First Workshop Presentation


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The slide used in First Workshop for Freshers held on 1.08.2010.

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  • Machine Vision / Image Processing 4. Artificial Intelligence / Logics
  • First Workshop Presentation

    1. 1. Welcome To The Introductory First Year Workshop
    2. 2. Robots…
    3. 3. Technology Robotix Society was formed in 2001 with the aim of providing education pertaining to the field of Robotics to the students of IIT KGP. They started out by forming K.R.A.I.G. and then, conducting the Robotix fest.
    4. 4. Aim <ul><li>Technology Robotix Society, TRS is a society dedicated to the advancement of robotics in IIT Kharagpur and beyond. </li></ul><ul><li>We are a society that boasts of a dedicated team which works extensively in these disciplines and helps spread it in form of intra and inter collegiate workshops. </li></ul><ul><li>TRS is expanding its vistas with many more external workshops all over India, which have met with phenomenal response in the past. </li></ul><ul><li>We continue to strive for excellence in this pursuit of spreading robotics and paving the way for world class robotics R&D in India. </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><ul><li>ROBOTIX 2007 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 1500 Participants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>546 Teams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International Participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online Submission from Universities like Princeton, Stanford </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><ul><li>ROBOTIX 2008 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 3750 Participants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1060 Teams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>63 Colleges </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><ul><li>ROBOTIX 2009 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 3000 Participants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>900+ Teams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First outdoor autonomous event </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First event based on Microsoft Robotics Studio platform . </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><ul><li>ROBOTIX 2010 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A golden decade of ROBOTIX completed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8MileX continues with a grander challenge. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First ever underwater Robotics event in India. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic problem statement introduced in TribotX. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manual and Autonomous Robotics combined in Xtension . </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. At a glance…
    10. 10. At a glance…
    11. 11. At a glance…
    12. 12. At a glance…
    13. 13. New Frontiers In Robotics <ul><li>Aerial Robotics </li></ul><ul><li>Underwater Exploration </li></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>Machine Vision / Image Processing </li></ul><ul><li>Bio-mimicry </li></ul>
    15. 15. Kharagpur Robotics and Artificial Intelligence Group
    16. 16. K.R.A.I.G <ul><li>The Kharagpur Robotics and Artificial Intelligence Group is the premier group which looks after the development of studies related to robotics in IIT Kharagpur. </li></ul>
    17. 17. K.R.A.I.G Projects Undertaken <ul><li>Autonomous Ground Vehicle For Low Intensity Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Biped - KEB 1.0 </li></ul><ul><li>SkeLKeT - Quadraped </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual Eye - Ultrasonic Mapping </li></ul><ul><li>8Mile </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomous Car Parking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maze Solution using Path Planning Simulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tele-Robotics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Micromouse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soccer Bots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft Robotics Studio Applications </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. <ul><li>Over the past two years we have conducted workshops in BIT Mesra, NIT Rourkela, ISM Dhanbad, Bhubaneswar, Bhilai and numerous other colleges. </li></ul>Workshops
    19. 19. Events 2011 <ul><li>R.A.F.T. </li></ul><ul><li>Pirate Bay </li></ul><ul><li>Ballista </li></ul><ul><li>The Fugitives </li></ul><ul><li>RoboCop </li></ul><ul><li>The Negotiators </li></ul>
    20. 20. Robocup is a premier organization which aims to build a team of Robots so that “ By mid-21st century, a team of fully autonomous humanoid robot soccer players shall win the soccer game, comply with the official rule of the FIFA, against the winner of the most recent World Cup. ” The organizations hold League matches in various countries and the RoboCup World Championship .
    21. 21. Part I : Basic Machine
    22. 22. Basic Parts Of A Mobile Robot <ul><li>Locomotion system </li></ul><ul><li>Power supply system </li></ul><ul><li>Actuators </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory devices for feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Sensor Data processing unit </li></ul><ul><li>Control system </li></ul>Copyright © Robotix Team, IIT Kharagpur
    23. 23. Locomotion System <ul><li>As the name suggests a mobile robot must have a system to make it move </li></ul><ul><li>This system gives our machine the ability to move forward, backward and take turns </li></ul><ul><li>It may also provide for climbing up and down </li></ul>Copyright © Robotix Team, IIT Kharagpur
    24. 24. Locomotion System <ul><li>The concept of locomotion invariably needs rotational motion e.g. a wheel driven by some power source </li></ul><ul><li>This involves conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy, which we can easily achieve using electrical motors </li></ul><ul><li>The issue is to control these motors to give the required speed and torque </li></ul>Copyright © Robotix Team, IIT Kharagpur
    25. 25. Power, Torque and Speed <ul><li>A simple equation: Power is the product of Torque and Angular velocity </li></ul><ul><li>P = ζ X ω </li></ul><ul><li>This implies that if we want more torque (pulling capacity) from the same motor we may have to sacrifice speed and vice versa </li></ul>Copyright © Robotix Team, IIT Kharagpur
    26. 26. Another Simple Relation <ul><li>The DC motors available have very high speed of rotation which is generally not needed. But what they lack is torque output. </li></ul><ul><li>For reduction in speed and increase in pulling capacity we use pulley or gear systems </li></ul><ul><li>These are governed by: ω 1 X r 1 = ω 2 X r 2 </li></ul>Copyright © Robotix Team, IIT Kharagpur
    27. 27. Wheeled Locomotion Systems <ul><li>Differential drive </li></ul><ul><li>Car type drive </li></ul><ul><li>Skid steer drive </li></ul><ul><li>Articulated drive </li></ul><ul><li>Synchronous drive </li></ul><ul><li>Pivot drive </li></ul><ul><li>Dual differential drive </li></ul>Copyright © Robotix Team, IIT Kharagpur
    28. 28. Differential Drive <ul><li>Most commonly used </li></ul><ul><li>Simplest and easiest to implement </li></ul><ul><li>It has a free moving wheel in the front accompanied with a left and right wheel </li></ul><ul><li>The two wheels are separately powered </li></ul><ul><li>When the wheels move in the same direction the machine moves in that direction </li></ul><ul><li>Turning is achieved by making the wheels oppose each other’s motion, thus generating a couple </li></ul>Copyright © Robotix Team, IIT Kharagpur
    29. 29. Differential Drive Cont… <ul><li>Black arrows denote the direction of wheel. The green ones show robot movement </li></ul>Copyright © Robotix Team, IIT Kharagpur
    30. 30. Differential Drive Cont… <ul><li>In-place (zero turning radius) rotation is done by turning the drive wheels at the same rate in the opposite direction </li></ul><ul><li>Arbitrary motion paths can be implemented by dynamically modifying the angular velocity and/or direction of the drive wheels </li></ul><ul><li>Total of two motors are required, both of them are responsible for translation and rotational motion </li></ul>Copyright © Robotix Team, IIT Kharagpur
    31. 31. Differential Drive An Analysis <ul><li>Simplicity and ease of use makes it the most preferred system by beginners </li></ul><ul><li>Independent drives makes it difficult for straight line motion. The differences in motors and frictional profile of the two wheels cause them to move with slight turning effect </li></ul><ul><li>The above drawback must be countered with appropriate feedback system. Suitable for human controlled remote robots </li></ul>Copyright © Robotix Team, IIT Kharagpur
    32. 32. Car Type Drive Copyright © Robotix Team, IIT Kharagpur
    33. 33. Skid Steer Drive Copyright © Robotix Team, IIT Kharagpur
    34. 34. Articulated Drive Copyright © Robotix Team, IIT Kharagpur
    35. 35. Synchronous Drive Copyright © Robotix Team, IIT Kharagpur
    36. 36. Pivot Drive Copyright © Robotix Team, IIT Kharagpur
    37. 37. Power Supply System <ul><li>Suitable power source is needed to run the robots </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile robots are most suitably powered by batteries </li></ul><ul><li>The weight and energy capacity of the batteries may become the determinative factor of its performance </li></ul>Copyright © Robotix Team, IIT Kharagpur
    38. 38. Using Pulleys r 1 r 2 ω 1 ω 2 Motor Wheel ω 1 r 1 = ω 2 r 2 => ω 2 = ω 1 r 1 / r 2 τ 1 ω 1 = τ 2 ω 2 => τ 2 = τ 1 ω 1 / ω 2 => τ 2 = τ 1 r 2 / r 1 Thus we get reduction in speed and increased torque. Hence our machine is able to cross over obstacles easily and also pull more load Belt Belt
    39. 39. Multi Pulley Systems Motor Wheel Intermediate Pulley ω 1 ω 2 ω 3 ω 1 r 1 = ω 3 r 2 => ω 3 = ω 1 r 1 / r 2 τ 1 ω 1 = τ 3 ω 3 => τ 3 = τ 1 ω 1 / ω 3 => τ 3 = τ 1 r 2 / r 1 ω 3 r 1 = ω 2 r 2 => ω 2 = ω 3 r 1 / r 2 τ 2 ω 2 = τ 3 ω 3 => τ 2 = τ 3 ω 3 / ω 2 => τ 2 = τ 3 r 2 / r 1 => τ 2 = τ 1 r 2 2 / r 1 2 Hence for n pulley system => τ 2 = τ 1 r 2 n / r 1 n r 1 r 2 r 2 r 1
    40. 40. Features of Pulley System <ul><li>Simple and easy to use </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible rubber belts make the job easier </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum torque restricted by friction limits </li></ul><ul><li>Very high torque system cannot be achieved </li></ul>
    41. 41. Be there : Venue : Kalidas Auditorium, Ramanujam Complex Date : 8 th August Time : 5:30 pm For another exciting foray into ROBOTICS! Visit :