Use of Reflection


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This presentation discusses the use of reflection within the e-classroom learning environment. Narration will be added to the presentation in the near future.

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  • Welcome statement – not the same as a mirror, think back on your own experiences, how has reflection upon the past changed how you view future activities?According to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary one definition of reflection is the “consideration of some subject matter, idea, or purpose” ( With respect to the use of reflection in the learning environment Pilling-Cormick and Garrison (2007) stated “the practical challenge is to design the learning activities that provide the right balance and integration of reflection and collaboration” (p. 10). We will explore the use of reflection within the e-classroom learning environment as we journey through the topics within my presentation.The presentation was developed and narrated by Robin Bunnell for the ELT 7008 Online Community course at Northcentral University with Dr. Glen Gatin as mentor.
  • Learners in the 21st century have instant access to information and the role of reflection is essential in the e-classroom as “educators are seeing the need for a more constructivist and reflective learning environment as the new generation of digital natives slowly but surely permeate educational institutions” (Salen, 2007, p 2). In order for reflection to occur within the e-classroom instructors must “establish a community of inquiry where learners feel connected and are cognitively engaged; and where there is a community that supports and encourages ideas to be critically analyzed and meaning negotiated” (Garrison, 2007, p. 10). Role of reflection:Element of the constructivist theory of learning (Dewey as cited in Garrison, 2007; Haythornthwaite, 2006; Palloff & Pratt, 2007; Salen, 2007)Social presence is required (Garrison, 2007, April; Jones, Kolloff, & Kollof, 2008)Holistic learning environment (Chin & Williams, 2006)Learner-centered (Palloff & Pratt, 2007)Provides closure (Conrad & Donaldson, 2004)Learners think about their learning (Pilling-Cormick & Garrison, 2007)Integration with collaborative activities (Garrison, 2007)Engaged learning opportunities enhanced (Conrad & Donaldson, 2004)Self-reflection assessments (Palloff & Pratt, 2007)Transformative learning (Mezirow as cited in Palloff & Pratt, 2007)21st century learning (Palloff & Pratt, 2007)In reference to transformative learning and reflection Palloff and Pratt (2007) stated “this type of learning is rooted in the meaning-making process that is central to constructivism, which we have already established as a major feature of the online classroom” (p. 185). In order to promote reflection within the classroom social presence must exist. Social presence fosters the learners skills to reflect given “the absence of social presence leads to an inability to express disagreements, share viewpoints, explore differences, and accept support and confirmation from peers and teacher” (Jones, Kolloff & Kolloff, 2008, p. 2). “Social presence is an essential element of any educational experience since, by definition, it is a socially sanctioned and shared process” (Garrison, 2007, p. 7). According to Garrison (2007, April) “the purpose of social presence in an educational context is to create the conditions for inquiry and quality interaction (reflective and threaded discussions) in order to collaboratively achieve worthwhile educational goals” (p. 64). Chin and Williams (2006) reference the importance of reflection with respect to a holistic learning environment wherein “learning is acquired through opportunities for reflection and active construction of knowledge as well as by means of social interaction and collaboration” (p. 19). This is accomplished as described by Tea (as cited in Chin & Williams, 2006) through the proper scaffolding of:the instructive environment,the situating environment, the constructive environment, the supportive environment, the communicative environment, the collaborative environment, and the evaluative environment Conrad and Donaldson (2004) noted that “one of the major components of an engaged learning educational approach is reflection” (p. 73). Within a learner-focused environment the use of reflection along with self-assessments are considered by Conrad and Donaldson as important components for empowerment.Palloff and Pratt (2003) highlighted the importance of the learner to reflect upon course activities and the learning experience as “students should be given credit for self-reflection, and self-reflection should be incorporated into the design and expectations for the online course” (p. 90).Pilling-Cormick and Garrison (2007) noted that “reflective inquiry plays a vital role in helping learners think about their learning” (p. 28). Garrison (2007) stated that “inquiry is based on questioning from both teacher and students, individually and collaboratively, seeking answers to these questions, and then confirming understanding, diagnosing misconceptions and testing solutions through applications and/or discourse. Taking responsibility and control of one’s learning is core to reflective inquiry and self-directed learning as well as the development of metacognitive abilities that ultimately provide the foundation for continued learning. Inquiry requires an environment of both freedom and support (p. 8).In reference to group work Conrad and Donaldson (2004) described how reflection provides closure as well as allowing participants to share their perceptions and thoughts on the collective experience. According to Garrison (2007) “it is the asynchronicity and connectivity properties of online learning that offer the potential for the unique integration of reflective and collaborative learning opportunities” (p. 10).Transformative learning represents a self-reflective process which occurs on several levels – as referred to by Mezirow (as cited in Palloff & Pratt, 2007). The term transformative learning is “learning that is based on reflection and on the interpretation of the experiences, ideas, and assumptions gained through prior learning” (Palloff & Pratt, 2007, p. 185). The 21st century learning and working environment is different and the role of education must adapt to create “educational opportunities that are responsive to the demands of students and the world in which they work and live” (Palloff & Pratt, 2007, p. 235). In doing so learners must be afforded opportunities for reflective inquiry in order to utilize the information learned in an ever-changing world of instant access to information.
  • Reflective activities within the e-classroom may be developed to support individual reflection or group reflection (Conrad & Donaldson, 2004). As noted by Dabbagh (2007) “reflection skills include the ability to apply frequent and substantive consideration and assessment of one’s own learning process and products and the group's learning process and products” (p. 221). Reflective activities are those which might take a position, provide a reaction, or to summarize the content in terms of personal understanding (Bonk, 2011). Conrad and Donaldson (2004) identified several characteristics of reflective activities: Requires students to share a synthesis of the learning experience;Share genuine emotions;Sense of fun and encouragement of imagination;Personal value;Allows plenty of time (p. 74)According to Bonk (2011) several types of activities exist to support reflective inquiry based on the course activity as well as self-reflection activities and research conducted by Garrison (2006; 2007) and works created by noted scholars (Bender, 2003; Lehman & Conceicao, 2010; Palloff & Pratt, 2007) in the field of online learning also support activity-based reflection and self-reflection activities as described below: (note these are the activities listed on the slide) Reflective activities include those which are task-based and reading-based wherein learners are either actively reflecting on the task which was completed or reflecting upon the information read from a book, the web, or another source (Bonk, 2011; Lucas & Tan, 2006). Garrison (2006) referenced the need to focus reflection on more than just content when he noted that “online learning activities can provide an opportunity for students to reflect on learning tasks and strategies” (p. 32). Journals are commonly used as a reflective activity (Bonk, 2011; Conrad & Donaldson; 2004; Ko & Rossen, 2010). Garrison (2006) noted the relationship between metacognitive awareness, journaling, and reflection in the statement “other activities that foster metacognitive awareness include student-authored learning journals in which learners reflect on their learning processes and outcomes. Such journals can be a component of a segment of a course or as a component of each module in a course” (p. 32).Salen (2007) promotes a weblog as “keeping a weblog provides students with an objective writing and reflection tool that is able to help students deal with their academic experiences more constructively” (p. 64). A self-reflection activity to summarize the course allows learners to communicate their understanding of the material and their insights into the value of reflective activities which is supported by the research conducted Salen (2007) as involvement in self-reflective end of course activities “revealed an improved interest in responses written by peers, deeper understanding of the academic work and the awareness that their voice was recognized in the larger collective of voices” (pp. 47-48).Debates and role-play are authentic activities which can be based on real life issues which promote reflection on a more personal level (Bonk, 2011)Activities may be formative or summative – be sure to include both (Bonk, 2011)Self-reflection required for field experiences, internships, and job-based activities are a great way to self-check the learner for understanding and higher learning (Bonk, 2011). The activities serve both individual needs of the learner and can easily be adapted for collaborative learning (Bonk, 2011) – be sure to “to set the stage for team-based collaborative projects down the road, it is suggested that a small group discussion format be provided early to allow students to engage more actively and with less anxiety” (Garrison, 2006, p. 28). E-portfolios serve as a lifelong learning tool which is transferrable with the learner and a great way to provide a private self-check (Bonk, 2011; C of A Online, 2011). The use of portfolios is supported by Lucas and Tan (2006) who stated “we expect students to reflect as a part of their subject-based studies, but also to reflect on their learning and development of skills, for example, through the maintenance of a personal development portfolio. When students graduate and enter professional and managerial life, we expect them to act as reflective practitioners and to exercise professional judgment” (p. 3).
  • Reflection is not limited to individual learners as “participants in an online course engage with and reflect on the course content this includes the learning activities as well as the interactions with other learners and technology” (Palloff & Pratt, 2007, p. 185). Garrison (2007) pointed out that “the asynchronous yet connected properties of online learning where the asynchronicity encourages reflection and connectivity provides unique opportunities for collaboration and discourse. Reflection is enhanced by the asynchronous property and collaboration is made possible by its connectivity” (p. 7). Sturgill, Martin, and Gay (as cited in Swan, Shen, and Hiltz, 2006) stated “researchers found that the online experience provided an opportunity for students to learn collaboratively that was equal to that provided in the face-to-face version of the group processes course, but that the added opportunity to analyze and reflect on their own collaborative processes enhanced students’ learning experience” (p. 53). The importance of collaborative reflective activities is supported by Salen (2007) with the statement “scholars who incorporate peer learning in their courses are hoping to foster skills such as collaboration and teamwork as well as the ability to reflect and explore new ideas without the teacher interfering” (p. 74). The e-classroom provides an unique opportunity to promote collaborative reflection activities which provide learners with a more meaningful experience as “collaboration is a key component of a community of inquiry. However, collaboration must include communication or discourse that is purposeful, threaded and reflective” (Garrison, 2006, p. 25). The importance of the e-classroom asynchronous learning context is clearly linked to the constructivist learning theory as within the “asynchronous online learning context, there are two properties– reflection and collaboration – that shape cognitive presence in ways unique to this medium” (Garrison, 2007, p. 4). To accomplish meaningful experiences for learners within an environment of collaborative reflection Garrison (2006) noted that “students must be stimulated and motivated to consider the essence of the material being presented and translate that into personal meaning that can be shared and collaboratively confirmed” (pp. 25 26). Garrison (2007) went on to describe how through reflective collaborative activities a true community of inquiry exists wherein “the goal is independent thinkers nurtured in an inter-dependent collaborative community of inquiry. This speaks directly to the properties of asynchronous online learning” (p.3).According to Swan and Shih (2005) the e-classroom learning asynchronous learning environment is well suited to online discussions which “also affords participants the opportunity to reflect on their classmates’ contributions while creating their own, and to reflect on their own writing before posting it” (p. 116). The ability for learners to collaboratively reflect allows for different perspectives to be considered as noted by Singh, Hawkins, and Whymark (2007) given “collaborative reflective social discourse serves to make one’s experience and viewpoint visible to peers for the purpose of getting a different perspective” (p. 86). In reference to weblog Salen (2007) stated “the activity of authoring and maintaining a weblog to attain deeper learning and higher order thinking skills emerge through the act of reflecting on issues related to the academic assignments, and while textually reflecting in blog posts and comments, our articulation skills are triggered helping students to write blog posts that are academically representative to their peers and scholars through meticulously articulating their reflections from countless chaotic although often brilliant train of thoughts” (p. 77). An effective learning experience is critical for overall learner success and it is essential to provide learners the opportunity to individually and collaboratively reflect upon the learning experience in terms of the activities and content, peer interactions, and the technology. Garrison (2007) provided this insight “it is how we combine and integrate the reflective and collaborative possibilities that model the inseparable private and public worlds of the learner that will make the learning experience effective for all concerned” (p. 8).
  • Jones, Kolloff, and Kolloff (2008) noted that “educators who want to develop student critical thinking skills will need to develop a learning environment (online) that encourages students to ask questions, engage in reflective thinking and self-directed learning. At the same time, if [sic] is very important for the educator to model reflective skills needed” (p. 4). According toHaythornthwaite (2006) “students coming new to online environments have not had this time for reflection, and therefore need to be oriented to the new environment and its new practices” (p. 9). Several strategies to promote reflection exist which enhance the e-classroom learning environment and provide learners with the tools to be a successful reflective learner:According to Salen (2007) “most students need to be taught how to reflect on issues and problems to develop higher order thinking as the true comprehension of new knowledge does not occur automatically in the average student during lectures or while reading the required syllabus” (p. 61). To promote reflective inquiry instructors need to ask about learner past experiences and to have learners focus on themselves which as one way to encourages learners to begin from looking at their own experience as “reflective inquiry begins with what is going on with the learner” (Lehman & Conceicao, 2010, p. 29). Instructors at the University of New South Wales begin with naturally occurring reflective activities as the learners are not experts (CofA Online, 2011).Garrison (2007) mentioned “from a content perspective, the key is not to inundate students with information. The first responsibility of the teacher or content expert is to identify the central idea and have students reflect upon and share their conception” (p. 10). It is also important to note that too many activities will put learners into survival mode and the focus will be on completing as many activities to amass information to pass exams rather than spending time on deeper learning activities such as reflection (Garrison, 2006).Create a space where learners can reflect individually as well as collaboratively as this “opens the door to reflection. It conveys a message to the participants that says that this type of inquiry is expected and completely acceptable” (Palloff & Pratt, 2007, p. 192). A journal or blog is highly individual which allows learners to “reflect in whatever way seems comfortable to them” (Palloff & Pratt, 2007, p. 199). Conrad and Donaldson (2004) support using a journal as “journaling, in which learners produce documents representing their thoughts throughout an activity, is one of the primary tools for tracking both formative and summative self-assessment” (p. 31). Another option is to create a forum for general discussion where all learners are able to “reflect on the course, share and process feelings, and bring about closure” (Lehman & Conceicao, 2010, p. 84). The results of the case studies conducted in the research by Salen (2007) indicated “that weblogs in blended learning environments generated and constructed reflective thinking in compliance with a socioconstructivist learning approach amongst most students in nearly all the case studies” (p. 88). In reference to providing the right tools, in particular a web blog, Dabbagh (2007) noted students are able to “engage in an exercise of peer evaluation of each other’s work, prompting reflective thinking” (p. 222).At the University of New South Wales e-portfolios are used to Garrison (2007) noted another important way to promote reflection which “is to allow students to moderate their discussion in small groups. This will actively engage most learners in a committed and free manner. The key is for students to report back their progress or conclusions” (p. 10). It is essential to provide feedback to promote the reflective process as this shows the learner your concern (Ko & Rossen, 2010). Feedback should be an ongoing process throughout the course and initial feedback for reflective activities needs to occur early in the process to allow learners time to develop their reflective skills (Bonk, 2011).Allow learners to freely answer open-ended questions which are designed to promote reflection on of the learning activities as well as reflect upon the actions of others through clear expectations to provide responses which focus on what the learner believes and what is the most important as well as what still may need to be clarified or changed (Garrison, 2007). Archive samples, with permission, of prior reflective work which is represents a well developed reflection and some which need improvement to allow learners to feel more comfortable with the expectations of the reflective activities (Bonk, 2011).Garrison (2007) provides one of the best strategies – model reflection as he noted “perhaps the most effective practice in establishing an online cognitive presence congruent with higher-order learning is for the teacher or facilitator to model reflective inquiry. This is best done with the teacher objectively providing commentary and insight into their thinking process (i.e., thinking out-loud). The purpose is to increase metacognitive awareness – a precondition for critical thinking and self-direction. Modeling reflective inquiry provides learners with concrete examples of how to approach subject matter for purposes of constructing personal meaning. Students learn how to manage and monitor their own learning and to perhaps demystify knowledge development. They gain the ability and confidence to be self-directed learners. In this regard, the teacher must participate in, but not dominate, discussions” (p. 9). Curtis Bonk and instructors at the University of New South Wales also highly recommend instructors to model practices of reflection (Bonk, 2011; CofA Online,2 011).
  • The use of reflection within the e-classroom is one of higher order learning and a deeper level of learning as one component of cognitive presence. Garrison (2007) noted “cognitive presence for purposes of higher-order learning is associated with effectively facilitating and developing reflective thinking, self-directed learning and metacognitive awareness” (p. 8). One way to define cognitive presence is described by Garrison (2007, April) “as the exploration, construction, resolution and confirmation of understanding through collaboration and reflection in a community of inquiry” (p. 65).Reflective inquiry is required for transformational learning to take place as noted by Garrison, 2007 which “requires an environment of both freedom and support” (p. 8). In the research conducted by Lucas and Tan (2006) an instrument to capture learners thinking and actions within the learning environment in four "constructs" of action, understanding, reflection and critical reflection was conducted using a questionnaire “derived from the extensive literature on reflective thinking, particularly the work of Mezirow (1991)” (p. 5). The results indicated the questionnaire operated as expected yet further research is needed before implementing the instrument for pedagogic intervention or research purposes (Lucas & Tan, 2006). This type of research is needed to allow instructors to assess the level of reflective thinking and support the effectiveness of the role of reflective inquiry within the e-classroom. Palloff and Pratt (2005) contend reflective practices promote transformative learning. According to Palloff and Pratt (2007) “transformative learning process is one that moves’ a participant from student to reflective practitioner” (p. 188).Learners experience the process in the following sequence:Acquire knowledgePost materials/assignmentsReceive feedback – acknowledgement and value addedQuestion this happenedReflect upon what has occurred and develop new ways to explain ideas and interactOnline reflection Self-reflection
  • Reflecting on the literature reviewed and past experience I offer the following insights: The role of the instructor according to Palloff and Pratt (2007) is to “encourage conscious, critical reflection of the material and self” (p. 200). Palloff and Pratt (2007) stated “we cannot encourage our students to engage in a transformative process if we are unwilling to do so ourselves” (p. 203). Thus it is important for instructors to model the behavior expected of the learners to demonstrate the role of reflection within the e-classroom. It is critical to understand our on philosophy of education and adapt to the online environment as “electronic pedagogy is required in the e-classroom” (Palloff & Pratt, 2007, p. 227). In order for instructors to become more effective in the e-classroom the culture of learning must be one which promotes “the development of new approaches and skills for faculty so that their teaching online might be more effective. . . . It is about developing the skills involved with community building among a group of learners so as to maximize the benefits and potential that this medium holds in the educational arena” (p. 227). Garrison (2007) stated “in contrast to the spontaneous verbal communication of face-to-face learning contexts, the asynchronous and largely written communication of asynchronous online learning would appear to provide the conditions that encourage if not require reflection” (p. 4).The e-classroom is predicated upon six elements referenced by Palloff and Pratt (2007) which must be present to promote a holistic learning environment and the use of reflection in order to create an atmosphere for reflective inquiry and transformative learning.Honesty – safety and trust in order to connectResponsiveness – Members must respond and interactRelevance – bring life in the outside world into the classroomRespect – learners must feel respected as peopleOpenness – produced of honesty and respect – environment within which learning takes placeEmpowerment – crucial element for participation (p. 229)21st century learning within the e-classroom is an opportunity to meet the diverse needs of e-learners as “students in the 21st century need new and different information resources, skills, roles, and relationships” (Palloff & Pratt, 2007, p. 235). The e-classroom learning environment allows learners to easily explore an abundance of information on their own terms to be used for learning activities. Reflection is a key element to include in any course as noted by Garrison (2007) in the statements “self-regulated learners are both active and reflective participants and assume appropriate responsibility and control in the learning process. These are the same essential dimensions of reflective inquiry” (p. 6).
  • I appreciate the opportunity to present my view on the use of reflection within the e-classroom learning environment. I have highlighted the key elements of learning from the constructivist and holistic learning environment with respect to the role of reflection as demonstrated through reflective activities and the transformation of learning which occurs from reflective inquiry. My goal was to provide background as to the importance of the use of reflection for you to consider as you develop online courses to meet the needs of learners wishing to participate in e-learning opportunities.Feedback?Applause and questions!!!
  • A key element to consider as you create online courses is the development of quality, relevant, and current resources to support the instructional design process and support a learner centered approach to instructional delivery. The videos embedded within the presentation provide additional information related to the use of reflection.Bonk, C. (2011, July 31). Online writing and reflection activities [Video file]. Retrieved from of A Online, University of New South Wales (2011, May 12). Using eportfolios as a reflective teaching tool - case study [Video file]. Retrieved from
  • The references listed are quoted or paraphrased in the presentation or the presentation notes. The references used for this presentation are additional resources you may find helpful along your journey.
  • Thank you for taking the time to view and listen to the presentation. Enjoy the journey of learning and exploring the abundance information available through 21st century tools and learning opportunities.
  • Use of Reflection

    1. 1. Use of Reflection<br />Robin Bunnell, September 17, 2011<br />ELT 7008 – Activity 10<br />
    2. 2. Role of Reflection<br />Key element of constructivist learning theory and social presence<br />Learner-centered focus and provides closure<br />Learners think about their learning<br />Reflective activities as individuals and collaboratively<br /> Self-reflection opportunities<br />Engaged learning opportunities enhanced<br />Lifelong learning<br />Transformative learning<br /> 21st century learning<br />
    3. 3. Reflective Activities<br />Activity Reflection<br />Self-Reflection<br />Task-based<br />Reading-based<br />Debates or role-play<br />Journals, blogs, wikis<br />Formative<br />Summative<br />For activities<br />Of the course<br />Field experience<br />Internship<br />Job-based <br />Self-check & portfolios<br />
    4. 4. Reflecting Collaboratively<br /> Enhanced learning experience<br /> Constructivist approach – exploring to learn<br /> Community of inquiry<br /> Different perspectives revealed<br /> Freedom to safely express views<br /> Effective learning experience: activities,<br /> peers, and technology<br />
    5. 5. Strategies to Promote Reflection<br />Focus on learner – ask about past experiences<br />Course general discussion forum - closure<br />Journal , blog or e-portfolio – track thoughts throughout activity and course<br />Small Groups – actively engage learners<br />Periodically ask learners to reflect<br />Model reflective inquiry – concrete example<br />
    6. 6. Transformative Learning<br /> Garrison and Mezirow<br />From student to reflective practitioner<br />Acquire knowledge<br /> Post work, materials, assignments<br /> Receive feedback – acknowledgement and <br /> value added<br /> Question how – conscious, critical reflection of <br /> material and self<br /> Reflect upon what has occurred <br /> Develop new ways to explain ideas and interact<br />
    7. 7. Instructor and learner must participate<br />Electronic pedagogy<br />Holistic learning environment<br />Reality of the rapid exchange of information<br />Meet the needs of the changing learner<br />Lessons Learned<br />
    8. 8. Questions<br />Feedback<br />
    9. 9. Resources<br />Curtis Bonk Presentaton<br /><br />University New South Wales Presentation<br />
    10. 10. References<br />Chin, S., & Williams, J. (2006, March). A theoretical framework for effective online course design. Journal of Online Teaching and Learning 2(1), 12-21. Retrieved from,38Conrad, R., & Donaldson, J. (2004). Engaging the online learner: Activities and resources for creative instruction. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.<br />Dabbagh, N. (2007). The online learner: Characteristics and pedagogical implications. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Educatioin, 7(3), 217-226. Retrieved from<br />Garrison, D. R. (2006). Online collaboration principles. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks 10(1),25-34. Retrieved from<br />Garrison, D.R. (2007). Cognitive presence for effective asynchronous online learning: The role of reflective inquiry, self-direction and metacognition. In J. Bourne & J.C. Moore (Eds), Elements of quality online education: Practice and Direction, 4, 29-38 (1-10). Sloan C Series, Needham: MA: The Sloan Consortium. Retrieved September 15, 2011, from, D. R. (2007, April). Online community of inquiry review: Social, cognitive, and teaching presence issues. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks 11(1) 61-72. Retrieved from<br />Jones, P., Kolloff, M., & Kolloff, F. (2008). Teaching them to think: Best practices for developing critical thinking skills for online learner. Presented at the 24th Annual conference on distance teaching and learning. retrieved from<br />
    11. 11. References – cont’d<br />Lehman, R., & Conceicao, S. (2010). Creating a sense of presence in online teaching: How to 'be there' for distance learners. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.<br />Lucas, U., & Tan, P. (2006). Assessing levels of reflective thinking: the evaluation of an instrument for use within accounting and business education. Paper presented to the 1st Pedagogic Research in Higher Education Conference, Liverpool Hope University, Liverpool, 2nd/3rd May, 2006 Retrieved from<br />Palloff, R., & Pratt, K. (2003). The virtual student: A profile and guide to working with online learners. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.<br />Palloff, R., & Pratt, K. (2005). Collaborateng online: Learning together in community. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.<br />Palloff, R., & Pratt, K. (2007). Building online learning communities: Effective strategies for the virtual classroom. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.<br />Pilling-Cormick, J., & Garrison, R. D. (2007). Self-directed and self-regulated learning: Conceptual links. Canadian Journal of University Continuing Education 33(2), 13-33. Retrieved from<br />Salen, T. (2007). Weblogs and blogging: Constructivist pedagogy and active learning in higher education. Retrieved from<br />Singh, G., Hawkins, L, & Whymark, G. (2007). An integrated model of collaborative knowledge building. In Alex Koohang (Ed.), Interdisciplinary Journal of Knowledge and Learning Objects 3, 85-106. Retrieved from<br />Swan, K., Shen, J. & Hiltz, S. (2006). Assessment and collaboration in online learning. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks 10(1), 45-62. Retrieved from,38<br />