all dimensions oftheir business activities; and (3) Their products enjoystrong collective reputation effects derived fromtheir places of origin. Based on the aforementionedresearch and analysis, four design strategies forproduct design for rush weaving were established, as Figure 2. Design Work 1- A series of bracelet designs based onfollows: existing weaving techniques Diversity and authenticity Emphasis of the aesthetics of rush weaving Emphasis of the aesthetics of rush weaving Compared to traditional rush-woven products such as Introduction of rush-weaving to other industries hats and mats, the development of new rush-woven Product design based on rush rather than rush- product lines can create access to new markets. The weaving aesthetics and characters of rush weaving can promote products that are simultaneously decorativeDESIGN EXECUTION and functional, especially for home accessories andIn the design execution stage, designer students décor. Rush-woven products can enhance artisticplayed a chief role in conceptualizing the design and quality and natural feelings in daily life. Two worksdevising the form for an emerging product. During were created for the design strategy: a radio and athis time, craftspeople helped students identify and lamp. By integrating the rush-weaving craft withcorrect mistakes related to the manufacturing such products, a unique, natural, and aesthetic styledifficulties of rush weaving. A range of feasible was developed. This unique style not only introducesproduct developments for each design strategy was local craftsmanship into new markets, it also helpsdelivered after an iterative process. Seven design distinguish radios and lamps from other domesticconcepts in compliance with the aforementioned products, drawing the attention of consumers. Asdesign strategies are listed as follows: illustrated in Figure 3, the design features of this work are in the lighting changes formed by theDiversity and authentic pattern of rush weaving and the gaps made by theOne approach to achieve successful cultural products metal material. By adding the metal material, arequires producers to deliver products consistent in rush-woven product can also attain a modern lookhigh quality and diversity. A series of bracelet and reduce the demand for labor force.designs based on existing craft techniques wasproposed, as illustrated in Figure 2. The tube-shapedbody of the bracelet is woven in the same fashion aswhen weaving the handle of rush-woven bags. Bycombining different woven bodies with various typesof materials, diverse bracelet design can be created.The combination of rush weaving with othermaterials, such as metal or plastic, enables thebracelet to adopt a modern aesthetic with more ease Figure 3. Design work 2- A lampcompared to a product composed only by rush By rush weaving, the radio appears different fromweaving. The artistic quality and handmade texture typical radios (seen in figure 4). The weaving pattern 4
  5. 5. PRODEEDINGS IASDR2011in different densities of meshes, used for the surface Designing products based on rushes withoutfor speaker cloth, could present the characteristics weaving techniquesof the rush-weaving craft. The radio knobs are also To solve the lack of rush weavers and make use ofcovered with rush-woven material, providing a delicate the rich rush resources in Yuan Li, this studytouch experience for the user. developed product design based on the local raw material. As shown in Figure 6, the Triangle-Rush Stool presents two approaches to managing rushes to produce a stool. Triangle rushes can be used for stool surfaces by using both slicing and wrapping techniques. The former involves affixing bunches of triangle rushes in a piece of concave wood before cutting them to form a stool surface. The process revealed the triangle sections of Yuan Li’s rushes, and the surface presented a beautiful pattern. This wrapping method involves removing fibers fromFigure 4. Design work 3- A radio triangle rushes, leaving only the skin, which was used for wrapping around the rim of the concave wood,Introducing rush weaving to other industries giving off natural tones due to the uneven andIntroducing rush weaving to other industries can natural coloration of triangle rushes, shown in Figureexpand the application of the craft industry. 7.Regarding the design strategy, an attempt was madeto incorporate rush weaving with consumerelectronic products. In Taiwan, numerous companieshave found differentiating their consumer electronicproducts based on performance difficult, since thematuring of technological development. Rushweaving could transform electronic products into“eco chic” due to the sustainable raw materials,natural characteristics, and artisan quality. Thefigure 5 demonstrates that the rush-woven material Figure 6. Design work 7- A Stoolcould be used as parts of electronic products, such asearphones, computer mice, and electronic booksthat are normally used by users for extended timeperiods, enabling users to experience the naturalcharacteristics of rush-woven material. Following thetrend of green design, no greater time exists forapplying rush to the design of consumer electronicproducts. Doing so could distinguish products fromcompetitors on the market greatly, and enhancetheir competitiveness as a consequence. Figure 7. The stool surfaces made by using slicing and wrapping techniques DESIGN PROMOTION Attending relevant exhibitions and design competitions is crucial for design promotion, toFigure 5. Design work 4- A pair of earphones. Design work 5- Acomputer mouse. Design work 6- An e-book (left to right) inform and broaden the awareness of the public audience. To enhance visibility of the craft industry, 5
  6. 6. DIVERSITY AND UNITYthe design works have been displayed in exhibitions HIGHLIGHTING THE AESTHETICS OF THEto increase publicity. This study attempted to draw RUSHWEAVING CRAFTattention from potential consumers and business Since the industrial revolution, traditional rush-partners through these exhibits. In addition, these woven items have been composed by machines orworks also won the recognition of design contests, further replaced by other materials or syntheticsuch as the lamp, Design work 2, where the work was textiles. However, the rush-weaving craft conveysawarded “Good Design” by the Taiwan Design distinct aesthetic qualities, natural texture, andAlliance in 2010. This work was selected to be production value, which cannot be replaced. Thus,exhibited at the Taipei Flora Expo in 2010-2011. The modern rush-weaving craft items are not onlystool, Design work 7, won a prize in the OTOP design utilitarian, but their aesthetics are also a significantcontest held by the Taiwanese government, and will for the design. To promote the rush-woven products,be commercialized and sold in the channel of bringing the aesthetics and features of the rush-distribution and marketing of OTOP products, weaving craft and into product design is essential toconsequently helping the development of the craft satisfy both aesthetic and functional needs.business. Furthermore, emphasizing the aesthetics of rush weaving can encourage more creativities andDISCUSSION innovations, which benefit promoting skilled laborersThis project aimed to revitalize Yuan Li’s rush- and artisans.weaving industry, which involved skill-based INNOVATION BASED ON THE REVIVAL OF EXISTEDknowledge and accumulated experiences that cannot TECHNIQUESbe transmitted explicitly, though they can betransferred to other individuals through a Design-based innovation occurs by using existingcollaborative and interactive process with knowledge (Pannozzo, 2007), which also applies tocraftspeople (Asheim et al, 2007). This study thus craft industries. To drive innovation of the rush-matched design students with local craftspeople to weaving industry, existing craft techniques andform a cooperative team working together to acquire experiences are essential for generating newthe potential and bottlenecks of the rush-weaving possibilities. Furthermore, the use of old techniquesindustry. Teaming up design students and could effectuate the cooperation between designerscraftspeople enables them to integrate diverse and craftsmen. The design concept of bracelets wasknowledge sets and skills, allowing for the creation derived from weaving techniques for producing tube-of a rich novel combination of ideas (Alves et al., shape handles of rush-woven bags. This approach2007). Exposing designers in the local context is encourages craftspeople to create diverse designs viaessential for and acquiring at least a basic familiarity a variety of already-familiar weaving techniques.with the material of rushes and technical skills to Infusing old techniques with new lifestyles benefit aavoid developing irrelevant product design. This positive cooperation model, through which designcollaboration did not only focus on creating more students understand and explore application aspectsproducts, but obtained more insights and possibilities of traditional craftsmanship. Craftsmen can alsoregarding how industrial designers can contribute to review their own skills and creations from a differentrevitalize a downward local craft industry. Drawn viewpoint, and thus be inspired to develop morefrom the collaborative experience, this study creative designs. The revival of existing techniquesoutlined the following design principles for enables rush weavers to deliver innovation designsdeveloping rush-weaving crafts, including on their own, leading to the sustainability of thehighlighting the aesthetics of the rush-weaving craft, cultural industry.innovation based on the revival of existed techniques, DISCOVERING AND MANIFESTING PLACE-SPECIFICexpanding the opportunities of craft industry through IDENTITYcross-field alliance, and promoting local material asplace-specific identity, which serve as valuable A chief reason why Yuan Li’s rush-woven productsreferences for relative design practices. are reputed is due to the good quality of their 6
  7. 7. PRODEEDINGS IASDR2011triangle-shape rush, which can be used to receive the attention and interest of relatedmanufacture more delicate and durable products manufacturers, and contribute to the cross-industrycompared to others. The authenticity and quality of alliance for the rush-weaving industry in Yuan Li. TheYuan Li’s triangle rush serve as an identity related to design might enable manufacturers to differentiatethat locality and has potential to achieve their products and gain competitiveness, which couldcompetitive advantage. The rush-woven products, help them avoid cost competition.however, can hardly show the difference betweentriangle rush and other rush types. Manifesting this CONCLUSIONdifference by product design is an effective approach Design is regarded as a means to contribute to localto enable consumers to recognize the product as regeneration and economic development (Bell &unique to its specific geographic characteristics, Jayne, 2003). Designers working with craftspeoplewhich helps consumers connect the products and the could exchange knowledge of traditional craft skillsauthentic qualities of Yuan Li, forming a regional to deliver products that meet modern marketidentity. This study recognized the unique feature of demands. In addition to delivering new products, atriangle rush in Yuan Li before integrating this chief objective of the collaborative project is todifference into the design work, the Triangle-Rush inspire craftspeople to further their own innovations,Stool. The stool surface formed by a section of and not to stunt them into passive replication. Thetriangle rush manifests and emphasizes the special experiences acquired from this collaboration couldorigin of the material from Yuan Li. This design inspire craftspeople to view their skills, materials,shows a potential approach to create innovative and techniques from a fresh angle, and use theseproducts based on Yuan Li’s rush to build their place- resources to create products from their own designs.specific identity. Regional identity refers to the The knowledge transmission is crucial to building aauthenticity of a location. The uniqueness varies self-sustainable community.from according to region, and therefore, designers The collaboration in this study is a learningmust unveil the authenticity or significant attributes experience for both sides. In addition to benefitingof the local industry to manifest the uniqueness as local development, integrating traditional crafts andregional identity through design. The design creates local materials into design curricula can enricha link between the regional identity and the student knowledge through the process ofauthenticity of the local industry, thereby discovering potential skills and materials that theycontributing to the promotion and development of are unfamiliar with. Walter Gropius, the founder ofthe local industry. the Bauhaus, believed that the best approach to training young designers should comprise coursesEXPANDING THE OPPORTUNITIES OF THE CRAFT that free their individual creative ability and provideINDUSTRY THROUGH CROSS-FIELD ALLIANCE them with the knowledge regarding a range ofThe cross-field alliance has the potential to expand materials (Gropius, 1948). Craft involves buildingthe application of rush weaving to other industries. skills and knowledge, referring to technique,From this perspective, this study used rush as an material, and traditional aspects. Design educatorsoptional material for designing electronic consumer should recognize the potential of traditional crafts asproducts to improve user experiences. Prye (1968) a resource for learning and guide students tosuggests that the role of the craft and its attributed appreciate the values of traditional crafts not only asstatus is related to its ability to exist as a high- a process or product, but also as a cultural practicequality complement to industrial and technological with relevant functions in the community and society.advances. Doing so not only extends the potential of Therefore, introducing traditional crafts to therush weaving, but this design can also be an added design curricula of academic programs providesvalue of quality and naturalness for electronic students with an opportunity to learn how to utilizeconsumer products. This study applied rush weaving local materials in crafted approaches and broadento the surface design of products, such as earphones, their perspectives. To appreciate the importance ofelectronic books, and computer mice, which might local cultural industries in economic development, 7
  8. 8. DIVERSITY AND UNITYdesign education should respond to this trend by Santagata,W.( 2002) Cultural districts, property rights and sustainable economic growth. International Journal of Urban andplacing students in unique positions to join emerging Regional Research, Vol. 26, 9-23Industries. Scott, A, (1996) The craft, fashion and cultural-products industries of Los Angeles: competitive dynamics and policy dilemmas in a multi-sectoral image production complex, Annals of theACKNOWLEDGMENTS Association of American Geographers , Vol. 86, No. 2, 306-323This material is based upon work supported by the Scott, A. J. (2004) Cultural-products industries and urban economic development - Prospects for growth and marketNational Science Council of the Republic of China contestation in global context. Urban Affairs Review, Vol. 39, No.4, 461-490under grant NSC 98-2218-E-239-001-. The authorthanks all participants in this study for their UNESCO, (2005) Designers Meet Artisans: A Practical Guide. Chicago: University of Chicago Pressinvaluable contribution. Yang, M.Y., Yeh, W.H. (2007) Promoting Community’s Crafts and Developing Cultural Commodities: Yuan Li Triangle Rush Weave as an Example (社區工藝推廣與文化商品發展-以苗栗苑裡山腳社區的REFERENCES 藺編品為例), Proceedings of 2007 International Conference onAlves, J., Marques, M. J., Saur, I., and Marques, P. (2007). Culture Goods Design, June 23, Yunlin, Taiwan, 99-109Creativity and Innovation through Multidisciplinary andMultisectoral Cooperation. Creativity and InnovationManagement,Vol. 16, No. 1, 27-34Asheim, B.T., Coenen, L., Vang. J. (2007): Face-to-Face, Buzz andKnowledge Bases: Socio-Spatial Implications for Learning,Innovation and Innovation Policy. Environment & Planning C,Vol.25, No. 5, 655-670Bell, D., Jayne, M. (2003), Assessing the role of design in local andregional economies, International Journal of Cultural Policy, Vol.9, No. 3, 265–284Chang, C.J. 2002, Straw hats & mats in Taiwan (臺灣帽蓆), Taipei:SMC Publishing Inc.Cooke, P., Leydesdorff, L. (2006), Regional Development in theKnowledge-Based Economy: The Construction of Advantage.Journal of Technology Transfer, Vol. 31, 5-15Gropius, W. (1984) Teaching the Arts of Design. College ArtJournal . Vol. 7, 160-62;Huber, M.,Williams, A., Shaw, G., (1992) Culture and economicpolicy: a survey of the role of local authorities,WP5, TourismResearch Group, Department of Geography, University of Exeter,ExeterJaykar P. (1989) Speach at crafts council of India seminar, NIDLin, R. T. (2007) Transforming Taiwan Aboriginal Cultural Featuresinto Modern Product Design: A Case Study of a Cross-culturalProduct Design Model, International Journal of Design, Vol. 1,No.2, 47-55.Lu, J.H., 2010, Documentation: Rush-weaving craftsperson (紀錄藺編人), Taiwan rush weaving associationMcIntyre, M. H. (2010) Consuming Craft: the contemporary craftmarket in a changing economy [Internet]. Crafts Council. Availablefrom: [Accessed: 10th May 2011].Molotch, H. (2002) Place in product. International Journal ofUrban and Regional Research, Vol. 26, No. 4, pp. 665–688Moreno Y.J., Santagata W., and Tabassum A. (2004) Materialcultural heritage, cultural diversity, and sustainable development.Paper presented at the 13th annual conference of ACEI, June 3-5,Chicago, USAPannozzo, A. (2007), The (Ir) relevance of Technology: Creating aCulture of Opportunity by Design. Design Management Review, Vol.18, 18–24Prye, D (1968) The Nature and Art of Workmanship, Cambridge:Cambridge University PressRana, E. C. (2008), Sustainable Local Development Through OneTown One Product (OTOP): The Case of OTOP Movement inMindanao, Philippines, Journal of OVOP Policy, 1, 31-38 8