Galileo’s Lute: Assessment through Authentic Performance Tasks  in Secondary Music Appreciation Courses What Will They Kno...
Gallileo Gallilei, Marcus Vitruvius and Leonardo da Vinci persist as models of humanistic ideals by virtue of their forwar...
Traditional approach <ul><li>As “content-oriented teaching” </li></ul><ul><li>A prescribed set of material is “covered”  <...
Newer Approaches <ul><li>It is increasingly the norm in surveys of the Western canon, to explore musical material, within ...
Teaching Music of the Western Canon Matrix: Constructing Meaning  Religious/ Philosophical  Cultural Norms  Self & Society...
Traditional “Content” Approach <ul><li>Weaknesses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students are unable to transfer concepts  </li></...
What is Authentic Assessment ? <ul><li>Students perform real-world tasks  demonstrating meaningful and relevant applicatio...
How Can It Be Measured? <ul><li>Authentic assessment attempts to take the measure of a student’s real work over time and t...
At the Core of Authentic Assessment <ul><li>Humans construct meaning by appropriating, processing and synthesizing experie...
Relevancy <ul><li>Successful and profound learning depends on promoting  relevant  real–world knowledge, skills, and under...
Principal Source: McTighe J., Wiggins, G.  Understanding by  Design,  Alexandria, VA: ASCD, 2005. <ul><li>Why UbD? </li></...
A Contiunuum Assessment Instruction Curriculum
Authentic Tasks <ul><li>Students construct their own responses, rather than to select from ones presented. </li></ul><ul><...
Three Stages of the UbD Approach <ul><li>Stage 1: Identify desired results </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 2: Determine acceptable...
Sample of a Unit from a Secondary Curriculum “ Connections: Humanity and Music”  Christine Jones, BU MM ‘08
Stage 1 : Identify Desired Results <ul><li>National Standards: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8. Understanding relationships betwee...
Stage 1 : Identify Desired Results  (cont.)  Understandings: <ul><li>Frame understandings around “big ideas,” or core conc...
Stage 1 : Identify Desired Results  (cont.)  Essential Questions:  <ul><li>Based on fundamental, over-arching ideas stated...
Stage 1 : Identify Desired Results  (cont.)  Skills:  <ul><li>“ Students will demonstrate the ability to…” </li></ul><ul><...
Stage 1 : Identify Desired Results  (cont.)  Knowledge:  <ul><li>“ What important knowledge will students acquire? </li></...
Stage 2 : Assessment Evidence Performance Task:   <ul><li>Through what authentic performance tasks will students demonstra...
Stage 2 : Assessment Evidence Key Criteria: <ul><li>By what criteria will “performance” of understanding be judged? </li><...
Stage 2 : Assessment Evidence  (cont.) Other Evidence: <ul><li>Through what other evidence (prompts, observations, journal...
Stage 3:  Create Learning Plan  (highlights) <ul><li>“ Storyboarding,” or planning class activities, homework assignments ...
Finis? <ul><li>Perhaps even a cursory look at this learning paradigm makes the point that  over-arching, conceptual thinki...
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Galileos Lute Authentic Assessment

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Galileos Lute Authentic Assessment

  1. 1. Galileo’s Lute: Assessment through Authentic Performance Tasks in Secondary Music Appreciation Courses What Will They Know, Understand, and Be Able to Do When They Leave My Classroom? Richard R. Bunbury, Ph.D.
  2. 2. Gallileo Gallilei, Marcus Vitruvius and Leonardo da Vinci persist as models of humanistic ideals by virtue of their forward-thinking creativity in art and science that that spill over far beyond any discrete discipline. Can schools be a fertile ground for “growing” such minds through conventional teaching? The constellation of creative skills needed for the complexities of the 21st-century environments can best be approached by imagining the tools students will possess at the end of the course, rather than by defining courses by content. Key to the process is creating student tasks that authentically teach and assess fundamental understandings .
  3. 3. Traditional approach <ul><li>As “content-oriented teaching” </li></ul><ul><li>A prescribed set of material is “covered” </li></ul>Teachers most often think about courses in terms of their content, as a prescribed set of the material to be covered. Despite the fact that the course may have an interesting array of instructional strategies, the fundamental questions and issues that undergird historic and artistic forces may go unattended. Students can be misled to think that the learning is the activity instead of seeing that the learning comes from being asked to consider the meaning of the activity.
  4. 4. Newer Approaches <ul><li>It is increasingly the norm in surveys of the Western canon, to explore musical material, within a social, sociological, cultural, political, philosophical, religious, and economic matrix. </li></ul><ul><li>Most importantly, it is the </li></ul><ul><li>over-arching themes and </li></ul><ul><li>their interactions that </li></ul><ul><li>more fully construct </li></ul><ul><li>meaning </li></ul><ul><li>in a humanistic context. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Teaching Music of the Western Canon Matrix: Constructing Meaning Religious/ Philosophical Cultural Norms Self & Society Politics/ Governance Economic Forces Musical style/ Aesthetics
  6. 6. Traditional “Content” Approach <ul><li>Weaknesses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students are unable to transfer concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students exhibit low retention rates </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. What is Authentic Assessment ? <ul><li>Students perform real-world tasks demonstrating meaningful and relevant application of essential understandings, knowledge, and skills. </li></ul>
  8. 8. How Can It Be Measured? <ul><li>Authentic assessment attempts to take the measure of a student’s real work over time and to embed that assessment in a powerful but familiar intellectual context, comprehensible to the student. </li></ul>
  9. 9. At the Core of Authentic Assessment <ul><li>Humans construct meaning by appropriating, processing and synthesizing experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Assessments go beyond requiring students to replicate or paraphrase text. </li></ul><ul><li>Students demonstrate that they have fruitfully constructed fully-modeled meaning, as a result of their own agency. </li></ul><ul><li>Authentic tasks serve as assessment tools, and as vehicles for substantive learning. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Relevancy <ul><li>Successful and profound learning depends on promoting  relevant real–world knowledge, skills, and understanding that engender interesting and motivating challenges for the students. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Principal Source: McTighe J., Wiggins, G. Understanding by Design, Alexandria, VA: ASCD, 2005. <ul><li>Why UbD? </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching for in-depth understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Supported by body of educational thought </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent with constructivist theories </li></ul>
  12. 12. A Contiunuum Assessment Instruction Curriculum
  13. 13. Authentic Tasks <ul><li>Students construct their own responses, rather than to select from ones presented. </li></ul><ul><li>Replicate challenges faced in the real world. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Three Stages of the UbD Approach <ul><li>Stage 1: Identify desired results </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 2: Determine acceptable evidence (assessment) </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 3: Plan learning experiences and (instruction) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Sample of a Unit from a Secondary Curriculum “ Connections: Humanity and Music” Christine Jones, BU MM ‘08
  16. 16. Stage 1 : Identify Desired Results <ul><li>National Standards: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8. Understanding relationships between music, the other arts, and disciplines outside the arts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9. Understanding music in relation to history and culture. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To develop the ability to begin viewing human musical activity through various theoretical lenses </li></ul><ul><li>To consider various paradigms regarding music’s function </li></ul>
  17. 17. Stage 1 : Identify Desired Results (cont.) Understandings: <ul><li>Frame understandings around “big ideas,” or core concepts </li></ul><ul><li>“ Students will understand that…” </li></ul><ul><li>All human societies produce music </li></ul><ul><li>The capacity may stem from our evolutionary heritage as a means of social bonding </li></ul><ul><li>Can be viewed through several theoretical lenses </li></ul>
  18. 18. Stage 1 : Identify Desired Results (cont.) Essential Questions: <ul><li>Based on fundamental, over-arching ideas stated in the standard or course goal </li></ul><ul><li>Provocative questions will foster interested inquiry </li></ul><ul><li>Do all human societies produce music? </li></ul><ul><li>Have humans evolved with a specific capacity to create music? </li></ul><ul><li>What evolutionary purpose might it have served? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the various ways in which said capacity reveals itself? </li></ul><ul><li>How might it relate to modern humans? </li></ul>
  19. 19. Stage 1 : Identify Desired Results (cont.) Skills: <ul><li>“ Students will demonstrate the ability to…” </li></ul><ul><li>What key skills will students acquire? </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how and why the capacity for humans to create music may have its origins as an evolutionary adaptation for human bonding. </li></ul><ul><li>Observe musical activities in the environment and consider their social function. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Stage 1 : Identify Desired Results (cont.) Knowledge: <ul><li>“ What important knowledge will students acquire? </li></ul><ul><li>Students will know…” </li></ul><ul><li>What key data, vocabulary, simple concepts, terms, definitions, and symbols will students be able to recall or recognize? </li></ul><ul><li>That all human cultures have music. </li></ul><ul><li>Archaeological evidence reveals music-making in ancient human cultures. </li></ul><ul><li>Necessary terms and definitions in archeology and anthropology </li></ul><ul><li>Supportive and non-supportive theoretical arguments </li></ul><ul><li>A working knowledge of the theories. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Stage 2 : Assessment Evidence Performance Task: <ul><li>Through what authentic performance tasks will students demonstrate the desired understandings? </li></ul><ul><li>In a “PBS-style” documentary, student plays role as a consultant for possible origins of human predisposition to make music. </li></ul><ul><li>Film will examine a variety of musical activities from diverse cultures. </li></ul><ul><li>Conveys how music relates to social bonding. </li></ul><ul><li>Student chooses three contrasting cultures as a starting point </li></ul><ul><li>Student creates documentary script demonstrating how each of example relates to the idea </li></ul>
  22. 22. Stage 2 : Assessment Evidence Key Criteria: <ul><li>By what criteria will “performance” of understanding be judged? </li></ul><ul><li>Choices are diverse and interesting </li></ul><ul><li>Captures the imagination </li></ul><ul><li>Possesses clear and relevant connection to human bonding </li></ul><ul><li>Describes clearly musical activities and social contexts </li></ul><ul><li>Coherently suggests a plausible relationship between the musical activities and social bonding </li></ul>
  23. 23. Stage 2 : Assessment Evidence (cont.) Other Evidence: <ul><li>Through what other evidence (prompts, observations, journals) will students demonstrate achievement of the desired results? </li></ul><ul><li>How will students reflect upon and a self–assess their learning? </li></ul><ul><li>Visual Project: Poster/ collage or PowerPoint demonstrating ways in which humans create and participate in music </li></ul><ul><li>Quiz on archeological evidence and on theories related to origins of music in humans </li></ul><ul><li>Small-group discussions </li></ul><ul><li>Journaling/reflections </li></ul>
  24. 24. Stage 3: Create Learning Plan (highlights) <ul><li>“ Storyboarding,” or planning class activities, homework assignments </li></ul><ul><li>What learning experiences and instructional activities (in and out of the classroom) will enable students to achieve the desired results? </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss Pinker’s theory: music is an evolutionary byproduct serving no useful purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion: why humans produce music? </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint presentation on archaeological evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Instructor clarifies the direction of the course, overview with graphics of three theories of music and social bonding </li></ul><ul><li>Students’ journal encounters with musical activity, considering the idea of social bonding </li></ul><ul><li>Assign visual project </li></ul><ul><li>Students post completed visual projects throughout classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Class freely examines variety of posters, with student comments/discussion </li></ul>
  25. 25. Finis? <ul><li>Perhaps even a cursory look at this learning paradigm makes the point that over-arching, conceptual thinking is the desired result, and that is the place to begin assessment and instructional planning . Schools can be a fertile ground for “growing” minds that construct transferable meaning. </li></ul>Richard R. Bunbury

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