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Slide 1 Canadian Biosafety Symposium June
2016, Montreal
Presenter: Bruce MacKinnon CD,
CHSO
Slide 2
Learning Outcomes
1.0...
Slide 4
ARE YOU READY?
• Do you have a
trained spill
response team in
the lab?
• Do they know the
dangers?
• Do they under...
Slide 7
• Does your laboratory use
Biohazardous agents that
could cause serious lab
acquired illnesses?
ARE YOU READY?
Sli...
Slide 10
WELL KNOWN
LABORATORY ACCIDENTS
Slide 11
• April 2005 Ohio State
University
• Over loaded lab shelf of
hexane col...
Slide 13
• September 2009 University of
Chicago
• Malcolm Casadaban, 60, a professor
of molecular genetics, died after
fal...
Slide 14
• January 2010 Texas Tech
University
• Two graduate students were
working on creating derivatives
of an explosive...
Slide 16
• June 2014 University
of Minnesota
• Student injured in a
TMS-azide explosion
WELL KNOWN
LABORATORY ACCIDENTS
To...
Slide 17
• February 2015 Texas
Tech University
• Four people injured
when a bottle
exploded in the fume
hood
WELL KNOWN
LA...
Slide 20
SPILL SUPPLY ESSENTIALS
• There are many commercial spill kits
available through VWR, Fisher,
Anachemia, ect...fo...
Slide 23
• Chemical Neutralizers
• Spill Pads
• Spill Socks
• Drain Covers
• Broom and dust pan
• Tongs
• GREASE PENCILS!
...
Slide 26
SPILL SUPPLY ESSENTIALS
Slide 27
Solid
chemical
storage
Flammable chemicals
Eye wash units
Chemical shower
Spill ...
Slide 29
Quick Chemistry Question
• HIJKLMNO
• Name the Compound!
• H to O
• H2O
QUIZ TIME
Slide 30
THE ERT
Slide 31
Can o...
Slide 32
The make up of an effective spill team
• An effective team is based on the risk
• Minimum of 3 to 4 responders (l...
Slide 35
For any high risk labs, the ERT should have, as
a minimum
• Training – NFPA 472 Specialist (HAZMAT
Technician)
• ...
Slide 38
Spill
HOT ZONE
WARM ZONE
COLD
ZONE
Insert Team
Decon Team
2nd Insert
Team
Command
Team
Medical Officer
THE ERT
Sl...
Slide 41
BIOLOGICAL SPILL RESPONSE
Slide 42
The degree of risk involved in a biological
agent spill depends on:
• the loca...
Slide 44
• If the spill has the potential to generate aerosols
or droplets (Containment Level 2 or higher), the
lab must b...
Slide 47
• Spills outside the BSC (non-aerosols or droplet danger)
• Berm the spill with a sock
• Cover with pads or paper...
Slide 50
• If the laboratory was evacuated due to a
aerosolization of an agent and the minimum 30
minute waiting time has ...
Slide 53
• Remember, before you plan any work with high
risk biological agents, look at the Pathogen Safety
data Sheet loc...
Slide 55
The truth about bleach
• As a disinfectant, hypochlorite concentrations
needs to be at 5000 ppm (0.5% w/v hypochl...
Slide 58
NOTES ON CHEMICAL STORAGE
The proper storage of chemicals can and will help
reduce the probability of dangerous a...
labels
Do not store hazardous materials
(except cleaners) under sinks
Avoid chemical stockpiling; procure
hazardous materi...
liquids away from oxidizers and heat
producers
House flammable and combustible
liquids in excess of 10 gallons (per
room) ...
Slide 62
The safest way to store chemicals is to...
• Keep all class 6.2 organic peroxides away from all
organic compounds...
Slide 65
The safest way to store chemicals is to:
• Store all class 4 reactive solids, class 5.1 oxidizers
and 6.1 toxic s...
Slide 68
• Know when you need to call for outside help...
BASIC CHEMICAL SPILL RESPONSE
Slide 69
Spills in your control......
Slide 71
• Not all spill pads (and pigs) are equal!
• Are you using the rights spill pads and pillows
in your spill kit?
B...
Slide 74
Hazmat Sorbents
• Specifically designed to absorb aggressive fluids such as
acids and bases
• Ideal for use in la...
Slide 77
• In both of these
small spill scenarios,
leave the covered
spill set for a
minimum of 30
minutes
• This is the m...
Slide 80
• Always pick up the used spill pads, after the wait
time, from the center first, to see if all the spilled
liqui...
Slide 83
Spills outside your control...
• Follow your facilities policies if you have an
internal HAZMAT team
• Evacuate t...
Slide 86
• Stand Up
• Stretch
• Bend
• Stretch
• Shake it out...
ERGO BREAK
Slide 87
ADVANCED SPILL RESPONSE TIPS
Slide 88...
Slide 89
Picric Acid (2,4,6-Trinitrophenol) and Bouin’s Solution
• This material poses an explosion hazard when dry
• Poly...
Slide 92
Picric Acid (2,4,6-Trinitrophenol)
• In a spill situation, it is critical that...
No chemical absorbents are used...
Slide 95
Formalin / Formaldehyde
• Formalin (formaldehyde) can cause serious sensitivity
(allergies)
• People who suffer a...
Slide 98
• Leaking Formalin Container (fills tray and spills on to floor)
• Floor and boxes on floor are now contaminated
...
Slide 101
ADVANCED SPILL RESPONSE TIPS
Slide 102
Formalin / Formaldehyde
• After the minimum of 30 minute reaction time, r...
Slide 104
ADVANCED SPILL RESPONSE TIPS
Slide 105
Phenol
• At room temperature, phenol is a translucent,
colorless, crystal...
Slide 107
Phenol spills (solid or liquids)
• Phenol will penetrate latex in a few minutes, do not use
latex gloves
• Rubbe...
Slide 110
Phenol spill control for solids...
• Wipe down of the spill area should be done with a pad
wetted with polyethyl...
due to its toxicity to mitochondria.[16]
A
more recent study shows that EtBr acts
as a topoisomerase I poison, just like
s...
Slide 114
Ethidium Bromide
• To be on the safe side, all EtBr waste should be
handled as highly hazardous
• This includes ...
Slide 117
Mercury
• Mercury poisoning is well known in history (mainly due
to organic mercury - alkyl mercury)
Minamata Ja...
Slide 120
Mercury
• As a commercially
designed mercury pump or
make your own in the lab,
ensuring the mercury is
collectin...
Slide 123
Sodium Azide
• When working in a lab with sodium azide, it is critical
that no skin is exposed (wrists, chest, l...
Slide 126
Sodium Azide liquid spill (<4.5%w/v)
• Evacuate the lab
• If safe to do so, block any floor drains
• Assess if t...
Slide 129
DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX
Slide 130
CHEMICAL INJURIES
DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX
Slide 131
AGGRESSIVE AGENTS
CORROSIVE ...
Slide 132
THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CORROSIVE AND IRRITANT AGENTS
CORROSIVE
IRRITANT
Highly concentrated acids or bases
STRON...
Slide 135
EFFECT ON TISSUE CELLS
EXAMPLE WITH CAUSTIC SODA
DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX
Order?
Slide 136
Type of product and
con...
Slide 138
WASHING WITH WATER
Water is the standard first aid
response for the majority of
companies (ANSI Z358.1)
DIPHOTER...
Slide 141
Water is the Universal Solvent
Water acts in the same way
on all aggressive chemicals
THERE IS NO RISK OF
MAKING...
Slide 144
INTERVENTION TIME IS CRUCIAL
• Can the worker find the showers
(with impaired vision)?
• Does the worker need as...
Slide 147
THE HYPOTONICITY OF WATER
DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX
Water for First Aid
Slide 148
PREDICTABLE RESULTS!!
• Early wat...
Slide 150
What would an ideal first
response solution Look
Like?Retain Positive Affects of Water
• Mechanical removal
• Un...
Slide 153
pH COMPARISON OF WATER
AND DIPHOTERINE
Diphoterine moves the
pH of chemicals to the
safe physiological
range fas...
Slide 156
ACTIVE WASHING VS PASSIVE WASHING
• Active washing principles
always yield better results!
• We practice the pri...
Slide 159
IN CASE OF A DELAYED RINSING
• Splash of guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform (TRIzol)
DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOR...
Slide 162
EASY TO USE!
PROPER PROTOCOL
PACKAGING DESIGNED FOR EASY APPLICATION
For the eyes
ergonomic eyecup
For the skin
...
Slide 165
FLUSHING THE SKIN
100 ml / 200 ml Intervention
within the first minute
Micro and Mini DAP’s
DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOR...
Slide 168
FLUSHING PROTOCOL
• Move away from the danger
• Remove affected clothing
• Rinse as quickly as possible,
respect...
Slide 171
Diphoterine vs Water - pH Demonstration
DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX
Slide 172
172
DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX
TRIVOREX
Sli...
Slide 174
DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX
TRIVOREX
Trivorex operates in three steps
• Captures and limits the spreading of the spil...
Slide 177
DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX
TRIVOREX
ACIDS BASES OXIDIZERS
POLAR
SOLVENTS
NON-POLAR
SOLVENTS
OTHER
PRODUCTS
•Sulphuri...
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Biosafety Conference Slides

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Biosafety Conference Slides

  1. 1. Slide 1 Canadian Biosafety Symposium June 2016, Montreal Presenter: Bruce MacKinnon CD, CHSO Slide 2 Learning Outcomes 1.0 Are You Ready 2.0 Well Known Laboratory Accidents 3.0 Spill Supply Essentials 4.0 An Effective Spill Team – The ERT 5.0 Biological Spill Response 6.0 Notes on Chemical Storage 7.0 Basic Chemical Spill Response 8.0 Advanced Spill Response Tips 9.0 Diphoterine and Trivorex Review the agenda Slide 3
  2. 2. Slide 4 ARE YOU READY? • Do you have a trained spill response team in the lab? • Do they know the dangers? • Do they understand chemical compatibility? Slide 5 • Do you have a well developed emergency plan and health and safety program? ARE YOU READY? Slide 6 • That no one has even read? ARE YOU READY?
  3. 3. Slide 7 • Does your laboratory use Biohazardous agents that could cause serious lab acquired illnesses? ARE YOU READY? Slide 8 H&S PROGRAM • Does your laboratory use high hazard chemical agents? Slide 9 • When was the last time you actually saw someone read an SDS? H&S PROGRAM
  4. 4. Slide 10 WELL KNOWN LABORATORY ACCIDENTS Slide 11 • April 2005 Ohio State University • Over loaded lab shelf of hexane collapsed (>45L of hexane spilled) • Vapours caused fire and explosion • This was a repeated accident (solvent spills and fires) WELL KNOWN LABORATORY ACCIDENTS Slide 12 • Sheri Sangji, a 23 year old Researcher with a bachelor’s degree in chemistry was transferring tert-butyllithium (ignites spontaneously in air) • She was not wearing a lab coat and her clothes caught fire • She died from her injuries on Jan. 16, 2009. WELL KNOWN LABORATORY ACCIDENTS Researcher Sheri Sangji was transferring tert-butyllithium, which ignites spontaneously in air, when the plunger came out of the syringe barrel. She was not wearing a lab coat and her clothes caught fire She died from her injuries on Jan. 16, 2009. She was 23 years old and had received her bachelor’s degree in chemistry from Pomona College in May 2008.
  5. 5. Slide 13 • September 2009 University of Chicago • Malcolm Casadaban, 60, a professor of molecular genetics, died after falling ill following experiments using a weakened strain of the Yersinia pestis bacteria that cause plague • He had a rare blood disorder that lead to his death, but this occurred only because he has contacted the virus WELL KNOWN LABORATORY ACCIDENTS Casadaban was conducting laboratory research on the bacterium that causes the plague when he became sick. The germ was genetically weakened and considered harmless to humans. It was considered so safe, Casadaban’s work with the live plague bacteria wasn’t noted when he fell ill, according to the CDC. A professor at the university for 30 years, by all accounts he had followed the proper safety protocols, the report said. Casadaban’s research focused on describing the chain of cellular events that occurs as a person is sickened by the plague bacterium, called Yersinia pestis. Scientists suspect that Casadaban may have harbored a previously unknown vulnerability to the laboratory plague strain that was revealed only in his death. An autopsy found the researcher had a medical condition called hemochromatosis, which causes an excessive buildup of iron in the body, according to the CDC report. The disorder affects about 1 in 400 people and goes unnoticed in about half of patients. Casadaban’s illness is important because of the way the plague bacterium had been weakened. Yersinia pestis needs iron to survive. Normally it gets this iron by stealing it from a host’s body with proteins that bind to it and help break it down. To make the bacterium harmless, scientists genetically stripped it of the proteins needed to consume iron.
  6. 6. Slide 14 • January 2010 Texas Tech University • Two graduate students were working on creating derivatives of an explosive compound called nickel hydrazine perchlorate https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sjDdl_d8br8 WELL KNOWN LABORATORY ACCIDENTS Two graduate students were working on creating derivatives of an explosive compound called nickel hydrazine perchlorate. They made 10 grams of the substance, which is 100 times more than their professor considered safe. (The professor instructed them to not make more than 100 mg, though the graduate students denied such a safety limit existed.) One of the students decided to crush the substance with a mortar and pestle prior to analysis. However, this was a tragic mistake. These types of substances can explode under friction or pressure. And that's exactly what happened. The student suffered from burns and lost three fingers. Slide 15 • May 2012 VA Medical Center, San Francisco • 25-year-old Richard Din died after becoming infected with a deadly strain of bacterial meningitis • Investigators could not determined how the man became infected with the bacteria, or when / how the infection occurred WELL KNOWN LABORATORY ACCIDENTS
  7. 7. Slide 16 • June 2014 University of Minnesota • Student injured in a TMS-azide explosion WELL KNOWN LABORATORY ACCIDENTS Tolman, Sitek, and other investigators have not been able to definitively identify what went wrong with the reaction, Tolman says. One explanation is that the explosion was from hydrazoic acid, which could have formed from wet PEG providing water to react with sodium azide or the PEG itself reacting with sodium azide. Another explanation is that the sodium azide overheated. More important than the reaction, Tolman emphasizes, is the deeper root cause of the incident: insufficient recognition of the reaction’s hazards. Warnings included with literature protocols were “pretty lame,” he says. He also thinks that the lab group became complacent after doing the reaction several times without incident. “While they were aware of the hazards, concern about them became less up front,” he says. Also, as people modified the protocol, they didn’t appear to understand how changes might affect the risk of the synthesis. “There was a real reason to use PEG,” Tolman says. The reaction involved a heterogeneous mixture and people had trouble with clumping, and literature indicated that using PEG would help. “But they hadn’t thought through that maybe the PEG was wet or might react itself,” Tolman says.
  8. 8. Slide 17 • February 2015 Texas Tech University • Four people injured when a bottle exploded in the fume hood WELL KNOWN LABORATORY ACCIDENTS Slide 18 What did we learn about how these Laboratory Spills and Incident Happened? • Lack of Training (knowledge vs. Education) • Lack of knowledge (of agents / compounds) • Complacency • Results vs. Safety • Lack of culture • Safety Costs!!! • Carelessness • My favorite... “My employees are all Scientist, they know better and are well educated, so I see a problem!” WELL KNOWN LABORATORY ACCIDENTS Slide 19 ERGO BREAK • Stand Up • Stretch • Bend • Stretch • Meet your neighbour!
  9. 9. Slide 20 SPILL SUPPLY ESSENTIALS • There are many commercial spill kits available through VWR, Fisher, Anachemia, ect...for small scale lab spills (acids, bases, solvents, mercury) • There are a number of other spill kit suppliers out there with pre-made kits... But do they meet your risks? Can I make up my Own? Slide 21 • If you are using biological agents...you need sodium hypochlorite solutions (more on this later) • If you have formaldehyde, you need Spill X-FP (Ansul from Tyco) • If you have acids...you need sodium bicarbonate (& pH paper) or Spill-X • If you have bases..you need citric or boric acid (& pH paper) or Spill-X • If you have mercury in the lab, first you need a good indicator (sulphur / copper iodine) and a mercury spill kit • If you have solvents...you need activated carbon SPILL SUPPLY ESSENTIALS Slide 22 • But what about the HIGH HAZARD ethidium bromide formaldehyde picric acid mercury phenol sodium azide • Do you have a RESPONSE PLAN? SPILL SUPPLY ESSENTIALS
  10. 10. Slide 23 • Chemical Neutralizers • Spill Pads • Spill Socks • Drain Covers • Broom and dust pan • Tongs • GREASE PENCILS! • Flashlight • Garbage Bags • Yellow Caution Tape • Trivorex (more to follow) SPILL SUPPLY ESSENTIALS Slide 24 A word about spill solidifiers • Sodium polyacrylate, nick-named “waterlock”, is a dangerous agent to use on a spill on walking surfaces • It absorbs 200 to 300% is own weight with water • It does not remove the danger and reacts with acids and caustics • But on a floor, it becomes a very slippery, and almost impossible agent to remove from the floor • Same agent that is in diapers SPILL SUPPLY ESSENTIALS Slide 25 Essential PPE required for spill response • Chemical Boots (high risk) • Tyvek Booties (low risk) • Nitrile Gloves • N-buyl Gloves • Chemical Suits (DuPont has many different level suits) • N95 Respirator (low risk biological) • Full or Half Chemical Respirators (medium to high risk) • PAPR (high risk biological) • Safety Goggles (or glasses and face shield) SPILL SUPPLY ESSENTIALS
  11. 11. Slide 26 SPILL SUPPLY ESSENTIALS Slide 27 Solid chemical storage Flammable chemicals Eye wash units Chemical shower Spill Kit Spill Kit SPILL SUPPLY ESSENTIALS Slide 28 Solid chemical storage Flammable chemicals Eye wash units Chemical shower Spill Kit Spill Kit SPILL SUPPLY ESSENTIALS
  12. 12. Slide 29 Quick Chemistry Question • HIJKLMNO • Name the Compound! • H to O • H2O QUIZ TIME Slide 30 THE ERT Slide 31 Can one person clean up a spill? Yes! But only if: • The spill is small and contained (on counter, in fume hood...) • The lab does not need evacuation • The spill does not need any special PPE • The spill has not gone under equipment, cabinets or gone down a drain... • The risk is very low THE ERT
  13. 13. Slide 32 The make up of an effective spill team • An effective team is based on the risk • Minimum of 3 to 4 responders (low risk labs) Team Captain (Responder Commander) Medical Officer (Advanced Medical First Responder is recommended, but Standard First Aid as a minimum level) Entrant Decon • Here the Team Captain acts as a rescue / second Entrant THE ERT Slide 33 The make up of an effective spill team •An effective team is based on the risk •Minimum of 4 to 6 responders (medium risk labs) Team Captain (Responder Commander) Medical Officer (Advanced Medical First Responder is recommended, but Standard First Aid as a minimum level) Entrant (two members) Decon (two members) •Here the Team Captain acts as a Rescue Attendant THE ERT Slide 34 The make up of an effective spill team • An effective team is based on the risk • Minimum of 8 to 10 responders (high risk labs) Team Captain (Responder Commander) Two Medical Officer (Advanced Medical First Responder) Two Entrants Two to Four Decon Members Two to Four Stand-by Entrants THE ERT
  14. 14. Slide 35 For any high risk labs, the ERT should have, as a minimum • Training – NFPA 472 Specialist (HAZMAT Technician) • An ERT responder room with all the gear and equipment • Annual training • Planned drills around high risk agents • Emergency communications system (pagers, blackberries, i-phones...) • Dedication THE ERT Slide 36 • For all high risk labs, the ERT should have well built spill response carts, that are always ready and up to date • During drills, use a cart, but bring a bag with extra gear and supplies that can be used and disposed of THE ERT Slide 37 Understanding what is a spill zone; there are three... • Cold Zone (location of Spill Team Commander / Leader) • Warm Zone (location of secondary insert team, Decon Team and Medical Team/Officer) • Hot Zone (location of the insert team..where the spill is!) THE ERT
  15. 15. Slide 38 Spill HOT ZONE WARM ZONE COLD ZONE Insert Team Decon Team 2nd Insert Team Command Team Medical Officer THE ERT Slide 39 Spill HOT ZONE WARM ZONE Decon Team 2nd Insert Team Medical Officer Spill pads on exit Decon Pool Clean pads for dekit Medical Chair THE ERT Slide 40 • Stand Up • Stretch • Bend • Stretch • Shake it out... ERGO BREAK
  16. 16. Slide 41 BIOLOGICAL SPILL RESPONSE Slide 42 The degree of risk involved in a biological agent spill depends on: • the location of the spill (inside a BSC vs. outside); • if the agent aerosolized; • the volume of material spilled; • the concentration of the agent in the material spilled; • the hazard of the agent involved; • the route of infection of the agent; and • the diseases caused by the agent. BIOLOGICAL SPILL RESPONSE Slide 43 • Spills of biological agents can contaminate areas and lead to the infection of laboratory workers if not cleaned up effectively (under equipment, under counters, under fumehoods...) • Prevention of exposure to hazardous agents is the primary goal in spill containment, cleanup and disinfection (biological / physical / chemical agents) • Evaluating the risks (risk assessment) of spill response is based on the potential generation of aerosols or droplets and the ability of the agent to cause disease / infection BIOLOGICAL SPILL RESPONSE
  17. 17. Slide 44 • If the spill has the potential to generate aerosols or droplets (Containment Level 2 or higher), the lab must be evacuated IMMEDIATELY • Re-entry is only after a minimum of a 30 minute wait, and then only with PPE (respirator [risk specific], boots, chemical suit, gloves, eye protection) • 30 minutes will allow all droplets to settle and all aerosols should be gone with the HVAC air exchange during this period of time BIOLOGICAL SPILL RESPONSE Slide 45 • If the spill is beyond the control of the internal response team due to location, size or agent involved, a third party spill response team will have to be called • Note that local Fire Departments and other third party responders will recover all cost associated with a spill response • Costs can be in the tens of thousands of dollars per response • The minimum HazMat team size from local Fire Departments is 10 members (add vehicles and equipment...$$$$) BIOLOGICAL SPILL RESPONSE Slide 46 • Spills inside BSC are easily handled inside the BSC (allow all aerosols / droplets to settle) and absorb spill with pads or paper towel then spray with a 0.5% w/v hypochlorite solution • Spray all the walls • Allow 30 minutes contact at a minimum • Collect the pads / paper and transfer to biological waste bin • Wipe the interior of the BSC with a cloth or pad wetted with a 10ppm sodium metabisulphite solution to neutralize the bleach - follow with a water then a dry wipe BIOLOGICAL SPILL RESPONSE
  18. 18. Slide 47 • Spills outside the BSC (non-aerosols or droplet danger) • Berm the spill with a sock • Cover with pads or paper-towel • Pour a 0.5% w/v hypochlorite solution over the pads / paper, working from the outside in • Allow 30 minutes contact at a minimum BIOLOGICAL SPILL RESPONSE Slide 48 • Use a flashlight to detect any splatter that may be outside the birmmed area • Circle any droplets with grease pencil • Treat with 0.5% w/v bleach solution in a spray bottle • Collect the pads / paper from the main spill and transfer to biological waste bin • Wipe the spill area a cloth or pad wetted with a 10ppm sodium metabisulphite (optional) solution to neutralize the bleach - follow with a dry wipe • The final clean up should be with a wet mop if on a floor BIOLOGICAL SPILL RESPONSE Slide 49 BIOLOGICAL SPILL RESPONSE
  19. 19. Slide 50 • If the laboratory was evacuated due to a aerosolization of an agent and the minimum 30 minute waiting time has been respected, only enter with proper PPE including respiratory protection and rubber boots • With a fresh bleach solution, spray down the floor, cabinets, counters and all equipment suspected to have been contaminated • Leave the lab and allow the contact time of the bleach to neutralize the agent BIOLOGICAL SPILL RESPONSE Slide 51 • Upon the second re-entry, reduced PPE can be selected (based on risk) • All equipment, walls, cupboards and items in the aerosolization zone need to be picked up and wiped with a pad soaked with 0.5% w/v hypochlorite solution • Wipe dry with paper towels or other spill pads • All waste pads, pillows, disposable PPE and other items used in any biological spill response are to be disposed of as biological waste (per your institutions standards) BIOLOGICAL SPILL RESPONSE Slide 52 • Where biological agents have spattered against cabinets (floor spill), place spill pads on floors under the overhang of the cabinet • Spray the cabinet with 0.5% bleach solution in a spray bottle, saturating the area (more effective than wiping), allowing the solution to run down the cabinet and drip onto the pads on the floor • Collect the pads / paper from the main spill and transfer to biological waste bin • If desired a 10ppm sodium metabisulphite solution can follow to neutralize the bleach BIOLOGICAL SPILL RESPONSE
  20. 20. Slide 53 • Remember, before you plan any work with high risk biological agents, look at the Pathogen Safety data Sheet located on the Public Health Agency of Canada’s web site, then think...what if??? • http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca BIOLOGICAL SPILL RESPONSE Slide 54 A word about disinfectants vs. Sterilizers • Disinfectants are not effective sterilizers • Sterilizers are agents that destroy, for the most part, all microorganisms and their spores • Disinfectants on the other hand, inactivate or destroy certain viruses, bacteria, and pathogenic fungi, but may not inactivate or destroy their spores • With the exception of bacterial spores, fresh bleach is an effective disinfectant • When hypochlorite concentrations are too low, e. coli and vibrio cholerae can activate a defense mechanism that helps protect the bacteria** BIOLOGICAL SPILL RESPONSE Bleach Activates a Redox-Regulated Chaperone by Oxidative Protein Unfolding Jakob, U.; J. Winter; M. Ilbert; P.C.F. Graf; D. Özcelik (14 November 2008). "Bleach Activates A Redox-Regulated Chaperone by Oxidative Protein Unfolding". Cell (Elsevier) 135 (4): 691–701. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.09.024. PMC 2606091. PMID 19013278. Retrieved 2008-11-19. (Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA)
  21. 21. Slide 55 The truth about bleach • As a disinfectant, hypochlorite concentrations needs to be at 5000 ppm (0.5% w/v hypochlorite) • Concentrated bleach is not an effective disinfectant • Freshly diluted bleach solutions are only good for 24 hours...make daily • Not all bleach brands are equal Chlorox - 5.25% hypochlorite Old Dutch - 4.9% hypochlorite Javel Bleach - 12% hypochlorite Lysol Bleach - 2.5% BIOLOGICAL SPILL RESPONSE Slide 56 The truth about bleach • Mixing bleach with other chemical is hazardous • Mixed an acid, sodium hypochlorite will generates chlorine gas • Mixed with amines or other nitrogen based organics (such as urine or some detergents for example) produces ammonia gas and chlorine gas • Concentrated bleach MUST be replaced every five to six months as the hypochlorite deteriorates with time • Concentrated bleach is not an effective disinfectant BIOLOGICAL SPILL RESPONSE Slide 57
  22. 22. Slide 58 NOTES ON CHEMICAL STORAGE The proper storage of chemicals can and will help reduce the probability of dangerous and unexpected chemical reactions by following some easy and “best practice” storage methods... Slide 59 NOTES ON CHEMICAL STORAGE Safe?? Slide 60 The safest way to store chemicals is to... • Separate inorganics and organics chemicals from each other (unless you know the compatibility) - never, never store chemicals alphabetically • Sever store liquids and solids together, unless there is some form of secondary containment • Keep all liquids (and hazardous chemicals) stored in the lab below eye height • Fume-hood interiors are not storage areas! NOTES ON CHEMICAL STORAGE General Guidelines Protect eyes and skin: lab safety glasses with side shields, lab coats and closed- toe shoes must be worn for basic personal protection Safely space shelves and racks to accommodate the upright removal of the largest chemical container; prevent tipping and dripping with adequate clearance Identify and substitute safer chemical alternatives Keep hazardous materials away from heat and direct sunlight to prevent the degradation of chemicals and deterioration of storage containers and
  23. 23. labels Do not store hazardous materials (except cleaners) under sinks Avoid chemical stockpiling; procure hazardous materials as needed Limit fume hood storage of hazardous materials Conduct periodic cleanouts to minimize accumulation of chemicals Keep all food (including gum), beverages, tobacco and open cosmetics outside the work area Acids and Bases Isolate acids: From reactive metals, including sodium, potassium and magnesium From sodium cyanide, iron sulfide, calcium carbide and other compounds that can react to produce toxic fumes/gases Place combustible organic carboxylic acids (i.e., acetic acid) in a flammable storage locker; store inorganic acids in acid storage cabinets Store acids and bases in air-tight containers with snug-fitting caps; avoid loose lids or glass stoppers; use vented caps when necessary to prevent over- pressurization Keep piranha etch and aqua regia in a fume hood at all times Use non-aluminum drip trays for aqueous sodium and potassium hydroxide solutions; isolate nitric acid when utilizing secondary containment Safely transfer containers of acid and base solutions using bottle carriers Never pour water into acid; slowly add the acid to the water and stir Flammable and Combustible Liquids Store flammable and combustible
  24. 24. liquids away from oxidizers and heat producers House flammable and combustible liquids in excess of 10 gallons (per room) in approved flammable storage cabinets (under the hood or stand- alone); limit liquids in secondary containers (i.e., squeeze bottles) to 10 gallons or less Adhere to OSHA regulations for safe storage: 60 gallons of Class I and/or Class II liquids or 120 gallons of Class III liquids per cabinet; Class I liquids cannot be stored in a basement or pit without an approved ventilation system Use only approved and well-labeled refrigerators and freezers for storing flammable liquids; never store lunch with science Slide 61 The ChemAlert Guide on Fisher Chemical and Fisher BioReagents labels is a three-part guide that provides the Safety Code, the NFPA Code and a Storage Code. ChemAlert Storage Code is a color-coded bar that provides an instant guide to storage. The storage code is also spelled out for clarification. Red (R): Flammable. Store in area segregated for flammable reagents. Blue (B): Health hazard. Toxic if inhaled, ingested or absorbed through skin. Store in secure area. Yellow (Y): Reactive and oxidizing reagents. May react violently with air, water or other substances. Store away from flammable and combustible materials. White (W): Corrosive. May harm skin, eyes, mucous membrane. Store away from red-, yellow- and blue-coded reagents. Gray (G): Presents no more than moderate hazard in any of the categories above. For general chemical storage. NOTES ON CHEMICAL STORAGE
  25. 25. Slide 62 The safest way to store chemicals is to... • Keep all class 6.2 organic peroxides away from all organic compounds, know the SADT and date of expiry • SADT - self auto decomposition temperature • Keep concentrated hydrogen peroxide in the fridge, on the lowest shelf in the door, away from all other agents (organics!) NOTES ON CHEMICAL STORAGE Slide 63 The safest way to store chemicals is to... • Bleach will react with soaps, detergents, ammonia cleaners, acids, bases...etc..forming dangerous (fatal gases) - stored away from other agents, and where possible, in secondary containment NOTES ON CHEMICAL STORAGE Slide 64 The safest way to store chemicals is to • Keeps acids out of metal cabinets (Teflon lined) • Keep sodium azide off of metal cabinets (do not transfer using metal scoopulas) and store in secondary containment (plastic beaker) • Peroxide forming solvents (diethyl ether) must to be tested weekly or biweekly for peroxide formation and a log should be kept (rule of thumb for PF’s - dispose of with 18 months of purchase if unopened, 12 months once opened or if the peroxide concentration exceeds 200ppm) NOTES ON CHEMICAL STORAGE
  26. 26. Slide 65 The safest way to store chemicals is to: • Store all class 4 reactive solids, class 5.1 oxidizers and 6.1 toxic solids in secondary containment (separated by organic and inorganic) and where possible, store on lowest possible shelve below eye height; • All flammable solids should be stored in a flammable cabinet, and where possible, in a desiccator for maximum safety; NOTES ON CHEMICAL STORAGE Slide 66 BASIC CHEMICAL SPILL RESPONSE Slide 67 • All laboratories have chemicals • All chemicals, no mater how “safe”, can react with some other chemical in your lab • Ensure your responder (responders) are aware of chemical properties and characteristics...read and study the SDS of all high risk chemicals • Ensure that the response team meets the level of danger the laboratory poses...no need to over react, but make sure you are prepared to meet any hazard or threat BASIC CHEMICAL SPILL RESPONSE
  27. 27. Slide 68 • Know when you need to call for outside help... BASIC CHEMICAL SPILL RESPONSE Slide 69 Spills in your control... • When a spill occurs, call out and inform all the other lab users of the spill... • “SPILL, SPILL, SPILL” • Tell others to stay clear and be ready to assist if needed • Where needed, tell them to put on PPE (i.e. N95 respirator...) • Grab your spill kits and cordon off the spill area with the yellow caution tape BASIC CHEMICAL SPILL RESPONSE Slide 70 • Donn your PPE (per SDS) • Form a berm around the spill with spill pigs / pillows if the spill covers a larger area • Then, using absorbent pads (working from the outside – in) cover the spill area • Use the flashlight to look for spatter outside the pillows BASIC CHEMICAL SPILL RESPONSE
  28. 28. Slide 71 • Not all spill pads (and pigs) are equal! • Are you using the rights spill pads and pillows in your spill kit? BASIC CHEMICAL SPILL RESPONSE Slide 72 Universal Sorbents • Absorb all types of water-based and oil-based liquids • Ideal for use in factories where there are many different liquids such as cutting fluids, lubricants and coolants • Not recommended for aggressive fluids such as acids and bases BASIC CHEMICAL SPILL RESPONSE Slide 73 Oil-Only (Petroleum) Sorbents • Absorb all oil-based liquids and repel water • Will actually float on water and absorb only the oil • Use these sorbents to absorb oils such as lubricants, fuels, mineral oil and vegetable oils BASIC CHEMICAL SPILL RESPONSE
  29. 29. Slide 74 Hazmat Sorbents • Specifically designed to absorb aggressive fluids such as acids and bases • Ideal for use in laboratories or other areas where aggressive fluids are present BASIC CHEMICAL SPILL RESPONSE Slide 75 Using chemical neutralizers... • activated carbon • sodium bicarbonate • citric boric acid • Trivorex (this information will come later...) • Spill X kits (acid, base, organic, formaldehyde ) • Clay is not a neutralizer! BASIC CHEMICAL SPILL RESPONSE Slide 76 • Donn your PPE • Form a berm around the spill with spill pigs / pillows if the spill covers a larger area • Pour the neutralizer around the outside of the spill, working in • Beware of heat formation • Use the flashlight to look for spatter outside the pillows BASIC CHEMICAL SPILL RESPONSE
  30. 30. Slide 77 • In both of these small spill scenarios, leave the covered spill set for a minimum of 30 minutes • This is the minimum time for some neutralizers to work (formaldehyde, mercury...) BASIC CHEMICAL SPILL RESPONSE Slide 78 • For solid spills, use the spill pigs only to indicate where the spill is • Make the area around the spilled material much larger than you would if a liquid spill • Sweep carefully toward the centre • Use a disposable broom and dust pan BASIC CHEMICAL SPILL RESPONSE Slide 79 • Never pick up broken glass with your hands, even if gloved • Use tongs or broom and dust pan to pick up any and all glass • Again, the use of a flashlight will help find slivers of glass BASIC CHEMICAL SPILL RESPONSE
  31. 31. Slide 80 • Always pick up the used spill pads, after the wait time, from the center first, to see if all the spilled liquid is absorbed, leaving the berm in place • Transfer the contaminated pads to a heavy plastic bag for primary storage • Re-apply pads if there is still free liquid!! • Remember that the pads are as hazardous as the chemical involved in the spill • Remove the pigs / pillows last! BASIC CHEMICAL SPILL RESPONSE Slide 81 • Use a few dry pads to wipe the area of the spill down • Follow that by a pad or two with a dilute soap solution • Dry the area if needed with extra pads or ensure the area is effectively mopped and decontaminated • Great care must be taken where a spill may have gone under equipment that can not be readily moved (BSCs, Fumehoods...) BASIC CHEMICAL SPILL RESPONSE Slide 82 • All spill debris, even those from chemical neutralizers should be considered hazardous waste, and handled and packed as such • Follow your facilities policies... BASIC CHEMICAL SPILL RESPONSE
  32. 32. Slide 83 Spills outside your control... • Follow your facilities policies if you have an internal HAZMAT team • Evacuate the lab and ensure all accesses into the hot-zone are sealed, or guarded (gather in the cold zone) • Call 911 or your institutions spill team • Tell the responders... What was spilled and how much Where it was spilled What other dangerous agents are present If the spill went under equipment or down a drain! BASIC CHEMICAL SPILL RESPONSE Slide 84 Spills outside your control... • While the responders are inbound, collect the SDS, attend to any injuries or minor chemical contact • Call 911 for serious medical emergencies • Stay in cold zone and available for the responders • Most important, report to your Health and Safety Department for a full accident investigation BASIC CHEMICAL SPILL RESPONSE Slide 85
  33. 33. Slide 86 • Stand Up • Stretch • Bend • Stretch • Shake it out... ERGO BREAK Slide 87 ADVANCED SPILL RESPONSE TIPS Slide 88 Picric Acid (2,4,6-Trinitrophenol) and Bouin’s Solution • 2,4,6-trinitrophenol • A trinitro-aromatic compound related to trinitrotoluene (TNT) ADVANCED SPILL RESPONSE TIPS
  34. 34. Slide 89 Picric Acid (2,4,6-Trinitrophenol) and Bouin’s Solution • This material poses an explosion hazard when dry • Polymerization is a highly exothermic reaction and may generate sufficient heat to cause thermal decomposition and/or rupture containers • Risk of explosion / Explosive properties • Unstable if heated • Forms explosive metal picrates when comes in contact with many metals • Keep wetted to at least 30% w/w with water ADVANCED SPILL RESPONSE TIPS Slide 90 Picric Acid (2,4,6-Trinitrophenol) and Bouin’s Solution • Bouin’s solution is a mixture of picric acid, acetic acid and formaldehyde in an aqueous solution • Spills of Bouin’s solution should be handled as if a picric acid spill...do not use Spill-X FP or other neutralizers due to the possibility of drying the picric acid ADVANCED SPILL RESPONSE TIPS Slide 91 Picric Acid (2,4,6-Trinitrophenol) and Bouin’s Solution • Picric acid will readily penetrate latex gloves, use nitrile gloves • Rubber boots are recommended over tyvek booties, but for solid spills, tyvek booties are adequate • Chemical protective clothing with liquid-tight (type 3) connections for whole body • Full face respirator with organic chemical cartridges or a PAPR with organic chemical cartridges (dependant on size and risk) ADVANCED SPILL RESPONSE TIPS
  35. 35. Slide 92 Picric Acid (2,4,6-Trinitrophenol) • In a spill situation, it is critical that... No chemical absorbents are used Add extra water or 2% v/v solution of acetone in a spill clean up if needed, to keep the picric acid wet The pads that are used to clean up the spill must never be allowed to dry Wet the pads with extra water after packing into a bag, or submerge in 20L pail with a 2% v/v solution of acetone Wipe down all walls, floors, equipment, etc, with a spill pad saturated with 2% v/v solution of acetone at least twice, before following up with a dry pad Add clean up pads to the wetted waste pail or bag ADVANCED SPILL RESPONSE TIPS Slide 93 Picric Acid (2,4,6-Trinitrophenol) • In a spill situation on a metal surface, it is critical that... The spill is wetted immediately with a 2%v/v acetone solution Remove excessive liquid with spill pads, keep wetting and removing the liquids for al least 5 rinses It is very, very important that the picric acid does not dry on the metal surfaces...explosive pictrates will form! ADVANCED SPILL RESPONSE TIPS Slide 94 Formalin / Formaldehyde • Formalin is a widely overlooked hazard in many biological laboratories • There are a number of hazards associated with the use of formalin • It readily releases formaldehyde gas, which is both toxic and highly flammable • Accidental spillage of the solution can quickly raise the concentration of formaldehyde gas to dangerous levels, posing a direct threat to health and the risk of fire or explosion ADVANCED SPILL RESPONSE TIPS
  36. 36. Slide 95 Formalin / Formaldehyde • Formalin (formaldehyde) can cause serious sensitivity (allergies) • People who suffer allergic reactions to formaldehyde tend to display lesions on the skin in the areas that have had direct contact with the substance • Continuous skin exposure to formalin can cause dermatitis ADVANCED SPILL RESPONSE TIPS Slide 96 Formalin / Formaldehyde • In a spill, formalin and concentrated formaldehyde is best handled using SPILL X-FP • This spill agent is a urea based formulation that • chemically reacts with formaldehyde • It forms a urea-formaldehyde polymer that is • no longer volatile and much less hazardous • It takes about 30 minutes to react ADVANCED SPILL RESPONSE TIPS Slide 97 Formalin / Formaldehyde • In a spill, evacuate the area • Donn PPE that includes a full face chemical cartridge respirator, chemical boots, chemical suit (type 4 or 5 is adequate; if larger that 4 litre - Type 3) and neoprene gloves • Cover any drains in the room with a heavy rubber mat and birm with Spill-X FP • Take the time to evaluate the whole spill area with a flash light and circle with grease pencil • Cover the spill with Spill-X FP, starting from the outside in ADVANCED SPILL RESPONSE TIPS
  37. 37. Slide 98 • Leaking Formalin Container (fills tray and spills on to floor) • Floor and boxes on floor are now contaminated ADVANCED SPILL RESPONSE TIPS Slide 99 ADVANCED SPILL RESPONSE TIPS Slide 100 ADVANCED SPILL RESPONSE TIPS
  38. 38. Slide 101 ADVANCED SPILL RESPONSE TIPS Slide 102 Formalin / Formaldehyde • After the minimum of 30 minute reaction time, re-enter the hot zone using the same PPE as the pre-spill entry • Sweep the spill from the outside in • Using a disposable broom and dust pan, pick up the solids • If there is more feel liquids, add more Spill-X FP and leave the hot zone (allow the 30 minute reaction time) • Repeat the sweeping method, bagging all the waste as hazardous ADVANCED SPILL RESPONSE TIPS Slide 103 Formalin / Formaldehyde • After the Spill-X FP is cleaned up, wipe down the spill area with a few spill pads saturated with soapy water • Repeat with dry spill pads • All the pads are disposed of as hazardous • Clean the spill area after with a wet mop • Return the area to pre spill conditions ADVANCED SPILL RESPONSE TIPS
  39. 39. Slide 104 ADVANCED SPILL RESPONSE TIPS Slide 105 Phenol • At room temperature, phenol is a translucent, colorless, crystal, white powder, or a thick, syrupy liquid • The crystals are highly hygroscopic and turn pink to red in air • When pure, phenol has a sweet, tar-like odor ADVANCED SPILL RESPONSE TIPS Slide 106 Phenol • Is highly poisonous, very corrosive and flammable • Causes serious, irreversible skin damage and vapours are readily absorbed through the skin • It affects the central nervous system and targets the liver and kidneys • Is mutagenic and possibly teratogenic • In a spill situation outside of a fume-hood, respiratory protection is mandatory for amounts exceeding 100mL of 20g of solids ADVANCED SPILL RESPONSE TIPS
  40. 40. Slide 107 Phenol spills (solid or liquids) • Phenol will penetrate latex in a few minutes, do not use latex gloves • Rubber boots are recommended over tyvek booties • Chemical protective clothing (type 4 or 5 for spills under 1L of concentrated phenol; Type 3 if larger) • Full face respirator with organic chemical cartridges or a PAPR with organic chemical cartridges ADVANCED SPILL RESPONSE TIPS Slide 108 Phenol spill control for liquids... • Use universal spill pillows to boarder the spill • Absorb with Hazmat sorbent pads (or...) • Activated Carbon (can be very messy) • Wipe down of the spill area; this should be done with a spill pad wetted with polyethylene glycol or isopropyl alcohol • Follow up with copious amounts of water • All pads / absorbents and disposable PPE must be disposed of as hazardous ADVANCED SPILL RESPONSE TIPS Slide 109 Phenol spill control for solids... • Use universal spill pillows to widely boarder the spill area • Use a disposable broom and dust pan to pick up all phenol solids • Speed is essential as the phenol will slowly start to liquefy in the open area due to its hydroscopic nature • Use tongs to pick up large pieces of glass • Transfer the spilled waste to a 6mm to 8mm plastic bag ADVANCED SPILL RESPONSE TIPS
  41. 41. Slide 110 Phenol spill control for solids... • Wipe down of the spill area should be done with a pad wetted with polyethylene glycol or isopropyl alcohol • Follow up with copious amounts of water • All pads / absorbents and disposable PPE must be disposed of as hazardous ADVANCED SPILL RESPONSE TIPS Slide 111 Ethidium Bromide • Ethidium bromide (EtBr) • 2,7-diamino-10-ethyl phenylphenanthridinium bromide • It is used for visualizing nucleic acids • Behaves as a mutagen in the Ames Salmonella bioassay, but only after treatment with liver homogenate • It may be harmful by inhalation, ingestion, and skin absorption and should be handled only when wearing nitrile gloves • If EtBr is to be weighed, the operation should be carried in a fume hood or a ventilated area. ADVANCED SPILL RESPONSE TIPS There’s only one problem with all this: ethidium bromide, as far as can be told from the data, is not a human mutagen. It’s not a mouse mutagen or rat mutagen either. Nor apparently a mutagen in cows and other farm animals, where it’s used in veterinary medicine at concentrations one thousand times higher than the red solutions that are so feared in biology labs, seemingly with no bad effects. It’s not even Ames- positive by itself, but only after it’s been exposed to metabolizing enzymes, which tells you that some derivative of it has mutagenic potential, should you ingest it and send it through your liver, but apparently not the parent compound. The National Toxicology Program states it is nonmutagenic in rats and mice.[13] These conclusions are supported by a subchronic carcinogenicity study in mice, whereby no mutagenic effects were detected.[14] Ethidium bromide (Homidium brand) use in animals to treat trypanosome infection suggests that toxicity and mutagenicity are not high. Studies have been conducted in animals to evaluate EtBr as a potential antitumorigenic chemotherapeutic agent.[15] Its chemotherapeutic use is
  42. 42. due to its toxicity to mitochondria.[16] A more recent study shows that EtBr acts as a topoisomerase I poison, just like several anticancer drugs used in humans.[17] The above studies do not support the commonly held idea that ethidium bromide is a potent mutagen in humans, but they do indicate that it can be toxic at high concentrations. Slide 112 Ethidium Bromide • Spills greater than 50mL in solution or 5g should be considered high hazard • EtBr will readily penetrate latex gloves, use nitrile gloves • Rubber boots are recommended over tyvek booties, but for solid spills, tyvek booties are adequate • Chemical protective clothing (size dependant) • Full face respirator with organic chemical cartridges or N95 for solid spills (size dependant) ADVANCED SPILL RESPONSE TIPS Slide 113 Ethidium Bromide • Use universal spill pillows to boarder the spill • Absorb with Hazmat sorbent pads (or...) • Activated Carbon (can be very messy) • Activated carbon requires a minimum of 60 minutes contact time to absorb EtBr • The ratio is 100mg of carbon per 100mg of EtBr ADVANCED SPILL RESPONSE TIPS
  43. 43. Slide 114 Ethidium Bromide • To be on the safe side, all EtBr waste should be handled as highly hazardous • This includes all disposable PPE used in the clean up • Collect and send for incineration • Do not autoclave or landfill EtBr waste ADVANCED SPILL RESPONSE TIPS Slide 115 Mercury • Is your lab still using mercury equipment? • Do you have an effective response plan and equipment to clean up a mercury spill? • Do you know how to make an mercury vacuum in the lab? • Using a standard vacuum on mercury is extremely dangerous ADVANCED SPILL RESPONSE TIPS Slide 116 Mercury • Mercury was used in ancient China and India before 2000 BC • It was found in tubes in Egyptian tombs dated from 1500 BC • It was used to form amalgams of other metals around 500 BC • The Greeks used mercury in ointments and the Romans used it, unfortunately for those using it, in cosmetics • Mercury was used in medicines laxatives, diuretics, antiseptics or antimicrobial drugs for syphilis, typhus and yellow fever ADVANCED SPILL RESPONSE TIPS
  44. 44. Slide 117 Mercury • Mercury poisoning is well known in history (mainly due to organic mercury - alkyl mercury) Minamata Japan (Minamata Disease) England (Mad Hatters Disease) Danbury Connecticut (Danbury shakes) • Mercury and most of its compounds are extremely toxic and must be handled with care • Mercury is corrosive to many metals (gold, aluminum, silver) as well as brain tissues ADVANCED SPILL RESPONSE TIPS Slide 118 Mercury • In a spill situation and due to mercury’s high surface tension, when mercury is dropped, it spreads very rapidly and in very small spheres • The spill will spread over a vast area • The mercury can be found using two methods Flash light; or Mercury Indicator (sulphur, silicon dioxide, starch and iodide) ADVANCED SPILL RESPONSE TIPS Slide 119 Mercury • As the rate at which mercury evaporates changes with temperature and pressure, a risk assessment of the spill needs to be determined • Small spills (< 3g) that are easily handled in a lab at temperatures 20C and below may not require special gear other than booties, gloves and glasses (do not clean up with your shoes uncovered • For larger spills or in hotter labs, use a half face respirator with a mercury vapour cartridge & indicating strip, boot covers, gloves and safety glasses ADVANCED SPILL RESPONSE TIPS
  45. 45. Slide 120 Mercury • As a commercially designed mercury pump or make your own in the lab, ensuring the mercury is collecting into water and the vapour is too! • Use a stiff cardboard or heavy paper to carefully collect the mercury, sweeping toward the vacuum hose ADVANCED SPILL RESPONSE TIPS Slide 121 Mercury • Cover the spill area and beyond with mercury indicating powder • Allow the reaction to occur (24 hours) • Mercury sulfide is produced, which turns black in the presence of starch and iodine • This mercury should be cleaned up with a mercury spill kit (reacts the mercury with zinc, forming a zinc- mercury amalgam) • Repeat the indicator powder process until no mercury is found ADVANCED SPILL RESPONSE TIPS Slide 122 Sodium Azide • Used in the explosive actuators for air bags in cars and air plane escape chutes (decompose the salt with heat) • Is acutely toxic (severely toxic) and can be fatal just through skin contact - similar in toxicity to cyanide • Forms hydrazoic acid in water, which is also highly toxic and a priority pollutant listed on O.Reg 347 (no discharge allowed) • Reacts explosively and/or forms explosive and/or shock sensitive compounds with acids and many metals (lead, copper, silver ) • Evolves toxic gases on contact with acids ADVANCED SPILL RESPONSE TIPS
  46. 46. Slide 123 Sodium Azide • When working in a lab with sodium azide, it is critical that no skin is exposed (wrists, chest, legs ) • Spills less than 10g are considered small, providing they do not enter a floor drain, or occurs on a metal surface • Beyond 10g - Evacuate and follow your institutions policies and procedures for high hazard spills • Ensure the responders know its sodium azide that was spilled ADVANCED SPILL RESPONSE TIPS Slide 124 Sodium Azide • When working with solid sodium azide, wear a nitrile gloves, no less than 0.11mm thick • For solutions stronger than 4.5%w/v, double gloves should be required in your SOP • In small spills, double glove always, sealing the outer pair to the chemical suit (minimum type 4) • Hazmat responders will use a type 1 (wet) or type 2 (dry) • The best respirator to select would be a PAPR with organic vapour cartridges (HAZMAT - SCBA) ADVANCED SPILL RESPONSE TIPS Slide 125 Sodium Azide solid spill • Evacuate the lab • Donn appropriate PPE based on risk • Sweep up the solids, placing into 8mm or thicker plastic bags use no metal tools! • Once the solids are cleaned up, wet a universal spill pad with a mildly alkaline solution (pH 9.5 to 9.8) and wipe down the area at least three times • Follow with pads wetted with water (three times) • Follow with a dry wipe • All pads / absorbents and disposable PPE must be disposed of as hazardous ADVANCED SPILL RESPONSE TIPS
  47. 47. Slide 126 Sodium Azide liquid spill (<4.5%w/v) • Evacuate the lab • If safe to do so, block any floor drains • Assess if the spill can be safety cleaned up..if no, follow your HAZMAT procedures • Donn appropriate PPE based on risk • Use HAZMAT pads only! • Birm the spill with pillows, apply HAZMAT pads • Allow absorption time • If free liquids are still seen in removing the first pads, add new ones ADVANCED SPILL RESPONSE TIPS Slide 127 Sodium Azide liquid spill (<4.5%w/v) • Once all the liquids are cleaned up, wet a universal spill pad with a mildly alkaline solution (pH 9.5 to 9.8) and wipe down the area at least three times • Follow with pads wetted with water or a dilute bleach solution 1 -3 % hypochlorite (three times) • Follow with a dry wipe • All pads / absorbents and disposable PPE must be disposed of as hazardous ADVANCED SPILL RESPONSE TIPS Slide 128 • Stand Up • Stretch • Bend • Stretch • Shake it out... ERGO BREAK
  48. 48. Slide 129 DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX Slide 130 CHEMICAL INJURIES DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX Slide 131 AGGRESSIVE AGENTS CORROSIVE AND IRRITANT PRODUCTS CORROSIVE IRRITANT What type of products cause chemical injuries ? CHEMICAL INJURIES DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX
  49. 49. Slide 132 THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CORROSIVE AND IRRITANT AGENTS CORROSIVE IRRITANT Highly concentrated acids or bases STRONG REACTION IRREVERSIBLE EFFECTS Solvents, oils, WEAK REACTION REVERSIBLE EFFECTS DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX CHEMICAL INJURIES Slide 133 THE EYES AND THE SKIN are at risk! • Proteins (enzymes), amino acids . • Lipids • Mineral salts CHEMICAL INJURIES DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX Slide 134 Penetration can occur immediately, within hours or within days STEPS OF THE CHEMICAL INJURY CHEMICAL INJURIES DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX
  50. 50. Slide 135 EFFECT ON TISSUE CELLS EXAMPLE WITH CAUSTIC SODA DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX Order? Slide 136 Type of product and concentration Temperature Time of contact DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX Slide 137 DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX In the event of a chemical or biological agent splash, what is your current SOP? Does it include... • Emergency showers (ANSI) • Plumbed eye wash (ANSI) • Wall mounted saline units • Deluge hoses
  51. 51. Slide 138 WASHING WITH WATER Water is the standard first aid response for the majority of companies (ANSI Z358.1) DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX Water for First Aid Slide 139 MECHANICAL EFFECT Large quantities of water can quickly remove the chemical product from the surface of body tissues Reduces penetration DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX Water for First Aid Slide 140 DILUTION EFFECT Decreases the concentration Reduces the aggressiveness Reduces penetration The object is to restore pH as fas as possible DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX Water for First Aid
  52. 52. Slide 141 Water is the Universal Solvent Water acts in the same way on all aggressive chemicals THERE IS NO RISK OF MAKING MISTAKES! Water for First Aid DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX Slide 142 BUT .WATER HAS IT’S LIMITATIONS Water is beneficial but limitations do exist • Dilution time • Inconsistency with results • Temperature (hypothermia, shock) • Short Intervention Time • Hypotonicity DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX Water for First Aid New transition slide Slide 143 The penetration of highly concentrated chemicals is so quick that water has little time to prevent absorption 98% sulphuric acid, 50% caustic soda, phenol Quick Penetration Water for First Aid DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX
  53. 53. Slide 144 INTERVENTION TIME IS CRUCIAL • Can the worker find the showers (with impaired vision)? • Does the worker need assistance? • Is he/she even near a shower? Washing must occur within 10 seconds (ANSI) which is very fast DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX Water for First Aid Slide 145 DURATION AND COMFORT OF RINSING • 15 minutes under a safety shower at 16o C can shock a person • Hypothermia if water is too cold • ANSI states limitations • Difficulty opening the eye for effective flushing • 15 minutes in that shower is a long time DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX Water for First Aid Slide 146 Water is HYPOTONIC! Water penetrates quickly into tissue cells aiding in the penetration of the chemical products Water for First Aid DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX
  54. 54. Slide 147 THE HYPOTONICITY OF WATER DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX Water for First Aid Slide 148 PREDICTABLE RESULTS!! • Early water decontamination is associated with better results but Does Not Prevent burns and other complications • Does not assist with “Early and Safe Return to Work” DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX Water for First Aid Moved to transition slide for the water washing injury Slide 149 ACCIDENT WITH 94% SULPHURIC ACID • Splash on the hands and legs • Immediate rinsing with water • 3 days in the hospital and 45 days of medical care at home • More than 6 months of work loss • Cheloid scars and psychological difficulties DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX Water for First Aid
  55. 55. Slide 150 What would an ideal first response solution Look Like?Retain Positive Affects of Water • Mechanical removal • Universality (polyvalence) Address Weaknesses of Water • More reliable « active » rinsing • Increase the intervention time • Improve the comfort of the rinsing DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX Slide 151 DIPHOTERINE® solution Prevor Laboratories created two active washing solutions that are scientifically formulated • Optimal intervention time of up to 60 seconds • Inactivate the aggressiveness of six types of chemicals on the surface of the skin or the eyes • Reverses chemical absorption from tissue cells through its “hypertonic” effect • Pain relief allows for more comfortable flushing DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX Phrases? Slide 152 ABSORPTION CAPACITY DIPHOTERINE MOLECULE Stops the aggressiveness DIPHOTERINE® solution DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX
  56. 56. Slide 153 pH COMPARISON OF WATER AND DIPHOTERINE Diphoterine moves the pH of chemicals to the safe physiological range faster than water DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX DIPHOTERINE® solution Slide 154 HYPERTONIC EFFECT DIPHOTERINE solution has an osmotic pressure higher than that of the body’s tissue cells. DIPHOTERINE® solution DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX Slide 155 CHEMICAL PENETRATION OF THE CORNEA Experiment on Rabbit Cornea Chemical fully penetrates the cornea The Diphoterine solution stops the penetration by reversing osmotic flow out of cells DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX DIPHOTERINE® solution
  57. 57. Slide 156 ACTIVE WASHING VS PASSIVE WASHING • Active washing principles always yield better results! • We practice the principals of active washing every day! DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX DIPHOTERINE® solution Phrase? Slide 157 Comparison between water and Diphoterine solution (MARTINSWERK FACTORY, GERMANY) Measured 45 splashes due to caustic soda Simplification of the secondary care Water : 75% required medical care Diphoterine: 100% - no medical care DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX DIPHOTERINE® solution Slide 158 IN CASE OF A DELAYED RINSING Diphoterine still offers beneficial effect of improved healing outside of the standard protocol • An eye injury due to ammonia • Washed with Diphoterine 1 hour after first exposure • Examination after 1 hour serious injury • Final examination visual acuity 14/20 after 6 months of specific care DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX DIPHOTERINE® solution Order?
  58. 58. Slide 159 IN CASE OF A DELAYED RINSING • Splash of guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform (TRIzol) DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX DIPHOTERINE® solution Scar 24 hours post exposure • Initial rinse with tap water (employee in pain) • Used DAP on skin • No medical aid • No lost time 6 weeks later Slide 160 The ANSI Z358.1 Standard defines a flushing fluid as: • Any potable drinking water • Preserved water • Buffered saline solution • Other “Medically Acceptable Solution” DIPHOTERINE is a Health Canada Approved Class 2 Medical Device DIPHOTERINE AND CHEMICAL WASHING REGULATIONS DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX ANSI Z358.1 Phrasing? Slide 161 ALWAYS • Maintain your emergency showers / eyewash stations to the current ANSI ( or provincial) standards If you have nothing else, Always use water! DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX ANSI Z358.1
  59. 59. Slide 162 EASY TO USE! PROPER PROTOCOL PACKAGING DESIGNED FOR EASY APPLICATION For the eyes ergonomic eyecup For the skin showers and aerosols DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX Delete? Slide 163 FLUSHING THE EYE 500ml Eyewash bottle 500 ml for an intervention within the first 60 seconds Gravity Flow Do not squeeze DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX PROPER PROTOCOL Combine? Slide 164 FLUSHING THE EYE 50 ml - intervention within the first 10 seconds SIEW 50mL Single Individual Eye Wash DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX PROPER PROTOCOL
  60. 60. Slide 165 FLUSHING THE SKIN 100 ml / 200 ml Intervention within the first minute Micro and Mini DAP’s DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX PROPER PROTOCOL Slide 166 FLUSHING THE SKIN 5 litres for an intervention within the first minute DAP’s DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX PROPER PROTOCOL Slide 167 WALL MOUNTED STATIONS DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX PROPER PROTOCOL Combined Slide
  61. 61. Slide 168 FLUSHING PROTOCOL • Move away from the danger • Remove affected clothing • Rinse as quickly as possible, respecting the protocol for DIPHOTERINE solution • Alert others • Seek medical advice DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX PROPER PROTOCOL Slide 169 • Do not stop the rinsing when the pain stops • Use the complete dose for an optimal efficiency • Start the rinsing as quickly as possible • Wash a larger area than splashed • Ideally do not use water before or after using Diphoterine • Best to leave to air dry IMPORTANT RECOMMENDATIONS DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX PROPER PROTOCOL Slide 170 DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX http://www.prevor.com/en/list-of-tested-chemicals?StartNom_ProduitTeste=H • Prevor has a detailed list of the chemicals it has tested with Diphoterine and Hexafluorine
  62. 62. Slide 171 Diphoterine vs Water - pH Demonstration DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX Slide 172 172 DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX TRIVOREX Slide 173 173 DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX TRIVOREX • Trivorex is an absorbing and neutralising powder to all types of chemical spills • “Regular” absorbents aim to capture and limit the spill’s spreading • Trivorex gets a quick and effective neutralisation of the chemical spill, whether it is a strong acid or base, such as e.g. hydrochloric acid, sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide (lye)
  63. 63. Slide 174 DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX TRIVOREX Trivorex operates in three steps • Captures and limits the spreading of the spill • Neutralises the spill’s active agent • Absorbs the spill and thereby facilitates the clean-up. Slide 175 175 DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX TRIVOREX • Trivorex has a built pH indicator to facilitate the neutralisation • When Trivorex is applied the powder changes its colour based on the chemical’s pH • Red for acid (thymol blue) • Blue for a base (thymolphthalein) • Once the spill has been neutralised the powder turns yellowish and is thereafter safe to handle • In case of highly concentrated products, adding a little water can help speeding up the process. Slide 176 DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX TRIVOREX • Trivorex works on all types of chemical spills, has no toxicological effects on human tissue and is classified as non-irritant to skin • There are more than 75,000 known corrosive chemicals used in industries • Diphoterine, which is the active ingredient in Trivorex has been proved on more than 600 chemical agents representing the majority of major chemical groups • A complete list of chemicals can be found on the Prevor website
  64. 64. Slide 177 DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX TRIVOREX ACIDS BASES OXIDIZERS POLAR SOLVENTS NON-POLAR SOLVENTS OTHER PRODUCTS •Sulphuric acid •Nitric acid •Acetic acid •Trichloroacetic acid •Hydrofluoric acid •Soda •Potassium hydroxide •Ammonia •Amines •Chromic acid and its derivatives •Hydrogen peroxide •Permanganate •Peroxy acid •Acetone •Methylene chloride (MEC) •Ethanol •Formaldehyde •Pentane •Toluene •Xylene isomers •Any vegetal, synthetic or mechanical fat oil •Hydrocarbons • Slide 178 DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX My contact for Diphoterine is... Rachel Mather - Inside Account Manager Levitt-Safety 2872 Bristol Circle, Oakville, Ontario, Canada L6H 5T5T 905-287-3506 | TF: 888-453-8488 | F: 905-829-2919 Slide 179 179 DIPHOTERINE & TRIVOREX

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