Wilson Ch18 19


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Wilson Ch18 19

  1. 1. Civil Liberties and Civil Rights Wilson Chapters 18 and 19
  2. 2. What’s the Difference? <ul><li>Civil Liberties involve basic freedoms (speech and religion) and are protected by amendment 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Rights involve protection against discriminatory treatment and are protected by Amendment 5 (national govt) and 14 (states) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Whose looking out for you? <ul><li>Sources of protection: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution (ex post facto, bills of attainder and habeas corpus are banned) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bill of Rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislation: Civil Rights Acts of ‘64 and ‘68, Voting Rights Act of 1965 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Court Decisions: Brown v. Board and Roe v. Wade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State Constitutions </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Federalism and Your Rights <ul><li>Bill of Rights only truly affected the national government and did not include protections against state government (Barron v. Baltimore, 1833) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Federalism and Your Rights <ul><li>Modifying effect of the 14th Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The due process clause has been used to apply most of the provisions of the Bill of Rights to the States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The “total incorporation” view would apply all of the provisions of the Bill of Rights to the states. Nationalize the Bill of Rights. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The “selective incorporation” view would only apply some provisions in a case-by-case basis </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. What does the Court Say? <ul><li>Gitlow v. New York </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gitlow, a communist, was convicted of criminal anarchy in a state court </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supreme Court- upheld conviction, BUT added that states may not deny freedom of speech and press </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Palko V Connecticut </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any right that is so important that liberty would not exist without it, must be upheld by states </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Griswold v Connecticut 1965 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Privacy protected by Amendment #9 </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. What does the Court Say? <ul><ul><li>Assembly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Petition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Search and Seizure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-Incrimination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Double Jeopardy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to Counsel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to bring witness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to confront witness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cruel and unusual </li></ul></ul>Parts of Bill of Rights have been federalized on a selective incorporation basis:
  8. 8. The First Amendment and You <ul><li>I. FREEDOM OF RELIGION </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment clause: government may not establish an official religion </li></ul><ul><li>Accomodationist view: Government should bend a bit and allow some church/state blending (nativity scenes on city property) </li></ul><ul><li>Separationist view: No blending ( wall of separation ) </li></ul><ul><li>Endorsement view:no govt. practice that endorses religion (no 10 commandments in court house) </li></ul><ul><li>Nonpreferentialist view: cannot favor one, but can support religion in general </li></ul>
  9. 9. The First Amendment and You <ul><li>FREEDOM OF RELIGION Continued </li></ul><ul><li>Lemon v Kurtzman- established 3-part test to determine if a statute or practice violates the establishment clause </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonsecular (religious) purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advances or inhibits religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive entanglement with government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If any of these are present, the statute is unconstitutional </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The First Amendment and You <ul><li>FREEDOM OF RELIGION Continued </li></ul><ul><li>Key rulings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Everson v. Board - establishment clause to states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engle v Vitale: no state sponsored prayer in school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abbington v Schempp: no devotional Bible-reading in public school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unconstitutional to require teaching creationism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State laws may not prohibit teaching of evolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unconstitutional to require posting of 10 commandments in schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Released time for students is constitutional </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. The First Amendment and You <ul><li>FREEDOM OF RELIGION Continued </li></ul><ul><li>Key rulings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tax exemptions for churches are constitutional as they are for other nonprofit institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christmas displays are constitutional as long as they include some secular content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State aid to parochial schools: texts, lunches, bus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impermissible aid to parochial schools: field trips, teacher salaries, counseling, remedial instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zelman v. Simmons-Harris: public money can be used to send disadvantaged students to religious schools in school voucher program </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. The First Amendment and You <ul><li>FREEDOM OF RELIGION-Free Exercise Clause </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom of worship </li></ul><ul><li>Problem of contradiction between establishment clause and free exercise clause </li></ul><ul><li>Distinction between belief (always allowed) and practice (not always allowed) </li></ul><ul><li>History of placing burden of proof on either state or religion to provide compelling evidence of need to restrain or allow practice (currently burden is on religion) </li></ul>
  13. 13. The First Amendment and You <ul><li>FREEDOM OF RELIGION-Free Exercise Clause </li></ul><ul><li>Restricted Religious practices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Polygamy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not vaccinating children prior to entering school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not paying Social Security taxes (Amish) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wearing a Jewish skullcap in military </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Permitted Practices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not saluting the flag </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not sending children to school past 8th grade (Amish) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The First Amendment and You <ul><li>FREEDOM OF SPEECH </li></ul><ul><li>Belief is most protected, action can be most restricted, but speech falls somewhere in between </li></ul><ul><li>Both the freedom to give and hear speech </li></ul>
  15. 15. The First Amendment and You <ul><li>FREEDOM OF SPEECH- Court tests </li></ul><ul><li>Bad Tendency doctrine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limit when it might lead to harm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State leg. Should determine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clear and Present danger </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schenck v. US </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speech can be suppressed only if there is an imminent threat to society </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preferred position doctrine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free speech is of the utmost importance </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The First Amendment and You <ul><li>FREEDOM OF SPEECH- Court tests </li></ul><ul><li>Prior restraint </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blocking speech before it is given (unconstitutional) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pentagon Papers case </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vagueness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speech restrictions must be clear </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Least drastic means test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Laws cannot restrict speech if there are other means to handle the problem </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. The First Amendment and You <ul><li>FREEDOM OF SPEECH </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolic speech </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Somewhere between speech and action, generally protected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flag burning- ok </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Draft card burning- not ok </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sedition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prohibited when imminent danger of overthrow </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. The First Amendment and You <ul><li>FREEDOM OF THE PRESS </li></ul><ul><li>Right of Access- Freedom of Info Act (allows public access to govt. files) </li></ul><ul><li>Executive Privilege </li></ul><ul><li>Gag orders - to ensure fair trial </li></ul><ul><li>Shield Laws- protect reporters from revealing sources (many states have passed) </li></ul><ul><li>Defamation- not protected (libel/written word vs. Slander/ spoken word); public figures must prove malice </li></ul><ul><li>Obscenity- must violate community standards </li></ul><ul><li>Student press- not a public forum, so it can be restricted </li></ul>
  19. 19. The First Amendment and You <ul><li>FREEDOM OF ASSEMBLY AND PETITION </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom of Petition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to petition the government for redress of grievances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Justifies lobbying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protects freedom of association (political and personal ) - Hatch Act restricts political activities of federal employees </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Freedom of Assembly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Govt may regulate time, place and manner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May require police permits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reluctance to issue prior restraint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applies to public places, not private places </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. EQUAL RIGHTS <ul><li>WOMEN: </li></ul><ul><li>Suffrage: 19th Amendment 1920 </li></ul><ul><li>Legislation: </li></ul><ul><li>Equal Pay Act 1963 </li></ul><ul><li>Title VII of Civil Rights of 1964: prohibited employment discrimination based on sex </li></ul><ul><li>Title IX of Education Act of 1972: prohibited gender discrimination on federally subsidized education programs, including athletics </li></ul>
  21. 21. EQUAL RIGHTS <ul><li>WOMEN: </li></ul><ul><li>Litigation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reed v. Reed 1971: Court ruled against arbitrary gender-based discrimination as violation of 14th amendments equal protection clause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roe v. Wade 1973 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Electoral success </li></ul><ul><li>1992 Year of the Woman </li></ul><ul><li>Gender gap - more women voted in 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>Soccer moms </li></ul><ul><li>2 female SC justices </li></ul><ul><li>Interest groups: NOW, Emily’s list </li></ul>
  22. 22. EQUAL RIGHTS <ul><li>AFRICAN- AMERICANS </li></ul><ul><li>Dred Scott Decision in 1857 denied the right of Scott, a slave, to sue (slaves were not citizens) </li></ul><ul><li>Civil War Amendments (13, 14, 15) to protect blacks against the state govts. </li></ul><ul><li>Jim Crow laws (Plessy v Ferguson) </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance against de jure segregation ( Brown v. Board) </li></ul><ul><li>Increased political success </li></ul><ul><li>Economic success has lagged behind </li></ul><ul><li>Backlash against affirmative action </li></ul>
  23. 23. EQUAL RIGHTS <ul><li>HISPANICS: Key Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Bilingualism- states must now provide bilingual ballots </li></ul><ul><li>Immigration </li></ul><ul><li>Electoral Politics “sleeping giant” </li></ul>
  24. 24. EQUAL PROTECTION UNDER THE LAW <ul><li>Discrimination = classification/treating groups differently </li></ul><ul><li>14th Amendment’s equal protection clause bans states from unreasonable discrimination </li></ul>
  25. 25. EQUAL PROTECTION UNDER THE LAW <ul><li>COURT TESTS ON DISCRIMINATION: </li></ul><ul><li>RATIONAL BASIS TEST- discrimination is permissible if it has a reasonable relationship to proper purpose of govt. (polygamy, prohibit felons from teaching) </li></ul><ul><li>SUSPECT CLASSIFICATION TEST </li></ul><ul><li>Suspect class has historically received unequal treatment (discrimination receives strict scrutiny) </li></ul>
  26. 26. EQUAL PROTECTION UNDER THE LAW <ul><li>COURT TESTS ON DISCRIMINATION: </li></ul><ul><li>Quasi-suspect classification test (sex based) </li></ul><ul><li>States must show that discrimination is based on important govt. function </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamental Rights test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strict scrutiny to laws that deny fundamental rights (in Constitution- explicitly or implicitly) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abortion - Roe v Wade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voting- Bush v. Gore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to Die </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to Procreate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to Marry (Defense of Marriage Act) </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. BARRIERS TO VOTING <ul><li>15th Amendment banned voting discrimination based upon race, southern states found ways around that: </li></ul><ul><li>Poll tax (banned by 24th Amendment) </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy test (banned by voting rights act of 1965) </li></ul><ul><li>Grandfather clause (unconstitutional) </li></ul>
  28. 28. BARRIERS TO VOTING <ul><li>VOTING RIGHTS ACT of 1965 (Provisions) </li></ul><ul><li>States w/ history of problems must clear w/ Justice Dept. any changes </li></ul><ul><li>Suspended literacy tests </li></ul><ul><li>Empowered fed officials to register voters </li></ul><ul><li>Empowered fed officials to count ballots </li></ul><ul><li>Ballots in languages other than English </li></ul><ul><li>EFFECTS </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in turnout, more blacks elected </li></ul>
  29. 29. PRIVATE DISCRIMINATION AND THE FEDERAL RESPONSE <ul><li>5th and 14th amendment prohibits govt. from discriminating, but what prevents private individuals or businesses from discriminating? </li></ul><ul><li>13th amendment prohibits relics of slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Commerce clause </li></ul><ul><li>Power to tax and spend (attach strings to federal grants and contracts) </li></ul>
  30. 30. PRIVATE DISCRIMINATION AND THE FEDERAL RESPONSE <ul><li>FEDERAL RESPONSES: </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Rights Act 1866- prohibits discrimination in private contracts </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Rights Act of 1964- Title II bans discrimination in places of public accommodation (Congress’ Commerce power); racial preferences to remedy not required, but allowed </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Rights Act of 1968 (Fair Housing) </li></ul><ul><li>Age Discrimination in Employment </li></ul><ul><li>Americans with Disabilities Act </li></ul>
  31. 31. CITIZENSHIP <ul><li>Methods of Acquisition: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jus Soil (all born in US) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jus Sanguinis (born to US citizen living overseas) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Naturalization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Methods of losing citizenship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expatriation (renounce citizenship) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Denaturalization (strip cit. From naturalized citizen who acquired cit. Through fraud) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aliens (citizens of another nation who are living in the US) </li></ul><ul><li>Current law allows 675,000 legal admittance each year </li></ul>
  32. 32. Life, Liberty, Property and Due Process of Law <ul><li>Govt. Strives to protect individual property rights </li></ul><ul><li>Two types of due process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedural (govt. must use fair procedures to deny life, liberty and property) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Observe Bill of Rights </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide Reasonable notice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide Chance to be heard </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Illegal searches violate procedural due process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Substantive (Laws that enable denying life, liberty and property must be fair) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Ban on all abortions in a state would violate substantive due process </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Life, Liberty, Property and Due Process of Law <ul><li>Distinguishing Procedural vs. Substantive: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Police Strip Searches (P) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compulsory vaccination laws (S) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum Wage laws (S) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Firing a city employee without a hearing (P) </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. GOVERNMENT AND CRIME <ul><li>1. Arrests can be made with warrant (probable cause - 4th amendment) or without (emergency) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Searches made with a warrant (probable cause and specific) or without (under certain circumstances) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Wiretapping only with warrant </li></ul><ul><li>4. Exclusionary rule- illegally obtained evidence cannot be used in court; Argument that it lets crooks “off the hook” </li></ul><ul><li>5. No self incrimination (5th amendment) </li></ul><ul><li>6. Police questioning (cannot force; Miranda warnings- right to remain silent…) </li></ul><ul><li>7. Habeas corpus- must be brought to court to determine if fairly held </li></ul>
  35. 35. GOVERNMENT AND CRIME <ul><li>RIGHTS OF THE ACCUSED </li></ul><ul><li>Right to Counsel (Gideon v Wainright) </li></ul><ul><li>No Excessive bail (8th Amendment) </li></ul><ul><li>Speedy and Public Trial </li></ul><ul><li>Grand jury indictment (required in fed but not state cases) </li></ul><ul><li>Trial by jury (guaranteed in criminal cases though most cases are plea bargained) </li></ul><ul><li>Witness </li></ul><ul><li>No Cruel and Unusual punishment (8th Amend) </li></ul><ul><li>No Double Jeopardy (except crime that violates state and federal law) </li></ul>
  36. 36. And finally…THE PATRIOT ACT <ul><li>FBI AND CIA have greater powers to </li></ul><ul><li>Wiretap phones </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor email </li></ul><ul><li>Survey financial and student records </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct searches w/o prior notice </li></ul><ul><li>Federal government can deport/detain noncitizens w/o judicial appeal </li></ul><ul><li>Weakens protection of the 4th Amendment </li></ul>