Consciousness

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Consciousness

  1. 1. Consciousness: Focus on Awareness
  2. 2. Consciousness <ul><li>Our awareness of our own </li></ul><ul><li>existence, sensations, and </li></ul><ul><li>cognitions </li></ul><ul><li>“ Stream of consciousness” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>William James </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What function does consciousness serve? What advantages does it provide humans? What is an alternative to conscious behavior? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows us to consolidate information in novel ways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Binds people’s complex perceptual and mental processes into a single coherent whole </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows for flexibility in responding </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Consciousness <ul><li>Normal consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>Altered states of consciousness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sleeping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dreaming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypnosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meditation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drug induced </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Stages of Sleep <ul><li>EEG-based measurements </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypnogogic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stage 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sleep spindles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stages 3 and 4 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Delta waves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>REM (rapid eye movement) sleep </li></ul>
  5. 5. Stages of Sleep
  6. 6. REM Sleep over the Lifespan
  7. 7. Sleep Deprivation <ul><li>How many hours of sleep do you get each night? How many do you prefer? </li></ul><ul><li>2/3 adults are not getting enough sleep </li></ul><ul><li>REM rebound </li></ul><ul><li>Effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sustained attention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Visual-motor tasks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The body suffers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased cortisol </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased learning </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Function of Sleep <ul><li>Why do we sleep? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolutionary theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restorative theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitating learning </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Are Your Dreams Like This? <ul><li>Dream Video </li></ul>
  10. 10. Dreaming <ul><li>What triggers particular dreams? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do we dream? </li></ul><ul><li>Freud </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wish fulfillment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manifest content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latent content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Activation-synthesis hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>How about your dreams? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Sleep and the Brain <ul><li>The chemistry of sleep </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acetylcholine (inhibited) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sleeping pills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Melatonin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Circadian rhythms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suprachiasmatic nucleus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>24 or 25 hours? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Owls versus Larks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Afternoon energy dip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shift work </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Troubled Sleep <ul><li>Night terrors </li></ul><ul><li>Nightmares </li></ul><ul><li>Narcolepsy </li></ul><ul><li>Insomnia </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep apnea </li></ul>
  13. 13. Hypnosis <ul><li>Focused awareness on vivid, imagined experiences and a decreased awareness of the external environment </li></ul><ul><li>Hypnotic induction </li></ul><ul><li>Trance state </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generalized reality orientation fading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trance logic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Posthypnotic suggestion </li></ul>
  14. 14. Hypnosis Video <ul><li>Hypnosis Video </li></ul>
  15. 15. Is Everyone Hypnotizable?
  16. 16. Hypnosis Theories <ul><li>Theories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trance theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sociocognitive theory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evidence from neuroimaging </li></ul><ul><li>Hypnosis as a tool for… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anxiety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compulsive habits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asthma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pain relief </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Meditation <ul><li>Religious traditions </li></ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentrative meditation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opening-up meditation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mindfulness meditation </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Meditation <ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced tension and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>anxiety </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased blood pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased ability to fight infection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Meditation versus relaxation </li></ul><ul><li>Biology of meditation </li></ul>

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