Enterprise Architecture with Semantic Wikis


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Presentation on "Enterprise Architecture with Semantic Wikis". Presented at the Open Group Conference Amsterdam (Oct 2010)

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Enterprise Architecture with Semantic Wikis

  1. 1. Enterprise Architecturewith Semantic WikisRemco de BoerThe Open Group ConferenceAmsterdam 2010 1
  2. 2. ArchiXL• IT architecture consultancy• Founded in January 2008• Located in Amersfoort• Focus on financial and public sector• Independent• Knowledge areas: – IT architecture (BPM, EAI/SOA, ECM, IDM, BI, Portals) – Enterprise architecture methods, techniques and tools (TOGAF, ArchiMate) – Knowledge management – Domain knowledge (insurance, pension funds, municipalities, education)• Since 2010: architecture courses26-10-2010 2
  3. 3. Agenda• Vision on architectural knowledge and architectural knowledge management• “Semantic Wiki ?”• Managing enterprise architectural knowledge with semantic wikis 3
  4. 4. The architect as knowledge worker• Knowledge work entails gathering, processing, creating, sharing and disseminating knowledge• 3 phases: 1. Information: • gathering relevant knowledge and data 2. Use: • processing the gathered knowledge • creating new knowledge 3. Result: • sharing and disseminating the result (Mackenzie Owen) 4
  5. 5. Architectural knowledge is an asset “The major problem with intellectual capital is that it has legs and walks home every day.” Rus & Lindvall 5
  6. 6. Dimensions of architectural knowledge Tacit goals, experience, constraints, expertise assumptions, concerns Generic Specific standards, requirements, reference principles, design architectures, decisions, architectural models styles Explicit 6
  7. 7. Architectural knowledge transformations Tacit Socialisation Externalisation Internalisation Combination Explicit 7
  8. 8. Architectural knowledge transformations Abstraction Generic Maturation Refinement Specific Use 8
  9. 9. Architectural Knowledge:Decisions are key Tacit goals, Motivation experience, constraints, expertise assumptions, concerns Generic Specific standards, requirements, reference principles, design architectures, decisions, architectural Reuse styles models Implications Explicit 9
  10. 10. Strategies for architectural knowledge management• Codification – Emphasizes explicit, often formalized knowledge – Knowledge base – „Push‟-mechanism• Personalisation – Emphasizes tacit, implicit knowledge – Expert network – „Pull‟-mechanism• Hybrid – Combination of codification and personalisation – Collaborative environment – Push/Pull (active contributions, „who knows what?‟) 10
  11. 11. Advantages of using a semantic wiki• Open invitation for knowledge sharing – Everyone may contribute – “Who knows what”?• Single entry point for architectural knowledge – Open platform – Integration with other tools possible• Architecture in context – No a-priori constraints on the type of knowledge that can be captured• Semi-structured – Supports structure and text 11
  12. 12. Semantic Wiki? 12
  13. 13. MediaWiki: the engine behind Wikipedia What are the 100 biggest cities in the world with a female mayor? 13
  14. 14. Semantic MediaWiki• Extension for MediaWiki – A „regular‟ Wiki with an underlying knowledge model – Knowledge model makes facts and relations meaningful, for man and machine – From this meaning (= semantics), new facts and relations van be inferred• SMW is semi-structured – Supports structure and text – No pre-defined knowledge model 14
  15. 15. Managing Enterprise Architecture Knowledge with Semantic Wikis 15
  16. 16. Most important components of the knowledge model• Templates – „Objects‟• Properties – Attributes and relationships• Forms – For data entry and changes• Categories – „Object types‟• Models – ArchiMate• Principles – Motivation, implication 16
  17. 17. ArchiMate: Overview Represen - Business BusinessBusiness tation service collaboration Business Event interaction Business Business Business Business object process role actor ApplicationApplication Application service interface Data Application Application object function component Infrastructure InfrastructureTechnology service interface System Artifact Device Network software Passive structure Behaviour Active structure 17
  18. 18. ArchiMate in the semantic knowledge model Wiki page (ArchiMate concept) Template: Category: ArchiMate Concept ArchiMate Concepts Attributes -Active concepts -Name -Interfaces -Type -Structural elements -Description -Behavior concepts Form: -... -Behavioral elementen ArchiMate -Services Relations -Passiv concepts Concept - All ArchiMate relations -Objects 18
  19. 19. ArchiMate model element (Wiki page) Infrastructure service „Personalisation‟ specializes „User Interaction‟‟ related to the „Enterprise Portal‟ principle realized by „Portal Server‟‟ 19
  20. 20. Dynamically generated content 20
  21. 21. Principles (TOGAF) 21
  22. 22. Principles in the semantic knowledge model Wiki page (Principle) Template: Category: Principle Principles Attributes -Generic IT reference -Statement architecture principles -Type -Architecture principles -Architecture layer -Leading architecture Form: -Architecture domain principles -Quality Attribute -Guidelines Principle -Source -GEMMA reference architecture -ID principles -Core principles Relations -Process architecture -Motivation principles -Implication -Information architecture -Association (ArchiMate) principles -Structure principles -... 22
  23. 23. Principle (Wiki page) Case oriented work GEMMA Core Principle Motivation: Transparentgovernment, Providing better service, Case- and process-oriented work Implications: Transparent case processing, Connect, Case management 23
  24. 24. The architecture of an architectural knowledgemanagement platform• By capturing the meaning of architectural knowledge, we Generic support the (re)use of generic Architectural Knowledge Base architectural knowledge in organisation-specific contexts• 3 layers: – application generic knowledge Interface Specific/Generic base – organisation-specific knowledge repository – interface between specific and generic architectural knowledge Organisation-specific Architectural Knowledge Repository 24
  25. 25. Architectural knowledge in a system of Semantic Wikis Generic Semantic Wiki InterWiki linksSemantic Wiki Semantic Wiki Semantic Wiki Organisation Organisation Organisation X Y Z Export Export Export 25
  26. 26. Linking specific and generic architectural knowledge• Work out generic reference architecture in organisation-specific context• Basis: – Final implications of principles – Specialisations of architectural concepts• Example: GEMMA Case management – Municipality opts to work “Case-oriented” according to GEMMA (Dutch Municipality Model Architecture) 26
  27. 27. Case oriented work and the Midoffice:Implications of ‘case management’ GEMMA Wiki (generic) 27
  28. 28. Municipality “Case Wikimanagement” (organisation- specific) 28
  29. 29. MunicipalityImplications of Wiki “Case (organisation-Management” specific) 29
  30. 30. Organisation-specific working-out of ‘Case-orientedwork’ GEMMA Wiki Organisation-specific wiki GEMMA Information function Case management GEMMA Decision (final) Within our municipality: implications Every case is recorded in a case warehouse... GEMMA Principle motivation implication Every case is recorded Design decision ... in a case warehouse Our municipality uses ... case management system X ... ... 30
  31. 31. Conclusion• Architectural knowledge is an asset that should be managed• Semantic wikis are an interesting platform to capture and disseminate architectural knowledge – semi-structured: meaningful combination of textual and model-based information, e.g., architecture principles and ArchiMate models. – can be used for generic reference architecture knowledge bases as well as for organisation-specific architecture repositories.• In a system of wikis, different architectural knowledge wikis can be linked such that generic architectural knowledge can easily be reused in an organisation-specific context. 31