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Overview of psychotropic medications


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Overview of psychotropic medications

  1. 1. Overview of Psychotropic Medications Prepared by: The Northern New Jersey Maternal Child Health Consortium
  2. 2. OBJECTIVES <ul><li>Define the term “psychotropic” </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the psychiatric conditions of:  depression, bipolar disorder, and anxiety disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Give examples of psychotropic medications used to treat depression, bipolar disorder, and anxiety disorder </li></ul><ul><li>State the most important message to convey to pregnant or breastfeeding women—discuss risks and benefits of medication with doctor </li></ul><ul><li>Identify web resources for information on pregnancy and breastfeeding and medication </li></ul>
  3. 3. What are Psychotropic Medications? <ul><li>Psychotropic medications are medications used to treat mental disorders. They may also sometimes be referred to as psychiatric medications or psychotherapeutic medications. </li></ul>
  4. 4. What Types of Mental Disorders Can be Treated with Medication? <ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Bipolar Disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety Disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Schizophrenia </li></ul><ul><li>ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) </li></ul>
  5. 5. What is Depression? <ul><li>Depression is a mood disorder and is likely caused by a combination of genetic, biologic, and environmental factors. In terms of the biologic basis, there is an abnormality in neurotransmitters in the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Antidepressants are medications commonly used to treat depression. </li></ul><ul><li>Neurotransmitters are natural chemicals in the brain that affect mood and emotional response. Antidepressant medications work to balance these chemicals. </li></ul><ul><li>Serotonin, Norepinephrine, and Dopamine are 3 neurotransmitters that are involved in depression. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Types of Medications Used to Treat Depression <ul><li>Antidepressant medications are grouped based on which neurotransmitter in the brain is being affected. Groups include: </li></ul><ul><li>SSRI’s Selective Seretonin Reuptake Inhibitor </li></ul><ul><li>SNRI’s Seretonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors </li></ul><ul><li>NDRI’s Norepinephrine and Dopamine Reuptake Inhibitors </li></ul><ul><li>Tricyclic Antidepressants (Decreased reuptake of Seretonin and Norepinephrine ) </li></ul><ul><li>MAOIs Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (Increases concentration of neurotransmitters in the brain) </li></ul><ul><li>Combined reuptake inhibitors and receptor blockers </li></ul>
  7. 7. Antidepressant Medication Chart <ul><li>Trazodone (Desyrel) </li></ul><ul><li>Nefazodone (Serzone) </li></ul><ul><li>Maprotiline </li></ul><ul><li>Mirtazpine (Remeron) </li></ul><ul><li>Isocarboxazid (Marplan) </li></ul><ul><li>Phenelzine (Nardil) </li></ul><ul><li>Amitriptyline (Elavil) </li></ul><ul><li>Desipramine (Norpramin) </li></ul><ul><li>Imipramine (Tofranil) </li></ul><ul><li>Nortriptyline (Aventyl, Pamelor) </li></ul><ul><li>Clomipramine (Anafranil) </li></ul><ul><li>Buproprion (Wellbutrin) </li></ul><ul><li>Venlafaxine (Effexor) </li></ul><ul><li>Duloxetine (Cymbalta) </li></ul><ul><li>Fluoxetine (Prozac) </li></ul><ul><li>Paroxetinie (Paxil) </li></ul><ul><li>Sertraline (Zoloft) </li></ul><ul><li>Citalopram (Celexa) </li></ul><ul><li>Escitalopram (Lexapro) </li></ul>Combined MAOIs Tricyclic NDRIs SNRIs SSRIs
  8. 8. What is Bipolar Disorder? <ul><li>Bipolar disorder was formerly called “manic depression”. It is characterized by moods that swing between periods of mania (exaggerated euphoria and/or irritability) and depression. Chemical imbalance is a key component in Bipolar Disorder. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Types of Medications Used to Treat Bipolar Disorder <ul><li>Mood Stabilizers (Anticonvulsant or anti-seizure medications are also used as mood stabilizers) </li></ul><ul><li>Atypical Antipsychotics </li></ul><ul><li>Antidepressants </li></ul>
  10. 10. Bipolar Disorder Medication Chart <ul><li>Fluoxetine (Prozac) </li></ul><ul><li>Sertraline (Zoloft) </li></ul><ul><li>Paroxetine (Paxil) </li></ul><ul><li>Clozapine (Clozaril) </li></ul><ul><li>Olanzapine (Zyprexa) </li></ul><ul><li>Risperidone (Risperdal) </li></ul><ul><li>Quetiapine (Seroquel) </li></ul><ul><li>Ziprasidone (Geodon) </li></ul><ul><li>Ariprazole (Abilify) </li></ul><ul><li>Lithium </li></ul><ul><li>Valproate (Valproic Acid)/Divalproex Sodium (Depakote) </li></ul><ul><li>Carbamezapine (Tegretol) </li></ul><ul><li>Lamotrigine (Lamictal) </li></ul><ul><li>Oxcarbazepine (Trileptal) </li></ul>Antidepressants (Always used with other medications) Atypical Antipsychotics Mood Stabilizers
  11. 11. What is an Anxiety Disorder? <ul><li>An excessive or inappropriate state of arousal characterized by feelings of apprehension, uncertainty, or fear. Categories of anxiety disorders include: </li></ul><ul><li>Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) </li></ul><ul><li>Panic Disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Phobic Disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Obsessive Compulsive Disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) </li></ul><ul><li>Separation Anxiety Disorder </li></ul>
  12. 12. Types of Medications Used to Treat Anxiety Disorders <ul><li>Antidepressants </li></ul><ul><li>Benzodiazepines (Anti-anxiety medications) </li></ul><ul><li>Beta-Blockers (Usually used to treat heart conditions) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Anti-Anxiety Medication Chart <ul><li>Pregabalin (Lyrica) </li></ul><ul><li>Gabapentin (Neurontin) </li></ul><ul><li>_______________ </li></ul><ul><li>**Azapirone** </li></ul><ul><li>Buspirone (Buspar) </li></ul><ul><li>Olanzapine (Zyprexa) </li></ul><ul><li>Propanolol (Inderal) </li></ul><ul><li>Atenolol (Tenormin) </li></ul><ul><li>Clonazepam (Klonopin) </li></ul><ul><li>Lorazepam (Ativan) </li></ul><ul><li>Alprazolam (Xanax) </li></ul><ul><li>Fluoxetine (Prozac) </li></ul><ul><li>Paroxetinie (Paxil) </li></ul><ul><li>Sertraline (Zoloft) </li></ul><ul><li>Citalopram (Celexa) </li></ul><ul><li>Escitalopram (Lexapro) </li></ul><ul><li>Venlafaxine (Effexor) </li></ul><ul><li>Duloxetine (Cymbalta) </li></ul><ul><li>Buproprion (Wellbutrin) </li></ul><ul><li>Imipramine (Tofranil) </li></ul><ul><li>Clomipramine (Anafranil) </li></ul><ul><li>Nortriptyline (Pamelor) </li></ul><ul><li>Desipramine (Norpramin ) </li></ul>Anticonvulsants Atypical Antipsychotics Beta Blockers Benzodiazepines Antidepressants
  14. 14. Pregnancy and Psychotropic Medications <ul><li>The most important message to send to a woman who is pregnant and is taking psychotropic medications or is suffering from a psychiatric disorder and is considering medications is that she should Discuss the risks and benefits with her doctor. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Pregnancy and Psychotropic Medications <ul><li>Research on the use of psychotropic medication on pregnant women is limited </li></ul><ul><li>Just because a woman is pregnant does not mean that she cannot take medications or that she should stop taking medications—she needs to discuss the risks and benefits with her doctor </li></ul><ul><li>A woman who is pregnant and taking psychiatric medication should not stop taking the medication unless she consults with her doctor </li></ul>
  16. 16. Breastfeeding and Medication <ul><li>Some medication may be passed on to an infant through breast milk. A woman should Always discuss the risks and benefits of taking medication while breastfeeding with her doctor. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Web Resources: <ul><li>MedEd PPD: </li></ul><ul><li>MGH Center for Women’s Health: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>National Institute of Mental Health: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  18. 18. Questions?