Chapter 4


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  • Note: Figure 6.2 on page 215 in the textbook incorrectly labels the CS as “Food”
  • Chapter 4

    1. 1. Learning
    2. 2. Learning <ul><li>A relatively permanent change in behavior that results from experience </li></ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classical conditioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operant conditioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive and social learning </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Classical Conditioning: Examples <ul><li>Sound of a dentist’s drill: sweaty palms </li></ul><ul><li>Sight of significant other: smiling </li></ul><ul><li>Smell of a certain beverage: nausea </li></ul><ul><li>Noise of a can opener: cat comes running </li></ul>How does this happen?
    4. 4. Pavlov’s Observation <ul><li>Classical condition was discovered (accidentally) by Ivan Pavlov </li></ul><ul><li>Studied digestion in dogs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presented meat powder and measured salivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dogs started salivating before food was presented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Classical Conditioning <ul><li>Components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unconditioned Stimulus (US) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unconditioned Response (UR) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conditioned Stimulus (CS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conditioned Response (CR) </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Pavlov’s Experiment: Phase 1 <ul><li>Food (US): salivation (UR) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflexive response </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tone: nothing </li></ul>
    7. 7. Pavlov’s Experiment: Phase 2 <ul><li>CS is repeatedly paired with the US </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A tone is sounded before the food is presented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acquisition </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Pavlov’s Experiment: Phase 3 <ul><li>Eventually, the CS elicits a new CR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classical conditioning is complete when hearing the tone by itself causes salivation </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Examples of Classical Conditioning <ul><li>Classical Condition at BGSU </li></ul><ul><li>Classical Condition at the Office </li></ul>
    10. 10. Classical Conditioning <ul><li>Can you condition salivation </li></ul>
    11. 11. CS and US Presentation <ul><li>Different Presentation Types </li></ul><ul><li>Delayed conditioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CS occurs before and during </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trace conditioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CS ends before presentation of the US </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Backward conditioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US comes first followed by CS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Simultaneous conditioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CS and US at the same time </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Classical Conditioning: Conditioned Emotional Response <ul><li>Conditioned emotional response </li></ul><ul><li>Phobias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Little Albert </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biological preparedness </li></ul><ul><li>Contrapreparedness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to develop a snake phobia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard to develop a car door phobia </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Classical Conditioning <ul><li>Extinction </li></ul><ul><li>Renewal </li></ul><ul><li>Spontaneous recovery </li></ul>
    14. 14. Classical Conditioning <ul><li>Stimulus generalization </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulus discrimination </li></ul>
    15. 15. Higher Order Conditioning <ul><li>Pair CS 1 with a new CS 2 </li></ul><ul><li>CS 2 : CR </li></ul><ul><li>But, CR will be weaker </li></ul>
    16. 16. Associative Learning <ul><li>This involves an organism making a connection (or ‘association’) between a particular situation and a particular response.  </li></ul>$$$$ = Happiness $$$$ = Sex $$$$ = Love
    17. 17. Dissecting Classical Conditioning <ul><li>Learning to be afraid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information registers in the brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amygdala reacts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hippocampus helps store associations with context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sets of neurons become linked </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Classical Conditioning Applied <ul><li>Drug overdoses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conditioned compensatory response </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Smoking: environmental cues </li></ul><ul><li>Therapy: systematic desensitization </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising: sex appeal </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipatory nausea </li></ul><ul><li>Conditioning and the immune system </li></ul>
    19. 19. Types of Learning <ul><li>Classical conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Operant conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive and social learning </li></ul>
    20. 20. Operant Conditioning: Examples <ul><li>Tantrums are punished: fewer tantrums </li></ul><ul><li>Tantrums bring attention: more tantrums </li></ul><ul><li>Slot machine pays out: gamble more </li></ul><ul><li>Reward dog for sitting: dog is likely to sit </li></ul>How does this happen?
    21. 21. Operant Conditioning: Skinner Box
    22. 22. Example of Operant Conditioning <ul><li>B. F. Skinner </li></ul>
    23. 23. Operant Conditioning: Principles <ul><li>Positive Reinforcement: Behavior is increased because it is followed by rewarding stimulus. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Give a compliment, get a kiss give; you begin to give more compliments. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negative Reinforcement : Behavior is increased because a negative stimulus is removed. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nag your roommate to clean, stop nagging when your roommate cleans; your roommate cleans more to avoid nagging. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Positive Punishment: Behavior is decreased because it is followed by negative stimulus. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You boss yells at you for arriving late; you arrive on time next time. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negative Punishment: Behavior is decreased because rewarding stimulus is removed. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You BF/GF won’t kiss you because you smoke; you begin to smoke less. </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Beyond Basic Reinforcement <ul><li>Generalization </li></ul><ul><li>Discrimination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discriminative stimulus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extinction </li></ul><ul><li>Spontaneous recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Shaping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Successive approximations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rat Basketball </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Reinforcement Schedules <ul><li>Continuous </li></ul><ul><li>Partial </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed interval </li></ul><ul><li>Variable interval </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed ratio </li></ul><ul><li>Variable ratio </li></ul>
    26. 26. Classical vs. Operant Conditioning <ul><li>Classical conditioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learned association between US and CS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organism is passive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responses elicited </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Operant conditioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Associate response and reinforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organism is active </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responses emitted </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shared features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extinction and spontaneous recovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generalization and discrimination </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Types of Learning <ul><li>Classical conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Operant conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive and social learning </li></ul>
    28. 28. Cognitive Learning <ul><li>Insight learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Aha” experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sultan the chimpanzee </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Observational Learning <ul><li>Bandura’s social learning theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bobo doll study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modeling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning from models </li></ul>
    30. 30. Observational Learning <ul><li>Violence on TV </li></ul><ul><ul><li>57% of programs contain violence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>73% of perpetrators receive no punishment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No harm to victim in almost half of the violent interactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>58% of victims show no pain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4% of violent programs show nonviolent solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Video games </li></ul>