Democracy Review


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Democracy Review

  1. 1. Foundations of Democracy Influences for Our Own Government
  2. 2. Democracy Itself <ul><li>Demos + kratia = “rule by the ruled” or “rule by the people” </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Democracy: All vote, numbers added up (think Presidential Election or American Idol) </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect Democracy: Citizens elect representatives to vote / conduct business on their behalf </li></ul><ul><li>Which type(s) of democracy used in U.S.? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Good Government Vocabulary <ul><li>Rule of Law: Laws are laws to be enforced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What would happen if I inconsistently enforced lockout? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What happens when I consistently enforce lockout? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Due Process: Citizens can expect to be treated a certain way by the government when arrested, charged with a crime, conducting government business </li></ul>
  4. 4. American Democracy <ul><li>First country founded as a democracy since city-state of Athens </li></ul><ul><li>Not an original invention, but an effective compilation </li></ul><ul><li>Influences: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greeks (Athenian Democracy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Romans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British Constitutional History </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judeo-Christian Tradition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Enlightenment </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Greek Influences <ul><li>Legacy: </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect and direct democracy both used in gov’t </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assembly: all citizens could propose laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Council of 500, Board of Generals: executive offices selected by citizenry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trial by jury (but, had 201 person jury, 1-day trial, no appeals, no lawyers) </li></ul><ul><li>Flaws: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women and slaves not citizens, could not speak in court </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreigners not citizens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conquered and taxed occupied states to finance democracy </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Roman Influences <ul><li>Legacy: </li></ul><ul><li>2-house legislature (Counsuls and Senate) </li></ul><ul><li>All laws written down </li></ul><ul><li>All innocent in eyes of law </li></ul><ul><li>Innocent until proven guilty, burden of proof on accuser </li></ul><ul><li>Separation of Powers in gov’t </li></ul><ul><li>Flaws: </li></ul><ul><li>No way to select emperors led to civil war </li></ul>
  7. 7. British Constitutional History <ul><li>Legacy: </li></ul><ul><li>Magna Carta: limits king’s power, “No Taxation without Representation” </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament: Britain’s version of Congress </li></ul><ul><li>English Bill of Rights: Common Law that all citizens can take for granted </li></ul><ul><li>Constitutional Monarchy: King is not above law </li></ul><ul><li>Flaws: </li></ul><ul><li>All reforms intended to help nobles, not average person </li></ul>
  8. 8. Judeo-Christian Tradition <ul><li>Legacy: </li></ul><ul><li>All equal in eyes of God, can have personal relationship with God </li></ul><ul><li>All have responsibilities for actions, to control oneself, to take care of others </li></ul><ul><li>Basic religious laws foundation for many of our current laws (10 commandments) </li></ul><ul><li>Reformation: Challenged religious monopoly of Catholic Church, allowed people to interpret teachings of church </li></ul>
  9. 9. Enlightenment <ul><li>Legacy: </li></ul><ul><li>Movement in France, Britain that believed that individuals have right to determine own government </li></ul><ul><li>John Locke: believed that people naturally good, gov’t should protect natural rights of “life, liberty, and property” </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Hobbes: believed that people naturally evil; we need king or dictator to keep ourselves in line </li></ul>
  10. 10. Enlightenment, Cont’d <ul><li>Baron de Montesquieu: believed in separation of powers, checks and balances to keep government from being corrupted by single person or group </li></ul><ul><li>Cesare Beccaria: Advocated more humane treatment of convicts, no cruel and unusual punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Voltaire: Extremely critical of Church, believed in liberty and freedom of speech of all: </li></ul><ul><li>“ I may completely disagree with what you have to say, but I will die for your right to say it.” </li></ul>