Sustainable DevelopmentSustainable Development
Prof R RamakrishnanProf R Ramakrishnan
For my research articlesFor my research articles
Sustainable DevelopmentSustainable Development
Sustainable development is development thatSustainable development is development that
meets the needs of the present withoutmeets the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generationscompromising the ability of future generations
to meet their own needs.to meet their own needs.
Gro Harlem Brundtland first introduced theGro Harlem Brundtland first introduced the
concept of sustainable development in 1987.concept of sustainable development in 1987.
He was then the Prime Minister of Norway andHe was then the Prime Minister of Norway and
chairman of the World Commission onchairman of the World Commission on
Environment and DevelopmentEnvironment and Development..
Sustainability is concerned withSustainability is concerned with
these "these "3 Es3 Es".".
• Environmental Integrity andEnvironmental Integrity and
• Economic EfficiencyEconomic Efficiency
Sustainable development offers theSustainable development offers the
world a plan for saving the Earth.world a plan for saving the Earth.
Although the idea is simple, the task isAlthough the idea is simple, the task is
It means meeting four objectives at the same time.It means meeting four objectives at the same time.
Social progress which recognizes the needs ofSocial progress which recognizes the needs of
Effective protection of the environmentEffective protection of the environment
Prudent use of natural resource andPrudent use of natural resource and
Maintenance of high and stable levels ofMaintenance of high and stable levels of
economic growth and employmenteconomic growth and employment
The principles of a sustainableThe principles of a sustainable
society aresociety are
Respect and care for the community of life.Respect and care for the community of life.
Improve the quality of human life.Improve the quality of human life.
Conserve the Earth's vitality and diversity.Conserve the Earth's vitality and diversity.
Minimize the depletion of non-renewable resources.Minimize the depletion of non-renewable resources.
Keep within the Earth's carrying capacity.Keep within the Earth's carrying capacity.
Change attitudes and practices.Change attitudes and practices.
Enable communities to care for their own environments.Enable communities to care for their own environments.
Provide a national framework for integrating developmentProvide a national framework for integrating development
and conservation.and conservation.
Create a global alliance.Create a global alliance.
Five related aspects to the concept ofFive related aspects to the concept of
• Economic sustainabilityEconomic sustainability
• Social sustainabilitySocial sustainability
• Cultural sustainabilityCultural sustainability
• Political sustainability andPolitical sustainability and
• Environmental sustainabilityEnvironmental sustainability
Sustainability issues are to beSustainability issues are to be
analyzed at various levelsanalyzed at various levels
• Global level -Global level - Ozone depletion;Ozone depletion;
• Climate change; andClimate change; and
• Air pollutionAir pollution
• Regional, National or Area-levelRegional, National or Area-level
Water pollution -Water depletion - Deforestation- FisheriesWater pollution -Water depletion - Deforestation- Fisheries
depletion -Biodiversity- Desertification and Erosion.depletion -Biodiversity- Desertification and Erosion.
• -Local level - a plot, a farm or a village-Local level - a plot, a farm or a village
Soil losses - Loss of soil quality (chemical or physical) -Soil losses - Loss of soil quality (chemical or physical) -
Loss of farm incomeLoss of farm income
The international economy shouldThe international economy should
provide a supportive internationalprovide a supportive international
climate for achieving environmentclimate for achieving environment
and development goals by:and development goals by:
• Promoting sustainable development through tradePromoting sustainable development through trade
• Making trade and environment mutually supportiveMaking trade and environment mutually supportive
• Providing adequate financial resources to developingProviding adequate financial resources to developing
countries and dealing with international debtcountries and dealing with international debt
• Encouraging macroeconomic policies conducive toEncouraging macroeconomic policies conducive to
environment and development.environment and development.
For sustainable development to takeFor sustainable development to take
place there must beplace there must be
• Interaction and coordination among all of the agents inInteraction and coordination among all of the agents in
a locality, region, or country;a locality, region, or country;
• A redistribution of wealth;A redistribution of wealth;
• A redefinition of the relationship between humanA redefinition of the relationship between human
beings and nature;beings and nature;
• Intergenerational equity;Intergenerational equity;
• A redistribution of global wealth and opportunities;A redistribution of global wealth and opportunities;
• Nature's capacity for regeneration must be respected;Nature's capacity for regeneration must be respected;
• Communities must be self-sufficient; andCommunities must be self-sufficient; and
• There must be a dialectical uniting of theory andThere must be a dialectical uniting of theory and