Cultural Orientation Dadaab Refugee Camps Dadaab, Kenya Robinson Cook
In January of 2009, I spent one week observing the cultural orientation classes for refugees in Dadaab Kenya before their ...
What Do You Know About Somalia? What Do You Know About The Dadaab Refugee Camps?
1960 – Somali independence from Italy and merger with British Somaliland  1960 - Adan Adulle Osman elected as President  1...
Conflict In Somalia Taxi that runs between the refugee camps.   1991 -  Said Barre was ousted by a Northern and Southern c...
<ul><li>Some recent major players in Somalia include: </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic Courts Union (ICU) </li></ul><ul><li>Al Sh...
<ul><li>Ethnicities - Somali 85%, Bantu and other  </li></ul><ul><li>non-Somali 15% (including Arabs 30,000)  </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>Ifo </li></ul><ul><li>Hagadera </li></ul><ul><li>Dagahaley   </li></ul><ul><li>were built in 1991 to host 90,000 r...
<ul><li>Somali  Ethiopian  Congolese </li></ul><ul><li>Eritrean  Sudanese </li></ul>Dadaab Ethnic Groups Retelling of pers...
<ul><li>The continuing conflict in Somalia has led to a steady inflow of refugees over the subsequent years with no sign o...
Landscapes Dry landscape in the Garissa district of Kenya. Landscapes
<ul><li>UNHCR -  Referral and case creation </li></ul><ul><li>OPE - Pre-screen & case verification  </li></ul><ul><li>USCI...
<ul><li>UNHCR – United Nations High Commission for Refugees.  </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals  </li></ul><ul><li>Large group...
<ul><li>United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR)  </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-screen </li></ul><ul><li>Biographical D...
JVA Kenya morning role call. <ul><li>Overseas Processing Entity (OPE) – JVA Kenya </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-screen </li></ul><...
Refugee interview area. <ul><li>United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) </li></ul><ul><li>USCIS Intervi...
<ul><li>International Organization for Migration (IOM) </li></ul><ul><li>Medical examinations </li></ul><ul><li>X-Rays </l...
<ul><li>Joint Voluntary Agency (JVA) Kenya  </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Orientation to those refugees coming to the U.S. </...
<ul><li>International Organization for Migration (IOM) </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation to transit center </li></ul><ul><l...
JVA Kenya Cultural Orientation Staff - Nairobi Kenya
<ul><li>18-30 Class size </li></ul><ul><li>3 Days long </li></ul><ul><li>6 hours of instruction per day </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>What is the purpose of cultural orientation for refugees in the United States?  To prepare for life in the U.S. an...
CO trainers preparing for the first day of class tomorrow
CO trainers meet with locally hired interpreters to go over the lesson plan.
<ul><li>United States Overview  </li></ul><ul><li>Resettlement Agency </li></ul><ul><li>Community Services  </li></ul><ul>...
Amina – Cultural Orientation morning role call.
Amina – Cultural Orientation morning role call.
Cultural Orientation class list.
 
“ What do you know about the U.S.?”
 
<ul><li>“ What do you fear about the U.S. ?” </li></ul><ul><li>Not getting there (the plane has problems) </li></ul><ul><l...
Amina explains how transportation operates in America
Amina explaining the difference between the public and private health care systems.
Amina stops the video to explain that you actually sit on a toilet as opposed to squatting.
Jeff explains the different types of financial assistance available to refugees.
Jeff explains the tenant landlord relationship.
Refugees in cultural orientation  class in IFO.
Refugees asking questions about the housing video they just watched.
Visual aids to help explain  civil rights, American history, money and identifications.
Refugees learning about travel to the U.S.
Cultural Orientation Discussion About Child Support
Question: What are the good things about Somali culture?
Question: What are the not so good things about  Somali culture?
Question: What is good and not so good about Ethiopian (Anywok) culture? <ul><li>Good: </li></ul><ul><li>Marry one woman <...
Answer: Here are the good things  about our culture.  <ul><li>We greet strangers when they come to our home. </li></ul><ul...
Answer: Here are the not so good things about our culture. <ul><li>Female Genital Mutilation </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage ou...
Cultural Orientation Classes Life cycle of resettlement emotions for refugees. 2. Resettlement Bliss 4. Depression & Cultu...
Cultural Orientation Video About Integration and Culture Shock
“ This discussion about the illegality of female genital mutilation in the U.S.  is really more of a discussion about diff...
“ What will you do when your neighbors are drinking alcohol and barbecuing pork? What will you do when you are not permitt...
The inside of an airplane
The inside of an airplane.
You will have an assigned seat throughout the flight.
Here is what your plane ticket will look like.
This is what your meal will look like. The flight attendants will bring it to you.
Congratulations on completing your cultural orientation. You will now travel to the U.S. within one to four weeks from tod...
Titus explain traveling to the United States. “Do not open this bag until you reach the U.S.. It has all of your documenta...
Life In The Camps
<ul><li>All registered refugees are eligible for food from the World Food Program WFP </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 200 ...
World Food Program storage tent for rationed food items.
World Food program food storage area.
Visual representation of food rations so that everyone knows what they will receive.
One ration of lentils.
One ration of ground nuts.
One ration of corn soya blend.
One ration of salt.
One ration of cooking oil.
Final weigh-out of rations.
Entrance and exit to food distribution.
Post food rationing – IFO.
Camp walk ways.
Children playing in IFO on a Sunday afternoon.
Homes in  IFO. IFO mechanic shop.  IFO bicycle repair area.  Homes in  IFO.
Ethiopian children enjoying seeing the instant result on a digital camera
IFO clothing merchant.  Camel meat.  IFO  Market. IFO Market.
IFO Guides.
Out of gas in the bush! Sleeping tent in U.N. compound. Ugali & goat meat. Grilled goat meat.
David - UNHCR Staff. Abas - IOM staff. Jeff and Mark – CO Trainers. UNHCR Case Workers.
<ul><li>$1,400 Airline Ticket Northwest & KLM - Minneapolis to Amsterdam/Amsterdam to Nairobi (16 hours of flying time) </...
www.churchworldservice.org www.iom.int www.unhcr.org How To Support International Refugee Resettlement Efforts
<ul><li>www.lssmn.org </li></ul><ul><li>www.minnesota.wr.org </li></ul><ul><li>www.ccspm.org </li></ul><ul><li>www.mnchurc...
<ul><li>Mission:  To help reduce misperceptions about foreign cultures and  </li></ul><ul><li>perpetuate the belief that w...
<ul><li>The End </li></ul>Questions? Photo by: Amina
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Cultural Orientation

4,747 views

Published on

0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
4,747
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
267
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
100
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Cultural Orientation

  1. 1. Cultural Orientation Dadaab Refugee Camps Dadaab, Kenya Robinson Cook
  2. 2. In January of 2009, I spent one week observing the cultural orientation classes for refugees in Dadaab Kenya before their resettlement to the United States. This presentation only represents what I experienced along the way. I simply recorded and photographed what I saw, heard and touched. I am now sharing it with friends and colleagues to help unhinge the misperceptions people have about refugees who come from East Africa and in particular, Somalia. In the end I hope anyone who views this presentation can appreciate what refugees have gone through just to come to the U.S.. I hope you share in the hopes and dreams of your future neighbors, co-workers, and friends.
  3. 3. What Do You Know About Somalia? What Do You Know About The Dadaab Refugee Camps?
  4. 4. 1960 – Somali independence from Italy and merger with British Somaliland 1960 - Adan Adulle Osman elected as President 1967 - Abdirashid Ali Sharmaarke elected as 2 nd president and 1969 - Abdirashid Ali Sharmaarke assassinated by his bodyguard in 1969. 1969 - General Mohamed Said Barre took over during a bloodless coup. History Mogadishu
  5. 5. Conflict In Somalia Taxi that runs between the refugee camps. 1991 - Said Barre was ousted by a Northern and Southern clan based force called the USC lead by Military leader General Mohamed Farah AIdid and Abdirahman Tura 1996 - Mohamed Farrah Aidid was killed in Mogadishu. Since 1991 there have been fourteen efforts at national reconciliation. 2009 - Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed elected President The basis of most of the conflicts was clan allegiances and competition for resources between the warring clans.
  6. 6. <ul><li>Some recent major players in Somalia include: </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic Courts Union (ICU) </li></ul><ul><li>Al Shabaab </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Backed Ethiopian Forces </li></ul><ul><li>Puntland Regional Authority </li></ul><ul><li>Republic of Somaliland </li></ul><ul><li>Transitional Federal Government </li></ul><ul><li>2009 - Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed - President </li></ul>Today The civil war disrupted agriculture and food distribution in southern Somalia.
  7. 7. <ul><li>Ethnicities - Somali 85%, Bantu and other </li></ul><ul><li>non-Somali 15% (including Arabs 30,000) </li></ul><ul><li>Religion – Primarily Sunni Muslim </li></ul><ul><li>Languages – Somali (official), Arab, English, Italian. </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Resources - Uranium and largely unexploited reserves of iron ore, tin, gypsum, bauxite, copper, salt, natural gas, likely oil reserves </li></ul>People and Culture Somali Refugee entering UNHCR Compound for her initial resettlement interview
  8. 8. <ul><li>Ifo </li></ul><ul><li>Hagadera </li></ul><ul><li>Dagahaley </li></ul><ul><li>were built in 1991 to host 90,000 refugees. Today, The camps cover a total area of 50 square km and are within an 18 km radius of one another to host more than 230,000 refugees. </li></ul>The Three Dadaab Refugee Camps Marquee at the entrance to IFO refugee camp
  9. 9. <ul><li>Somali Ethiopian Congolese </li></ul><ul><li>Eritrean Sudanese </li></ul>Dadaab Ethnic Groups Retelling of persecution story by Somali refugee.
  10. 10. <ul><li>The continuing conflict in Somalia has led to a steady inflow of refugees over the subsequent years with no sign of easing up. </li></ul><ul><li>More than 60,000 Somalis crossed into Kenya in 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>Most come from Mogadishu and the Lower Juba regions of Kismayo, Jamame and Afmadow. </li></ul><ul><li>Dadaab is also a division in the Garissa District , which suffered a severe drought for almost four years. </li></ul><ul><li>Dadaab is approximately 40 kilometers (26 miles) from the Somali border. </li></ul>Dadaab
  11. 11. Landscapes Dry landscape in the Garissa district of Kenya. Landscapes
  12. 12. <ul><li>UNHCR - Referral and case creation </li></ul><ul><li>OPE - Pre-screen & case verification </li></ul><ul><li>USCIS - Resettlement interview & decision </li></ul><ul><li>IOM - Medical examination </li></ul><ul><li>OPE - Cultural orientation </li></ul><ul><li>IOM - Travel to U.S. 5 ports of entry </li></ul><ul><li>Voluntary Agency - Resettlement in U.S. </li></ul>Refugee Timeline Individuals being interviewed by JVA Kenya
  13. 13. <ul><li>UNHCR – United Nations High Commission for Refugees. </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Large groups of compelling concern: The Lost Boys of </li></ul><ul><li>Sudan. </li></ul><ul><li>NGO (Non-Government Organization) </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Embassy </li></ul><ul><li>A family member in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Affidavit of Relationship (AOR) </li></ul><ul><li>Visa 92/93 </li></ul>UNHCR Morning role call – Hagadera. 1. Referral from one of the following:
  14. 14. <ul><li>United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-screen </li></ul><ul><li>Biographical Data </li></ul><ul><li>Form Fill </li></ul><ul><li>Persecution Story </li></ul><ul><li>Refugee referred to U.S. Overseas Processing Entity (OPE) </li></ul>UNHCR case creation. 2. Case Creation
  15. 15. JVA Kenya morning role call. <ul><li>Overseas Processing Entity (OPE) – JVA Kenya </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-screen </li></ul><ul><li>Form Fill </li></ul><ul><li>Persecution Story </li></ul><ul><li>Refugee Referred to USCIS </li></ul><ul><li>*They are verifying all of the data presented by the referring agency, qualifying the refugee and clarifying any gaps in the persecution story. </li></ul>3. Pre-Screen
  16. 16. Refugee interview area. <ul><li>United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) </li></ul><ul><li>USCIS Interviews refugee and takes one of the following actions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Approves case for resettlement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Denies case for resettlement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Puts case on hold or pending </li></ul></ul>4. USCIS Interview
  17. 17. <ul><li>International Organization for Migration (IOM) </li></ul><ul><li>Medical examinations </li></ul><ul><li>X-Rays </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccinations/Immunizations </li></ul><ul><li>Preparations for travel logistics to U.S. </li></ul>5. Medical Examinations IOM medical examination area
  18. 18. <ul><li>Joint Voluntary Agency (JVA) Kenya </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Orientation to those refugees coming to the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. culture, people, government and history </li></ul><ul><li>Values and beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Travel to U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Info on resettlement agencies and community services in the U.S. </li></ul>Cultural Orientation class. 6. Cultural Orientation
  19. 19. <ul><li>International Organization for Migration (IOM) </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation to transit center </li></ul><ul><li>Airport check-in </li></ul><ul><li>Flight to U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Accompany refugee to 5 ports of entry: New York, Newark, Miami, Chicago and Los Angeles and to connecting flight for final destination. </li></ul>Refugees on their way to transit center in Nairobi. 7. Travel to the U.S.
  20. 20. JVA Kenya Cultural Orientation Staff - Nairobi Kenya
  21. 21. <ul><li>18-30 Class size </li></ul><ul><li>3 Days long </li></ul><ul><li>6 hours of instruction per day </li></ul><ul><li>1 trainer per class </li></ul><ul><li>Coordination with UNHCR, IOM, JVA Operations and USCIS </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum developed with the Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL) </li></ul>Quick Facts About Cultural Orientation Cultural orientation class in IFO
  22. 22. <ul><li>What is the purpose of cultural orientation for refugees in the United States? To prepare for life in the U.S. and help minimize culture shock. </li></ul><ul><li>Who funds U.S. Cultural Orientation? The U.S. State Department. In East Africa, cultural orientation is carried out by the Joint Voluntary Agency (Overseas Processing Entity). </li></ul><ul><li>When is Cultural Orientation provided? After Refugees have been approved for resettlement to the U.S. by The United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS). </li></ul>Cultural Orientation trainers meet before traveling to Dadaab. About Cultural Orientation
  23. 23. CO trainers preparing for the first day of class tomorrow
  24. 24. CO trainers meet with locally hired interpreters to go over the lesson plan.
  25. 25. <ul><li>United States Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Resettlement Agency </li></ul><ul><li>Community Services </li></ul><ul><li>Housing </li></ul><ul><li>Employment </li></ul><ul><li>Financial Literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Adjustment </li></ul><ul><li>Travel </li></ul><ul><li>Rights and Responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Law </li></ul>Topics Addressed in Cultural Orientation A sign leading to the classrooms in the refugee camp.
  26. 26. Amina – Cultural Orientation morning role call.
  27. 27. Amina – Cultural Orientation morning role call.
  28. 28. Cultural Orientation class list.
  29. 30. “ What do you know about the U.S.?”
  30. 32. <ul><li>“ What do you fear about the U.S. ?” </li></ul><ul><li>Not getting there (the plane has problems) </li></ul><ul><li>Gangs </li></ul><ul><li>Not Getting Jobs </li></ul><ul><li>The whites taking family members </li></ul><ul><li>Dogs guard old people; if they leave the old people get lost (reference to seeing eye dogs) </li></ul>
  31. 33. Amina explains how transportation operates in America
  32. 34. Amina explaining the difference between the public and private health care systems.
  33. 35. Amina stops the video to explain that you actually sit on a toilet as opposed to squatting.
  34. 36. Jeff explains the different types of financial assistance available to refugees.
  35. 37. Jeff explains the tenant landlord relationship.
  36. 38. Refugees in cultural orientation class in IFO.
  37. 39. Refugees asking questions about the housing video they just watched.
  38. 40. Visual aids to help explain civil rights, American history, money and identifications.
  39. 41. Refugees learning about travel to the U.S.
  40. 42. Cultural Orientation Discussion About Child Support
  41. 43. Question: What are the good things about Somali culture?
  42. 44. Question: What are the not so good things about Somali culture?
  43. 45. Question: What is good and not so good about Ethiopian (Anywok) culture? <ul><li>Good: </li></ul><ul><li>Marry one woman </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional dance </li></ul><ul><li>Men and women are equal and they love each other </li></ul><ul><li>Men and women eat together </li></ul><ul><li>Not so good: </li></ul><ul><li>If you marry and you don’t have the money, the father-in-law will beat you </li></ul><ul><li>We knock out the women’s bottom six teeth </li></ul><ul><li>Biting people is not good </li></ul>
  44. 46. Answer: Here are the good things about our culture. <ul><li>We greet strangers when they come to our home. </li></ul><ul><li>Somali’s slaughter an animal for a visitor </li></ul><ul><li>Respect for old people </li></ul><ul><li>Respect between man and woman </li></ul><ul><li>Help the disabled and needy </li></ul><ul><li>Respect between parents and children </li></ul><ul><li>Respect neighbors rights and rights between neighbors </li></ul><ul><li>Intermarriage within Somali community brings people together </li></ul><ul><li>In Somali culture men have their dress and women have theirs </li></ul><ul><li>There is equality among Somali men </li></ul><ul><li>There is only one religion </li></ul><ul><li>Somali’s don’t steal </li></ul><ul><li>In Somali culture people trust each other </li></ul><ul><li>Somali’s maintain cleanliness and hygiene </li></ul>
  45. 47. Answer: Here are the not so good things about our culture. <ul><li>Female Genital Mutilation </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage out of wedlock </li></ul><ul><li>Forced marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Women being tortured </li></ul><ul><li>Early Marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Women inheritance </li></ul><ul><li>Forced divorce between loved couples </li></ul><ul><li>Not using child spacing </li></ul><ul><li>Child labor especially underage children </li></ul><ul><li>Very high dowry demand – 100 camels </li></ul><ul><li>Women not given or participating in the inheritance of father’s wealth </li></ul><ul><li>Young girls given to old men to marry in order for her family to get wealth from him </li></ul><ul><li>Discrimination against the minority and disadvantaged groups in society </li></ul>
  46. 48. Cultural Orientation Classes Life cycle of resettlement emotions for refugees. 2. Resettlement Bliss 4. Depression & Culture Shock 5. Stabilization. 1. Anticipation and excitement 3. Reality of new life in the U.S.
  47. 49. Cultural Orientation Video About Integration and Culture Shock
  48. 50. “ This discussion about the illegality of female genital mutilation in the U.S. is really more of a discussion about different values and how you will handle it when your values are challenged in your new setting.”
  49. 51. “ What will you do when your neighbors are drinking alcohol and barbecuing pork? What will you do when you are not permitted to leave work early to observe Ramadan?”
  50. 52. The inside of an airplane
  51. 53. The inside of an airplane.
  52. 54. You will have an assigned seat throughout the flight.
  53. 55. Here is what your plane ticket will look like.
  54. 56. This is what your meal will look like. The flight attendants will bring it to you.
  55. 57. Congratulations on completing your cultural orientation. You will now travel to the U.S. within one to four weeks from today.
  56. 58. Titus explain traveling to the United States. “Do not open this bag until you reach the U.S.. It has all of your documentation.
  57. 59. Life In The Camps
  58. 60. <ul><li>All registered refugees are eligible for food from the World Food Program WFP </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 200 persons per day   </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency = Food is rationed to families 2 times a month </li></ul><ul><li>Anybody age 18 and above can receive food on behalf of the family; however, it is distributed to the head of the household. </li></ul><ul><li>Food is issued based on the size of the family and there are universal distribution standards. </li></ul><ul><li>Food is distributed based on the available inventory. </li></ul><ul><li>Cornmeal-420g, Vegetable oil-25g, Corn soya blend-55g, Lentils-60g, and Salt-5g </li></ul>Food Distribution
  59. 61. World Food Program storage tent for rationed food items.
  60. 62. World Food program food storage area.
  61. 63. Visual representation of food rations so that everyone knows what they will receive.
  62. 64. One ration of lentils.
  63. 65. One ration of ground nuts.
  64. 66. One ration of corn soya blend.
  65. 67. One ration of salt.
  66. 68. One ration of cooking oil.
  67. 69. Final weigh-out of rations.
  68. 70. Entrance and exit to food distribution.
  69. 71. Post food rationing – IFO.
  70. 72. Camp walk ways.
  71. 73. Children playing in IFO on a Sunday afternoon.
  72. 74. Homes in IFO. IFO mechanic shop. IFO bicycle repair area. Homes in IFO.
  73. 75. Ethiopian children enjoying seeing the instant result on a digital camera
  74. 76. IFO clothing merchant. Camel meat. IFO Market. IFO Market.
  75. 77. IFO Guides.
  76. 78. Out of gas in the bush! Sleeping tent in U.N. compound. Ugali & goat meat. Grilled goat meat.
  77. 79. David - UNHCR Staff. Abas - IOM staff. Jeff and Mark – CO Trainers. UNHCR Case Workers.
  78. 80. <ul><li>$1,400 Airline Ticket Northwest & KLM - Minneapolis to Amsterdam/Amsterdam to Nairobi (16 hours of flying time) </li></ul><ul><li>$300 U.N. Charter Plane to Dadaab roundtrip (Mondays & Wednesdays) </li></ul><ul><li>$450 ($30/Night) - Mennonite Guesthouse & Tent in Dadaab </li></ul><ul><li>$168 ($2 to $8/Day)- in Nairobi using taxi & public transportation </li></ul><ul><li>$450 ($30/Day) - Food & Beverages includes cafeteria in Dadaab </li></ul><ul><li>$50 Entry Visa - Payable at point of entry in CASH. </li></ul><ul><li>$182 Nairobi National Park, Giraffe Center, Maasai Markets and entertainment. </li></ul><ul><li>Total Trip Cost Approximately $3,000 </li></ul>Trip Cost
  79. 81. www.churchworldservice.org www.iom.int www.unhcr.org How To Support International Refugee Resettlement Efforts
  80. 82. <ul><li>www.lssmn.org </li></ul><ul><li>www.minnesota.wr.org </li></ul><ul><li>www.ccspm.org </li></ul><ul><li>www.mnchurches.org </li></ul><ul><li>www.iimn.org </li></ul>How To Support Local Refugee Resettlement Efforts
  81. 83. <ul><li>Mission: To help reduce misperceptions about foreign cultures and </li></ul><ul><li>perpetuate the belief that we are all more alike than different. </li></ul><ul><li>Method to the Mission: After each segment of travel I will share my </li></ul><ul><li>experiences with colleagues, friends, family, neighbors, and whomever else </li></ul><ul><li>will listen in hopes that my efforts will help to eradicate ignorance about </li></ul><ul><li>different cultures, places and values. </li></ul>About the Presenter Robinson Cook Professional Contact Info - Lutheran Social Services - Employment Service Director- 612-879-5318 [email_address] <ul><li>This presentation can be viewed and downloaded at: </li></ul><ul><li>www.slideshare.net (Search Word: Dadaab Cultural Orientation) </li></ul>
  82. 84. <ul><li>The End </li></ul>Questions? Photo by: Amina

×