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# Things Your Extruder Screw Designer Never Told You About Screws - Slideshow

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# Things Your Extruder Screw Designer Never Told You About Screws - Slideshow

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### Things Your Extruder Screw Designer Never Told You About Screws - Slideshow

1. 1. “Things Your Screw Designer Never Told You About Screws !!” Presented by: Tim Womer 1/25/2011
2. 2. Common Nomenclature for Single Screws Flighted Length = F.L. Screw Dia. = D Feed Transition Metering Flighted Length (F.L.) L/D = Screw Diameter ( D ) 1/25/2011
3. 3. Length per Diameter of a Screw (L/D) • Example: – Screw Diameter = 2.5” – Flighted Length = 63” – L/D = 63/2.5 = 25.2:1 L/D – OEMs refer to this as a 24:1 L/D – Typical L/Ds are 24:1, 30:1, 32:1, 36:1 • Machine manufacturers define L/D differently. • Screw manufacturers sometimes price a screw based on the overall flighted length. 1/25/2011
4. 4. Section Lengths - Feed • No feed section - old RPVC powder design • 5 to 6 turns - typical • 8 to 10 turns for poor feeding materials • 10 to 12 turns when the material requires heat to be absorbed before it can be melted. Feed 1/25/2011
5. 5. Basic Theory of Solids Conveying • In order for the plastic pellet to move forward: – Stick to the barrel – Slip on the screw • If the plastic sticks to the screw, we have a melt block • If the plastic doesn’t stick to the barrel we get “wind milling” 1/25/2011
6. 6. Coefficient of Friction              1/25/2011
7. 7. Transition Section for a Single Stage Screw • Length should match melting rate of polymer of resin being processed • This is where all of the work is done and more generally the most amount of screw and barrel wear is seen. • Typically 5 to 10 turns long Feed Transition 1/25/2011
8. 8. Section Length - Metering • Melting is completed and polymer pumping takes place. • Minimum of 5 to 6 turns before mixer, even if a mixer is being used, to help insure stable output and pumping. • 2 Turns after mixer for re-orienting the melt. • Longer Metering Section typically for Non-barrier type screws. Feed Transition Metering Mtg 1/25/2011
9. 9. 1/25/2011
10. 10. Pumping in the Metering Qnet = Qdrag – QPressure – Qleakage Qdrag Qpressure Qleakage Qnet •Pressure Flow must never be greater than 33% of Drag Flow •On a new screw Leakage Flow is typically less than 1% 1/25/2011
11. 11. Drag Flow / Pressure Flow Equation  n⋅e  3  n⋅e  Fd' ⋅ π 2 ⋅ D2 ⋅ N ⋅ h ⋅ 1 −  ⋅ sin φ ⋅ cosφ Fp ⋅ π ⋅ D ⋅ h ⋅ 1 − '  ⋅ sin φ 2 Qn =  t  −  t  ⋅ ∆p 2 12 ⋅ µ ⋅ L • Pure pumping capacity of the metering section • Leakage Flow is disregarded on new screws because it is < .1% • Result if done in unified units is in3/sec. 1/25/2011
12. 12. Drag Flow Equation  n⋅e  Fd' ⋅π 2 ⋅D 2 ⋅ N ⋅h⋅ 1− ⋅sin φ ⋅cos φ  t  Qd = 2 • F’d = Shape factor of the channel • Pure displace based on the geometry of the screw. • Rate is directly related to screw speed • The helix angle () of the flight in the metering section does have an effect on the pumping capacity of the screw 1/25/2011
13. 13. Differences in Viscosity 100000 10000 Viscocity (pa-sec) 1000 Unfilled PP Filled PP 100 10 1 1 10 100 1000 10000 1/25/2011 Shear Rate (sec-1)
14. 14. Pressure Flow Equation  ' 3  n⋅e    Fp ⋅ π ⋅ D ⋅ h ⋅ 1 −  ⋅ Sin φ 2  QPr ess =   t  ⋅ ∆p   12 ⋅ µ ⋅ L      • “” is the viscosity of the polymer • It has an inverse relationship to the Pressure Flow • The greater the viscosity the lesser the Pressure Flow • The higher the % of filler, typically the higher the viscosity 1/25/2011
15. 15. Simple Calculation for Rate 2 Rate = 2.3 × D × hm × MD × N Where: D = Screw Diameter (inches) hm= Metering Depth (inches) MD = Melt Density of the resin (gm/cc) N = Screw Speed (rpm) 1/25/2011
16. 16. Example Problem Rate = 2.3 × D 2 × hm × MD × N Where: D = 2.5” hm= .150” MD = LDPE (.76 gm/cc) N = 120 rpm Rate = 2.3 × D2 × hm × MD × N 1/25/2011 Rate = 245.8 lb/hr
17. 17. Section Lengths - Mixers • Two types of Mixing - Distributive and Dispersionary Mixing • Most mixers are 2 turns long • Some of the more intense dispersionary mixers are 3+ turns long. • Mixers should be located back from the tip of the screw approximately 2 turns to help in re-orienting the melt. Feed Transition Metering Mixer Mtg 1/25/2011
18. 18. 1/25/2011
19. 19. 1/25/2011
20. 20. Nano™-Mixer US Patent 6,497,508 • Dispersionary Mixing • Self-cleaning • Multi-Pass Mixing • Injection and Extrusion 1/25/2011
21. 21. StrataBlend® II Mixer US Patent 6,488,399 • Distributive Mixing • Chaotic Mixing • Low Shear (PVC, ABS, PC, etc.) • Injection and Extrusion 1/25/2011
22. 22. Mixing Experiment 1/25/2011
23. 23. Depth to Depth Compression Ratio hf hm Feed Transition Metering Compression hf Ratio (C.R.) = hm 1/25/2011
24. 24. Compression Ratio = C/R • Feed Depth / Metering Depth • Examples for a 2.5” screw: hf .300” = .100” = 3:1 hm and hf .450” = .150” = 3:1 hm 1/25/2011
25. 25. Barrier Screw Technology 1/25/2011
26. 26. Barrier Screws • High performance technology • Separates the melt pool from the solids bed • Lower overall melt temperature 1/25/2011
27. 27. Barrier Basics 1/25/2011
28. 28. Volumetric Compression Ratio of Barrier Screws Volumetric Compression Ratio = VCR hf h m Feed Metering Barrier Section Cross-Section of Feed Cross-Section at End of Barrier 1/25/2011
29. 29. Volumetric Compression Ratio in Barrier Screws Wf Wm Ws hs hf hm Cross-Section of Feed Cross-Section @ End of Barrier (Wf * hf ) VCR = (W * h m ) + (Ws * h s ) m 1/25/2011
30. 30. Temperature Profile (for processing a .35MI HDPE) 120F Z1= 350 F Z2= 460 F Z3= 440 F Z4= 420 F Z5= 400 F      NOTE: This profile typically will produce a 410-420F Melt against a 3500 PSI headpressure. 1/25/2011
31. 31. 4.5” x 32:1 L/D Screw & Barrel Wear (Due to improper barrel temperature profile) 4.58 4.56 Screw and Barrel Diameters (IN) 4.54 4.52 BBL Nominal 4.5 BARREL SCREW SCR Nominal 4.48 4.46 4.44 4.42 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 L/D Location on Screw and Barrel
32. 32. Two Stage Screw Technology 1/25/2011
33. 33. Two Stage Nomenclature Flighted Length = F.L. Vent Location = .66 x F.L. hf hm hv hp nd 1st 2 Feed Trans. Metering Dec. Vent Comp. Metering First Stage Second Stage 1/25/2011
34. 34. Features of Two Stage Screws • Primary Purpose is for Devolitization or Venting for the removal of Moisture and /or gases. • Typical L/D of Two Stage screws are 32:1 to 36:1 L/D with extremes of 24:1 L/D to 40:1 L/D and longer. • Throughput Rates of Two Stage Screws is typically 2/3 of an equivalent length Single Stage Screw. 1/25/2011
35. 35. Design Requirements for Two Stage Screws • Rheological data - for any design is essential. • What is the typical headpressure? • Is a melt pump being used in the system? • Is the vent being operated with a vacuum or is it being vented to atmosphere? 1/25/2011
36. 36. Two Stage - Pump Ratio h h h h f m v p st nd 1 2 Metering Metering Feed Trans. Dec. Vent Comp. Old Method Correct Method hp Qnet ss Pump Ratio = =1.6 Pump Ratio = hm Qnet fs 1/25/2011
37. 37. Two Stage - Compression Ratio h h h h f m v p st nd 1 2 Metering Metering Feed Trans. Dec. Vent Comp. hf hv First Stage C/R = Second Stage C/R = hm hp NOTE: Typically the Second Stage Compression Ratio is between 2:1 and 2.5:1 1/25/2011
38. 38. Conclusion • Make sure you provide your screw manufacturer with good resin information. • Understand how the mechanics of a screw’s design functions. • Hopefully this presentation has help make everyone here a little more knowledgeable in the functions of a feedscrew. 1/25/2011
39. 39. Thank You ! 1/25/2011