Cryptography Basics                 1
Cryptography•   History•   Basic terminologies•   Symmetric key encryption•   Asymmetric key encryption•   Public Key Infr...
History• 50 B.C.    Julius Caesar uses cryptographic             technique•   400 A.D. Kama Sutra in India mentions       ...
History• 1914   World War I – British, French, and         German forces use encryption         technology• 1917   William...
History• 1937   Japanese design the Purple         machine for encryption• 1942   Navajo windtalkers help with secure     ...
Basic Terminologies• Cryptography deals with creating documents that can be  shared secretly over public communication cha...
Basic Terminologies• Keys are rules used in algorithms to convert  a document into a secret document• Keys are of two type...
Basic Terminologies• Examples:  – Symmetric key methods    •   DES 56-bit    •   Triple DES 128-bit    •   AES 128-bit and...
Basic Terminologies• Plaintext is text that is in readable form• Ciphertext results from plaintext by applying the  encryp...
Basic Terminologies• Steganography is the method of hiding  secret messages in an ordinary document• Steganography does no...
Basic Terminologies• Hash functions generate a digest of the message• Substitution cipher involves replacing an alphabet w...
Basic Terminologies• Vigenere cipher is an example of a poly-alphabetic  cipher• Vigenere cipher uses a 26 x 26 table of c...
Basic Terminologies• Example of Vigenere cipher:  ABCDEFGHIJ …  BCDEFGHIJK …  CDEFGHIJKL …  DEFGHIJKLM …  EFGHIJKLMN …Plai...
Basic Terminologies• Hash algorithms take an arbitrary length message  and create a fixed length digest known as Message  ...
Basic Terminologies• ECB raises the possibility that identical  blocks could generate identical ciphertext• Cipher block c...
PKI• Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is a government  initiative to protect computer systems• Developed in the 1970s but h...
Digital Certificates• Issued by trusted third parties known as Certificate  Authorities (CAs)• Verisign is a trusted third...
Digital Certificates• Digital Certificates can be issued by any  one as long as there are people willing to  believe them•...
Digital Certificates• Digital Certificates are part of the authentication  mechanism. The other part is Digital Signature....
Digital Certificates• Additional authentication means used by  CAs are:  –   Security token  –   Passive token  –   Active...
Digital Certificates• Security token is usually a hardware device such  as a Smart Card• If the security token is a softwa...
Digital Certificates• Passive token is a storage device that holds  multiple keys. Appropriate key is transmitted  using t...
Digital Certificates• An Active token does not transmit any data,  unlike a passive token• Active tokens create another fo...
Digital Certificates• A One-time password has a limited duration  validity on a single use• Generated using a counter-base...
PGP• Developed by Phil Zimmerman at MIT• Provides 256-bit encryption key• Widely used for encrypting files such as  email•...
PGP• Session key alone is encrypted using the  recipient’s public key• The encrypted message and the encrypted  session ke...
PGP• PGP supports the following encryption methods:   – CAST (named after the developers Carlisle Adams and     Stafford T...
S/MIME• Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension’s  goal is to provide integrity for email• S/MIME is in version 3 and ...
S/MIME            PGP                  S/MIMESelf-certificate          X.509Hierarchical trust        Web of trustIntegrat...
References• PGP http://www.pgpi.org• “RSA Security’s Official Guide to  Cryptography” by S. Burnett and S. Paine,  Osborne...
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Cryptography

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Cryptography

  1. 1. Cryptography Basics 1
  2. 2. Cryptography• History• Basic terminologies• Symmetric key encryption• Asymmetric key encryption• Public Key Infrastructure 2
  3. 3. History• 50 B.C. Julius Caesar uses cryptographic technique• 400 A.D. Kama Sutra in India mentions cryptographic techniques• 1250 British monk Roger Bacon describes simple ciphers• 1466 Leon Alberti develops a cipher disk• 1861 Union forces use a cipher during Civil War 3
  4. 4. History• 1914 World War I – British, French, and German forces use encryption technology• 1917 William Friedman, Father of U.S. encryption efforts starts a school for teaching cryptanalysis in Illinois• 1917 AT&T employee Gilbert Vernam invents polyalphabetic cipher• 1919 Germans develop the Engima machine for encryption 4
  5. 5. History• 1937 Japanese design the Purple machine for encryption• 1942 Navajo windtalkers help with secure communication during World War II• 1948 Claude Shannon develops statistical methods for encryption/decryption• 1976 IBM develops DES• 1976 Diffie – Hellman develop public key / private key cryptography• 1977 Rivest – Shamir – Adleman develop the RSA algorithm for public key / private key 5
  6. 6. Basic Terminologies• Cryptography deals with creating documents that can be shared secretly over public communication channels• Cryptographic documents are decrypted with the key associated with encryption, with the knowledge of the encryptor• The word cryptography comes from the Greek words: Krypto (secret) and graphein (write)• Cryptanalysis deals with finding the encryption key without the knowledge of the encryptor• Cryptology deals with cryptography and cryptanalysis• Cryptosystems are computer systems used to encrypt data for secure transmission and storage 6
  7. 7. Basic Terminologies• Keys are rules used in algorithms to convert a document into a secret document• Keys are of two types: – Symmetric – Asymmetric• A key is symmetric if the same key is used both for encryption and decryption• A key is asymmetric if different keys are used for encryption and decryption 7
  8. 8. Basic Terminologies• Examples: – Symmetric key methods • DES 56-bit • Triple DES 128-bit • AES 128-bit and higher • Blowfish 128-bit and higher – Asymmetric key methods • RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman of MIT) • PGP (Phil Zimmerman of MIT) 8
  9. 9. Basic Terminologies• Plaintext is text that is in readable form• Ciphertext results from plaintext by applying the encryption key• Notations: – M message, C ciphertext, E encryption, D decryption, k key – E(M) = C – E(M, k) = C• Fact: D(C) = M, D(C, k) = M 9
  10. 10. Basic Terminologies• Steganography is the method of hiding secret messages in an ordinary document• Steganography does not use encryption• Steganography does not increase file size for hidden messages• Example: select the bit patterns in pixel colors to hide the message 10
  11. 11. Basic Terminologies• Hash functions generate a digest of the message• Substitution cipher involves replacing an alphabet with another character of the same alphabet set• Mono-alphabetic system uses a single alphabetic set for substitutions• Poly-alphabetic system uses multiple alphabetic sets for substitutions• Caesar cipher is a mono-alphabetic system in which each character is replaced by the third character in succession. Julius Caesar used this method of encryption. 11
  12. 12. Basic Terminologies• Vigenere cipher is an example of a poly-alphabetic cipher• Vigenere cipher uses a 26 x 26 table of characters• Vigenere method uses a keyword. Keyword repeated to fill length of plaintext. Each ciphertext character corresponds to the cell at the intersection of plaintext row and keyword column• Vigenere method does not use repeated characters unlike Caesar cipher 12
  13. 13. Basic Terminologies• Example of Vigenere cipher: ABCDEFGHIJ … BCDEFGHIJK … CDEFGHIJKL … DEFGHIJKLM … EFGHIJKLMN …Plaintext: BEADKeyword: CABCCiphertext: DABF 13
  14. 14. Basic Terminologies• Hash algorithms take an arbitrary length message and create a fixed length digest known as Message Digest• Well-known hash algorithms are MD-4 and MD-5• Ron Rivest created the MD-x hash algorithms for NIST• Block ciphers use blocks of text instead of single characters• Electronic code book (ECB) uses plaintext blocks 14
  15. 15. Basic Terminologies• ECB raises the possibility that identical blocks could generate identical ciphertext• Cipher block chaining (CBC) uses a feedback loop• In CBC, each plaintext block is XORed with the previous ciphertext block• CBC eliminates identical blocks generating identical ciphertext 15
  16. 16. PKI• Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is a government initiative to protect computer systems• Developed in the 1970s but has not been widely accepted. However, parts of the system are in extensive use today. These are Digital Certificates and Digital Signatures.• Digital Certificates are given by trusted third parties, known as Certificate Authorities (CAs). Verisign (an offshoot of RSA) is a CA. Any organization can be a CA as long as there are people willing to believe their assessment of authenticity. 16
  17. 17. Digital Certificates• Issued by trusted third parties known as Certificate Authorities (CAs)• Verisign is a trusted third party• Used to authenticate an individual or an organization• Digital Certificates are usually given for a period of one year• They can be revoked• It is given at various security levels. Higher the security level, the CA verifies the authenticity of the certificate seeker more. 17
  18. 18. Digital Certificates• Digital Certificates can be issued by any one as long as there are people willing to believe them• Major CAs are: – Verisign – GeoTrust – BeTrusted – Thawte 18
  19. 19. Digital Certificates• Digital Certificates are part of the authentication mechanism. The other part is Digital Signature.• When a user uses the digital signature, the user starts with their private key and encrypts the message and sends it. The receiver uses the sender’s public key and decrypts the message• In traditional encryption, the sender uses the public key of the receiver and encrypts the message and sends it and the receiver decrypts the message with their private key 19
  20. 20. Digital Certificates• Additional authentication means used by CAs are: – Security token – Passive token – Active token – One time password 20
  21. 21. Digital Certificates• Security token is usually a hardware device such as a Smart Card• If the security token is a software token, it is usually associated with a particular workstation• Security tokens use two-factor authentication using a password and a device (or an appropriate hardware identifier) 21
  22. 22. Digital Certificates• Passive token is a storage device that holds multiple keys. Appropriate key is transmitted using the transmission device used.• Inexpensive to manufacture• Sometimes an extra PIN is required to use the passive token• Examples: – Garage door opener – ATM card 22
  23. 23. Digital Certificates• An Active token does not transmit any data, unlike a passive token• Active tokens create another form of the base key (such as one-time password) or an encrypted form of the base key• Smart cards are commonly used for active tokens 23
  24. 24. Digital Certificates• A One-time password has a limited duration validity on a single use• Generated using a counter-based token or a clock- based token• Counter-based token is an active token that generates a one-time password based on a counter in the server and the secret key of the user• Clock-based token is an active token that generates one-time passwords based on the server clock 24
  25. 25. PGP• Developed by Phil Zimmerman at MIT• Provides 256-bit encryption key• Widely used for encrypting files such as email• Message is first compressed• A session key is created• The compressed message is encrypted using the session key 25
  26. 26. PGP• Session key alone is encrypted using the recipient’s public key• The encrypted message and the encrypted session key are then sent to the receiver• Receiver uses the private key to decrypt the session key first. Then the message is decrypted in a symmetric key way. 26
  27. 27. PGP• PGP supports the following encryption methods: – CAST (named after the developers Carlisle Adams and Stafford Tavares) is owned by Nortel. It uses a 128-bit key. Freeware. – IDEA (International Data Encryption Algorithm). Not a freeware. Uses 128-bit key – Triple DES. Freeware. Uses three 56-bit keys – Twofish. Uses 128-bit, 192-bit, and 256-bit. Freeware. 27
  28. 28. S/MIME• Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension’s goal is to provide integrity for email• S/MIME is in version 3 and it is an IETF standard• S/MIME follows a hierarchical trust scheme in which a trusted party passes on the trust to the next level below. For example, a trusted CA’s Digital Certificate can be used for authentication• S/MIME certificates follow X.509 standard 28
  29. 29. S/MIME PGP S/MIMESelf-certificate X.509Hierarchical trust Web of trustIntegrated in Microsoft Free for downloadand Netscape productsFee for certificate Free certificateUses 3DES encryption Uses 3DES encryptionUses SHA-1 for hash Uses SHA-1 for hashEasy to use Easy to use 29
  30. 30. References• PGP http://www.pgpi.org• “RSA Security’s Official Guide to Cryptography” by S. Burnett and S. Paine, Osborne/McGraw-Hill, 2001 30

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