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Chapter 13

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Chapter 13

  1. 1. Social Psychology: Meeting of the Minds
  2. 2. Social Cognition <ul><li>How we perceive our social worlds and how we attend to, store, remember, and use information about other people and the social world </li></ul>
  3. 3. Impressions <ul><li>How long does it take you to “size someone up” (i.e., decide if you like him or her, etc.)? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you look for? What influences your impression? Are there “things” in particular that catch your attention? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the information that you notice or receive first have a disproportionate influence on your impression? Why or why not? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Making an Impression <ul><li>Impression formation </li></ul><ul><li>Impression management </li></ul><ul><li>Social judgments in seconds! </li></ul><ul><li>Halo effect </li></ul><ul><li>Primacy effect </li></ul>
  5. 5. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy <ul><li>Expectations can create outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Rosenthal & Jacobson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Test” predicted student academics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students performed as “predicted” </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Attitudes and Behavior <ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An overall evaluation about some aspect of the world </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attitudes and behavior do not always go hand in hand (e.g., cognitive dissonance). </li></ul>
  7. 7. Cognitive Dissonance “ Did you enjoy the task?” Receive Boring task $1 $20 “ No” “ Yes”
  8. 8. Cognitive Dissonance <ul><li>Dissonance theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reducing mismatch between behaviors and feelings </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Stereotypes <ul><li>What are stereotypes? </li></ul><ul><li>A belief or set of beliefs about people in a particular social category </li></ul>
  10. 10. Look quickly at each “person” below. What is the first stereotype that comes to mind? <ul><li>Men </li></ul><ul><li>Women </li></ul><ul><li>Blondes </li></ul><ul><li>Redheads </li></ul><ul><li>Lawyers </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists </li></ul><ul><li>Professors </li></ul><ul><li>Grade school teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Physician </li></ul>
  11. 11. Stereotypes <ul><li>Stereotype consistent information </li></ul><ul><li>Prefer it </li></ul><ul><li>Process it faster </li></ul><ul><li>Attend to it more </li></ul><ul><li>Recall it faster </li></ul>
  12. 12. Prejudice <ul><li>Social Categorization (dividing the world into us and them) </li></ul><ul><li>Ingroup </li></ul><ul><li>Outgroup </li></ul><ul><li>Illusory correlation </li></ul><ul><li>Illusion of outgroup </li></ul><ul><li>homogeneity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ingroup differentiation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discrimination </li></ul>
  13. 13. Understanding Prejudice <ul><li>Social Categorization Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Realistic conflict theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition for scarce resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-fulfilling prophecy </li></ul><ul><li>Social learning theory </li></ul>
  14. 14. Yielding to Others <ul><li>What is conformity? </li></ul><ul><li>A change in beliefs or behavior because of pressure from others. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Informational social influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Normative social influence </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Conformity: Asch’s Studies 1 2 3 Find the matching line
  16. 16. Compliance <ul><li>What is compliance? </li></ul><ul><li>Change in behavior brought on by a direct request </li></ul><ul><li>Six principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Friendship/liking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commitment/consistency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scarcity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reciprocity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social validation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authority </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Compliance <ul><li>Foot-in-the-door technique </li></ul><ul><li>Lowball technique </li></ul><ul><li>Door-in-the-face technique </li></ul>
  18. 18. The Milgram Studies Obedience <ul><li>What is obedience? </li></ul><ul><li>Compliance with an order from an authority figure </li></ul>Teacher and Learner
  19. 19. The Milgram Studies Increasing Shocks for Errors
  20. 20. The Milgram Studies <ul><li>15 volts to 450 volts (“XXX”) </li></ul><ul><li>At 120 volts learner shouts in pain </li></ul><ul><li>At 150 volts learner asks to stop </li></ul><ul><li>At 300 volts learner pounds on wall </li></ul><ul><li>At 330 volts learner stops responding </li></ul><ul><li>Question: how far will teachers go? </li></ul>
  21. 21. The Milgram Studies <ul><li>Psychiatrists predicted 2% would go to maximum level </li></ul><ul><li>Actual results: 65% of teachers went to the maximum level </li></ul><ul><li>Other factors </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical issues </li></ul><ul><li>What does this tell us about human nature? </li></ul>
  22. 22. Attribution <ul><li>An explanation for the cause of an event or behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Humans seek to know the cause of actions! </li></ul><ul><li>What caused that behavior? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal attributions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dispositional attributions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External attributions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Situational attributions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Attributional Biases <ul><li>Fundamental attribution error </li></ul><ul><li>Self-serving bias </li></ul><ul><li>Belief in a just world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blaming the victim </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Helping Others <ul><li>Altruism </li></ul><ul><li>Prosocial behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Catherine Genovese murder </li></ul><ul><li>Bystander effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation apprehension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diffusion of responsibility </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Relationships: Liking <ul><li>Repeated contact </li></ul><ul><li>Similarity </li></ul><ul><li>Physical attraction </li></ul>
  26. 26. Relationships: Loving <ul><li>Is there a soul mate for you? What does falling in love feel like? Does that feeling last? </li></ul><ul><li>Passionate love </li></ul><ul><li>Companionate love </li></ul><ul><li>Sternberg’s triangular model </li></ul><ul><li>of love </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intimacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commitment </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Social Organizations <ul><li>What are some common elements of group? </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction among members </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional connection </li></ul><ul><li>Common frame of reference </li></ul><ul><li>Interdependence </li></ul><ul><li>Norms </li></ul><ul><li>Roles </li></ul><ul><li>Status hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes deindividuation </li></ul>
  28. 28. Decision Making in Groups <ul><li>Group polarization </li></ul><ul><li>Groupthink </li></ul><ul><li>Heterogeneous vs. homogeneous groups </li></ul>
  29. 29. Performance in Groups <ul><li>Social loafing </li></ul><ul><li>Social compensation </li></ul><ul><li>Social facilitation </li></ul>
  30. 30. The Stanford Prison Experiment How powerful is a role? How does this study relate to the Abu Ghraib prison incident?

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