Chapter 11

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Chapter 11

  1. 1. Psychological Disorders: More Than Everyday Problems
  2. 2. Psychological Disorder <ul><li>The presence of a constellation of symptoms that create significant distress; impair work, school, family, relationships, or daily living; or lead to significant risk or harm </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Abnormality and Insanity are not Synonymous with a Psychological Disorder <ul><li>Insanity is a legal term. Insanity is being unable to appreciate the nature and quality of the wrongfulness of his or her acts, because of mental disease or defect. </li></ul><ul><li>Abnormality is a condition or behavior that deviates from the usual physical or psychological state. Culture and context are important in defining abnormality. Talking to the dead is normal in some cultures. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Explaining Psychological Disorders <ul><li>The Brain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neurotransmitters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain Structure and Function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diathesis (of the Diathesis-Stress Model) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Explaining Abnormality <ul><li>The Person </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classical and Operant Conditioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive Biases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotions </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Explaining Abnormality <ul><li>The Group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture  Conception of Disorders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationships may exacerbate certain disorders. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social support can help individuals cope with disorders. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Categorizing Disorders <ul><li>Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , 4 th edition ( DSM-IV ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Axis I: clinical disorders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Axis II: personality disorders and mental retardation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Axis III: general medical conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Axis IV: psychosocial and environmental problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Axis V: global assessment of functioning </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Mood Disorders <ul><li>Persistent or episodic disturbances in emotion that interfere with normal functioning in at least one realm of life </li></ul><ul><li>Major depressive disorder </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Affect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cognition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More common in women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most common psychological </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>disorder in the United States </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Mood Disorders <ul><li>Dysthymia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifetime prevalence 6% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Suicide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attempted by 30% of depressed people </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Mood Disorders <ul><li>Bipolar disorder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mania </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hypomania </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manic episode </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prodromal phase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often cycles with depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formerly called manic depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifetime prevalence 1% </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Explaining Mood Disorders <ul><li>The brain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hereditary factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serotonin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The person </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beck’s negative triad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learned helplessness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attributional style </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Life stressors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of social reinforcement </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Anxiety Disorders <ul><li>Generalized anxiety disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Panic disorder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Panic attacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agoraphobia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Locus coeruleus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anxiety sensitivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifetime prevalence 3% </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Anxiety Disorders <ul><li>Phobias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social phobia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lifetime prevalence 13% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific phobia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Animal fears </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blood-injection-injury fears </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Natural environment fears </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Situation fears </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Miscellaneous fears </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lifetime prevalence 10% </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Anxiety Disorders <ul><li>Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Obsession </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compulsion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Checking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Washing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ordering </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifetime prevalence 2-3% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caudate nucleus </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Anxiety Disorders <ul><li>Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traumatic event </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear and helplessness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Re-experience event </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avoidance and emotional </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>numbing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heightened arousal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifetime prevalence 8% (among Americans) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic predisposition </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Schizophrenia <ul><li>Positive symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Delusions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hallucinations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disordered behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disorganized speech </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negative symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flat affect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alogia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avolition </li></ul></ul>Lifetime prevalence 1%
  17. 17. Schizophrenia <ul><li>Four subtypes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paranoid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disorganized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catatonic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Undifferentiated </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Explaining Schizophrenia <ul><li>The brain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hereditary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The dopamine hypothesis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High expressed emotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social selection and social causation </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Dissociative Disorders <ul><li>Dissociative amnesia </li></ul><ul><li>Dissociative fugue </li></ul><ul><li>Dissociative identity disorder </li></ul>
  20. 20. Somatoform Disorders <ul><li>Physical ailments with no authentic organic basis that are due to psychological factors. </li></ul><ul><li>Somatization: A history of diverse physical complaints that appear to be psychological in origin. </li></ul><ul><li>Conversion Disorder: A significant loss of physical functioning usually in a single organ system (i.e., paralysis, blindness). </li></ul><ul><li>Hypochondrias: An excessive preoccupation with one’s health and incessant worry about developing a physical illness. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Eating Disorders <ul><li>Anorexia nervosa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Body image distortion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bulimia nervosa </li></ul><ul><li>Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic predisposition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural factors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lifetime prevalence 0.5-4% </li></ul>
  22. 22. General Diagnostic Criteria for PD’s <ul><li>Enduring pattern of inner experience or behavior that deviates from expectations of culture, manifested in two or more of the following: </li></ul><ul><li> - cognition (perception of self, others) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>affectivity (intensity, range of emotions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interpersonal functioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>impulse control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enduring pattern is inflexible, pervasive in many situations </li></ul>
  23. 23. Personality Disorders
  24. 24. Anti-Social Personality
  25. 25. The End

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