Chapter 10

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Chapter 10

  1. 1. Stress, Health, and Coping
  2. 2. Health Psychology <ul><li>The field concerned with the promotion of health and the prevention and treatment of illness as it relates to psychological factors </li></ul><ul><li>Changing Patterns of illness </li></ul><ul><li>Biopsychosocial factors in health </li></ul>
  3. 3. How do you Know when you are Stressed?
  4. 4. Stress <ul><li>The general term describing the psychological and bodily response to a stimulus that alters the body’s state of equilibrium </li></ul><ul><li>People often feel stressed in response to a real or perceived threat or when there is an imbalance between the demands and resources in their life. </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptions are key in determining stress </li></ul><ul><li>Stressor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acute stressor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chronic stressor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stress response </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Biology of Stress
  6. 6. More on the Biology of Stress <ul><li>The alarm phase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fight-or-flight response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sympathetic & parasympathetic systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The resistance phase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The exhaustion phase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sickness </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Sources of Stress <ul><li>Cognitive appraisal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary appraisal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary appraisal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coping </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Perceived control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learned helplessness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predictability </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Sources of Stress <ul><li>Internal conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Approach-approach conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoidance-avoidance conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approach-avoidance conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Life’s hassles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Daily hassles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major life changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Life Adjustment Scale </li></ul></ul></ul>Versus
  9. 9. Sources of Stress <ul><li>Work-related factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lighting, noise, crowding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job-related factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Demand-control model </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Air traffic controllers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Burnout </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Type A Behavior <ul><li>Traits </li></ul><ul><li>A sense of urgency </li></ul><ul><li>Competitiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal hostility </li></ul><ul><li>Are you Type A? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Hostility <ul><li>A personality trait characterized by mistrust, an expectation of harm and provocation by others, and a cynical attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Associated with heart disease </li></ul><ul><li>Gender differences </li></ul><ul><li>Example of hostility </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Immune System <ul><li>White blood cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A collection of mechanisms within an organism that protects against disease by identifying and killing pathogens and tumor cells (T, B, Natural killer cells). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucocorticoids and stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychoneuroimmunology </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Stress and Disease <ul><li>Immune </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Likelihood of catching a cold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Length of time for a wound to heal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth rate of cancerous tumors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heart disease </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress and blood pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atherosclerosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression and heart disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anxiety and heart disease </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Overhead </li></ul>
  14. 14. Health-Impairing Behaviors <ul><li>Behaviors that can damage health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Substance abuse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor nutrition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of exercise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unsafe sex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Driving under the influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are you healthy? Why or why not? </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Health-Impairing Behaviors <ul><li>Why we do it? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceived risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceived severity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Illusion of invulnerability </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Health-Impairing Behaviors <ul><li>Changing health-impairing behaviors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Precontemplation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contemplation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Coping Strategies <ul><li>Problem-focused strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active coping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instrumental social support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suppression of competing activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restraint coping </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Coping Strategies <ul><li>Emotion-focused strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional social support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Venting emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive reinterpretation/growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral disengagement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental disengagement </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Personality and Coping <ul><li>Hardy personality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commitment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Optimism </li></ul><ul><li>Avoiders vs. nonavoiders </li></ul>
  20. 20. Coping and Social Support <ul><li>Social support affects… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Survival </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immune system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Perceived social support </li></ul><ul><li>Enacted social support </li></ul>
  21. 21. The End

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