These universities differ in terms of…• subvention by the government• status• service conditions of its staff• governance etc
Types of Universities… On the basis of kind of programmes and courses offered • traditional universities • technical universities • open universities • research and development based educational institutions Image source: https://www.ohiohighered.org/campuses
Knowledge LandscapeNational Knowledge Commission (NKC) in 2005• to suggest strategies• the road map• action plan and• possible responsefor India to emerge as knowledge super power. photo credit: http://www.flickr.com/photos/paolomargari/758421322/
Five key areas of knowledge paradigm• access to knowledge• knowledge concepts• knowledge creation• knowledge application and• development of better knowledge services.
New Dimension Foreign Universities• faculty access• international curriculum and• new career pathways
Growth of Higher and Open EducationYear Open University CCIs Remarks1962-81 0 34 Correspondence era1982-85 2 04 Transition to open era1986-00 7 32 Consolidation of open era2001-12 7 80 Expansion of ODL system and march towards on-line education, OER, and mobile learningTotal 15 150
Higher and Open Education and Technology • Initially face-to-face • Technology - Radio, TV, audio/video cassettes • Computers • Internet in 1996: emergence of networked learning worldCpl. Justin M. Boling: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:USMC-110816-M-7621B-001.jpg
Global open platform for• information storage,• display and communication andintegrates text, graphics, audio and video with communication tools• such as email,• bulletin-boards and• chat-rooms
Impact of Internetto promote synchronous and asynchronous• one to one,• one to many and• many to many interaction / conferencing
e-learning in education• increases the access to vast knowledge base• enhancement in student learning through improved interaction• suits to various pedagogical models• offers flexibility for learners to study anytime, anywhere without any incongruence• allows collaboration amongst faculty and researchers from all over the globe• offers easy and fast updating of content
Open source initiatives open source software is software developed and released with the source code with limited or no restrctions.Image source: http://blogs.op5.com/study-open-source/
Examples…• Linux operating system (http://www.linux.org/)• Firefox browser(http://www.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/new/)• Open Office suite (http://www.openoffice.org/)• Moodle Learning Management System (http://moodle.org/) etc.
Former President A.P.J. Abdul Kalam “In India, open source code software will have to come and stay in a big way for the benefit of the people. Open source software needs to be built for further spread of IT and the impact it would have on society"
Why to go…why they went• availability of source code for modification• affordability and variety of choices made them suitable for institutions after modifying as per their needs• High cost of propriety softwares either for its purchase or maintenance prohibit many to procure them
Free/Open Source Software (FOSS) movementsupported by government departments and faculty and students alike>>>because it lead to >>>• lowering of costs,• increasing cost of ownership,• enhancing creativity and productivity and• emergence of new software solutions and products
Main focus of development and research• Operating Systems,• Data Bases,• Web Servers,• Data Base Servers,• Internet & Web Technologies,• Programming Languages,• Applications for computers, mobile, GPRS etc
Initiative…• Department of Information Technology, Govt of India, C-DAC (Centre for Development of Advance Computing) Chennai and Anna University, Chennai initiated a project called National Resource Centre for FOSS (NRCFOSS-AU) in March 2005. Funded by the Department of Information Technology, Govt of India, this project focuses on two objectives:• helping to bridge the digital divide• strengthening Indias Software and IT industry
Another best example of the backing of the Governments for FOSSEstablishement of IOTA (Institute of OpenTechnology and Applications) in 2007 as anautonomous body by the West Bengal Govtwith subvention from Department ofInformation Technology.
Open Source initiatives…IGNOU-IBM Academia-Industry Collaboration An online education platform iCos (Innovatio Centre for Open Standards). iCos is a novel creation of IBM and CL Infotech Pvt Ltd. This is an online program and platform to promote Open Standards and Open Source Software skill building.
OSS for Library and Information Management• CDS/ISIS for Windows: available freely from the UNESCO website.• CERN: an integrated digital library management system.• DSpace: used to store, manage and distribute the collections in digital format.• EPrints: distributed base of the repository software systems.
OSS for Library and Information Management• Fedora: Flexible Extensible Digital Object and Repository Architecture (FEDORA) can be used to develop institutional repositories and other interoperable web-based digital libraries.• Ganesha: Ganesha Digital Library (GDL) allows sharing of knowledge and its simultaneous access.
OSS for Library and Information Management• Greenstone: used for creating, building, managing and distributing digital library collections.• KOHA: Open Source Integrated Library Management System• NewGenLib: an Integrated Library Management System, freely available as an open source.