Chapter 9


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Chapter 9

  1. 1. Psychology Over the Life Span<br />Growing Up,<br />Growing Older, <br />Growing Wiser<br />
  2. 2. Having Children<br />Do you want to have children some day? Why or why not? <br />What are some reasons why people would or wouldn’t want kids?<br />
  3. 3. Getting a Start in Life<br />Gametes<br />Sperm<br />Egg<br />Chromosomes<br />XX = female<br />XY = male<br />Review<br />DNA exists as two long, paired strands spiraled into the famous double helix. <br />The 3 billion base pairs are organized into 23 pairs of chromosomes (one set of pair inherited from the mother and one from the father). <br />
  4. 4. Stages of Developmentin the Womb<br />Trimesters<br />Zygote<br />A fertilized egg<br />Embryo<br />2 weeks to 8 weeks after conception<br />Fetus<br />8 weeks until birth<br />
  5. 5. Teratogens<br />Maternal illness<br />Chicken pox, rubella, HIV<br />Alcohol and drugs<br />Alcohol, heroin, cocaine <br />Caffeine and smoking<br />Diet and pollution<br />Malnutrition<br />Too much methymercury-contain fish (such as tuna) Maternal stressors<br />
  6. 6. Vulnerability in Prenatal Development<br />
  7. 7. Reflexes Present at Birth<br />Withdrawal (10 days)<br />Stepping (2 months)<br />Sucking (3 months)<br />Rooting (3-4 months)<br />Palmar grasp (4 months)<br />Startle (5 months)<br />Swimming (6 months)<br />Tonic neck (7 months)<br />Plantar (1 year)<br />Babinski (1 year)<br />Eye blink (life)<br />
  8. 8. Temperament<br />Types<br />Approach style<br />Withdrawal style<br />Easy<br />Difficult<br />Biological factors<br />Nurturing experiences<br />
  9. 9. Physical and Motor Development Milestones<br />Baby’s first steps<br />
  10. 10. Infancy and Childhood<br />Perceptual development<br />Visual perception<br />Visual cliff experiment<br />Habituation technique<br />Auditory perception<br />
  11. 11. Jean Piaget<br />Schema<br /> Accommodation Assimilation<br />
  12. 12. Jean Piaget<br />Periods of cognitive development<br />Sensorimotor<br />Preoperational<br />Concrete operations<br />Formal operations<br />
  13. 13. Sensorimotor Period<br />Age<br />0–2 years<br />Major achievements<br />Object permanence<br />Imitation<br />
  14. 14. Preoperational Period<br />Age<br />2–7 years<br />Major achievement<br />Capacity for mental representation<br />Egocentrism<br />
  15. 15. Concrete Operations Period<br />Age<br />7–11 years<br />Major achievements<br />Can take another person’s perspective<br />Classifying objects<br />Conservation and other reversible mental operations<br />
  16. 16. Formal Operations Period<br />Age<br />11 years (at the earliest)<br />Major achievements<br />Abstract concepts<br />Logic<br />Reversibility<br />Hypothetical thinking<br />
  17. 17. Attachment<br />Harlow’s monkeys<br />Importance of comfort contact<br />Separation anxiety<br />Ainsworth: Strange Situation experiments<br />Secure attachment<br />Avoidant attachment<br />Resistant attachment<br />Disorganized/disoriented attachment<br />
  18. 18. Adolescence: Physical developmentPuberty<br />What are some of physical changes that boys and girls experience during adolescence?<br />Boys and girls experience puberty earlier than in the past. Impact?<br />How do the changes influence them psychologically?<br />Is early versus late puberty a good <br /> or bad thing? Does it vary by gender?<br />
  19. 19. Adolescence<br />Cognitive development<br />Abstract reasoning<br />Adolescent egocentrism<br />Imaginary audience<br />Peer pressure<br />
  20. 20. What Behaviors Characterized the Social and Emotional Development of Adolescents?<br />Conflicts with parents<br />Most frequent in early adolescence<br />Most intense in mid-adolescence<br />Mood swings<br />Depression<br />Loneliness<br />Suicide<br />Risk taking<br />Peer relationships<br />
  21. 21. Adolescence<br />Do adolescents have more problems than younger kids and older young adults?<br />Is it worse for boys or girls? Do they cope differently?<br />Do parents have different dating rules for boys or girls? Why or why not?<br />
  22. 22. Adulthood and Aging<br />The changing body<br />Genes<br />Environment<br />Menopause (for women)<br />
  23. 23. Adulthood and Aging<br />Perception<br />Cataracts<br />Hearing<br />Smell<br />Memory<br />Recall of specific episodic memories<br />Working memory<br />
  24. 24. Adulthood and Aging<br />Intelligence and specific abilities<br />Fluid intelligence<br />Crystallized intelligence<br />
  25. 25. Euthanasia<br />Jack Kevorkianis an American pathologist, who is most noted for publicly championing a terminal patient&apos;s right to die via physician-assisted suicide; This is active euthanasia (i.e., active steps are taken to short the person’s life). <br />Terri Schiavosuffered brain damage and became dependent on a feeding tube. In 1998, Michael Schiavo, her husband and guardian, petitioned the Pinellas County Circuit Court to remove her feeding tube. Removing the feeding tube would be passive euthanasia (i.e., steps are not taken to keep the person alive).<br />Is passive or active euthanasia every justified? If so, under what circumstances? <br />What moral issues does passive or active euthanasia raise? <br />Are any abuses possible?<br />