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Chapter 7


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Chapter 7

  1. 1. Emotion and Motivation: Feeling and Striving
  2. 2. What are Emotions? What Do They Communicate to Us? What Would Life Be Like Without Them?
  3. 3. Emotion <ul><li>A psychological state with four components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A positive or negative subjective experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The activation of specific mental processes, such as cognitive appraisal, and stored information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bodily arousal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristic overt behavior </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Overt Behavior: Name the Emotion Happy Sad Fear Anger Surprise Disgust
  5. 5. Are Emotions Universal? <ul><li>Does the Fore tribe in New Guinea identify Caucasian facial expressions? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Cognitive Aspects of Emotions <ul><li>Scenario: You trip over someone’s feet getting on the bus. </li></ul><ul><li>You think: He did it on purpose. How do you feel? </li></ul><ul><li>You think: I am clumsy. How do you feel? </li></ul><ul><li>You think: Poor guy doesn’t look like he is doing so well. How do you feel? </li></ul><ul><li>You think: That hottie wants to get my attention. How do you feel? </li></ul>
  7. 7. How do Feelings Influence the Body?
  8. 8. Separate But Equal Emotions <ul><li>Positive and negative emotions can coexist </li></ul><ul><li>Approach emotions (left frontal) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Love and happiness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Withdrawal emotions (right frontal ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear and disgust </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Theories of Emotion: James-Lange Theory Event You feel emotions after your body reacts Physiological arousal Interpret physiological changes Emotion
  10. 10. Theories of Emotion: Cannon-Bard Theory Event The event causes both arousal and emotion Physiological arousal Emotion
  11. 11. Theories of Emotion: Cognitive Theory Event Your arousal and the context combine to form emotions Physiological arousal Interpret based on context Emotion
  12. 12. Theories of Emotion: Emerging Synthesis Event Different emotions rely on different combinations of body and brain reactions and interpretation Brain and body reactions Memories and interpretation Emotion
  13. 13. Facial Feedback Hypothesis <ul><li>We experience emotions in part as a result of the positions of our facial muscles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smiling makes you feel happier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frowning makes you feel sadder </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The Schacter-Singer Experiment <ul><li>Participants are told they are receiving a vitamin supplement </li></ul><ul><li>They actually receive epinephrine </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Schacter-Singer Experiment Emotional response depended on context
  16. 16. Expressing Emotion <ul><li>Cultural display rules </li></ul><ul><li>Body language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonverbal communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender differences </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Lie Detection <ul><li>How do you detect lies? </li></ul><ul><li>Lie detection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Polygraph </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Motivation <ul><li>What do you want in life more than anything else? </li></ul>
  20. 20. Motivation <ul><li>The requirements and desires that lead animals (including humans) to behave in a particular way at a particular time and place </li></ul>
  21. 21. Theories of Motivation: Instincts <ul><li>Organisms have inherited tendencies to produce organized and unalterable responses to particular stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human behaviors are more complex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and flexible than instincts can explain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evolutionary psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard-wired goals </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Theories of Motivation: Drive <ul><li>In response to internal imbalances, drives push you to reduce the imbalance </li></ul><ul><li>Homeostasis </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Freudian Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sex and aggression </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Theories of Motivation: Arousal Theory <ul><li>We seek intermediate levels of stimulation: when understimulated, we seek arousal; when overstimulated, we seek less stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to define levels of stimulation and how they vary </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. The Yerkes-Dodson Law Performance Level High Intermediate Low Arousal Level Low High Intermediate
  25. 25. Theories of Motivation: Incentives <ul><li>We are motivated toward particular goals in anticipation of a reward </li></ul>
  26. 26. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Physiological needs Safety needs Belongingness needs Esteem needs Cognitive needs Aesthetic needs Self- actualization needs
  27. 27. Culture and Achievement <ul><li>Individualist culture </li></ul><ul><li>Collectivist culture </li></ul>
  28. 28. Do We only Eat when We are Hungry? <ul><li>Metabolism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>set of chemical reactions that occur in living organisms to maintain life </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stomach and intestine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicates fullness to brain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Role of the brain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lateral Hypothalamus: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Destroyed = no hunger </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulated = hunger </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ventromedial hypothalamus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Destroyed = hunger </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulated = no hunger </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Eating Environment <ul><li>Learned preferences and habits </li></ul><ul><li>Food-related cues </li></ul><ul><li>Stress, arousal, and eating </li></ul>
  30. 30. Why Do People Have Sex? <ul><li>Reproductive sex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2% of sex acts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recreational sex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>98% of sex acts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Difficult to study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sampling bias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Response bias </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Sexual Response Cycle <ul><li>Excitement </li></ul><ul><li>Plateau </li></ul><ul><li>Orgasm </li></ul><ul><li>Resolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refractory period (men) </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Sexual Stimuli <ul><li>Visual stimuli </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are men more visually aroused? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are women aroused by both </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>male and female stimuli? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Olfactory stimuli </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the most important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sensory stimuli that can turn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>women off sexually? </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Sexual Orientation <ul><li>Heterosexual </li></ul><ul><li>Homosexual </li></ul><ul><li>Bisexual </li></ul><ul><li>Gay: Biology vs. Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Biological differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Video </li></ul>