The RBG Quest for Black Power Reader a The RBG Quest for Black Power Reader: A Luta Continua, A Frolinan Primer, By RBG Street Scholar

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The RBG Quest for Black Power Reader: A Luta Continua, A Frolinan Primer, By RBG Street Scholar

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The RBG Quest for Black Power Reader a The RBG Quest for Black Power Reader: A Luta Continua, A Frolinan Primer, By RBG Street Scholar

  1. 1. THE QUEST FORBLACK POWER:ALUTA CONTINUIA Compiled and Edited by Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D. (aka RBG Street Scholar)Essays on the History of Black Nationalism / Pan-Afrikanism
  2. 2. PrefaceIt is quite clear that Afrikan people in America continue to be miseducated. This problem is discussed in avariety of ways in conversations every day in our communities throughout America. The time is ripe to heed the long-standing, and most often overlooked, calls for Afrikan Unity, CulturalDevelopment, Education and Social Transformation. Such is what this book most fundamentallyrepresents. Contrary to the prevailing, misinformed assumptions, RBG (Black Nationalism / Pan-Afrikanism) as an ideology, interaction and academic process is not a rabid assertion of Black supremacy.Unlike white Nationalism and American patriotism, RBG (Black Nationalism / Pan-Afrikanism) and itsproponents do not seek to humiliate, exploit, or oppress any person or people. Rather, RBG / (BlackNationalism / Pan-Afrikanism) is a positive affirmation of the cultural, political, social, economic andmoral identity and concerns of African people. In its most rudimentary forms, it reacts to the brutallyviolent and repressive conditions under which African people have and continue to live. White supremacy/ racism create an environment where whites are necessarily viewed with suspicion, but we are not anti-white. We are Afrikan/ Black on purpose and Black folks must first and foremost be beholden to eachother. The most basic expression of RBG (Black Nationalism/ Pan-Afrikanism ) thought is that Black /Afrikan people in America and throughout the diaspora are bound by the common history and experienceof historical chattel and present day mental slavery, suffering and death under the boot heel of whitesupremacy / racism. Most importantly, RBG is about self-reliance, self-respect and self-defense towardthe total liberation and unification of all Afrikan people that desire to defend, define and develop in ourown image and interest.In keeping with the spirit of Sankofa ("return and get it" a West African Symbol of Adinkra Wisdomrepresenting the importance of our learning from the past) you should keep in mind that in the societies ofour Afrikan ancestors and current kinsman the oral tradition was / is the method of choice in whichhistory, stories, folktales and spiritual beliefs were /are passed on from generation to generation.Websters dictionary defines "oral" as, "spoken rather than written," and it defines the word "tradition" as,"transmittal of elements of a culture from one generation to another especially by oral communication." Itis the power of the Afrikan oral tradition integrated with written documentation that sits at the core of thiscompilation.We believe that the ultimate end of intellectual growth and development for students of Afrikan decent in21st America should first and foremost be a deeper overstanding and a fuller appreciation of Afrikan
  3. 3. people’s rich history and continuing struggle for individual and collective self-definition and politicaleconomic development as a Nation within a Nation. Reading, thinking and reflecting with close attentionto this book’s scholastic guidance you learn to see more, understand more and uncover more, thus prepareyourself for a richer, more selfless and more meaningful contributions to self and kind.As you read / study these essays please keep in mind, education is not eternal and timelessly written instone, but should be situated historically, socially, intellectually, written and read at particular times, withparticular intents, under particular historical conditions, with particular cultural, personal, gender, racial,class and perspectives at center. Through multimedia learning we can see ideology in operation. Thus,this compilation is provided to encourage and enhance critical reading, thinking and writing based in theAfrin IdeaA CAPSULE OF WHAT’S INSIDE/ Black Nationalism/ Pan-AfrikanismBlack Nationalism (BN) advocates a racial definition (or redefinition) of black national identity, asopposed to multiculturalism. There are different Black Nationalist philosophies but the principles of allBlack Nationalist ideologies are 1) Black unity, and 2) Black self-determination/political, social andeconomic independence from White society.Martin Delany is considered to be the grandfather of Black Nationalism.Inspired by the apparent success of the Haitian Revolution, the origins of Black Nationalism in politicalthought lie in the 19th century with people like Marcus Garvey, Elijah Muhammad, Henry McNealTurner, Martin Delany, David Walker, Henry Highland Garnet, Edward Wilmot Blyden, Paul Cuffe toname a few..The repatriation of black American slaves to Liberia or Sierra Leone was a common Black Nationalisttheme in the 19th century. Marcus Garveys Universal Negro Improvement Association of the 1910s and1920s was the most powerful Black Nationalist movement to date, claiming 11 million members.Although the future of Africa is seen as being central to black nationalist ambitions, some adherents toblack nationalism are intent on the eventual creation of a separate black American nation in the U.S. or
  4. 4. Western hemisphere.According to Wilson Jeremiah Moses in his famous work Classical Black Nationalism, BlackNationalism as a philosophy can be examined from three different periods giving rise to variousideological perspectives for what we can today consider what Black Nationalism really is.The first being pre-Classical Black Nationalism beginning from the time the Africans were broughtashore in the Americas to the Revolutionary period. After the Revolutionary War, a sizable number ofAfricans in the colonies, particularly in New England and Pennsylvania, were literate and had becomedisgusted with their social conditions that had spawned from Enlightenment ideas. We find in suchhistorical personalities as Prince Hall, Richard Allen, and Absalom Jones a need to found certainorganizations as the Free African Society, African Masonic lodges and Church Institutions. Theseinstitutions would serve as early foundations to developing independent and separate organizations. Bythe time of Post-Reconstruction Era a new form of Black Nationalism was emerging among variousAfrican-American clergy circles. Separate circles had already been established and were accepted byAfrican-Americans because of the overt oppression that had been in existence since the inception of theUnited States. This phenomenon led to the birth of modern Black Nationalism which stressed the need toseparate and build separate communities that promote strong racial pride and also to collectivizeresources. This ideology had become the philosophy of groups like the Moorish Science Temple and theNation of Islam. Although, the Sixties brought on a heightened period of religious, cultural and politicalnationalism, Black Nationalism would later influence afrocentricityMarcus GarveyMarcus Garvey encouraged black people around the world to be proud of their race and to see beauty intheir own kind. A central idea to Garveyism was that black people in every part of the world were onepeople and they would never advance if they did not put aside their cultural and ethnic differences andunite. Black people, Garvey felt, should love and take care of other black people.The principles of Garveyism are race first, self-reliance and nationhood. Race first is the idea that blackpeople should support other black people first and foremost, self-reliance is the idea that black peopleshould be politically and economically self-reliant (it was important to Garvey that black people developbusinesses owned and operated by black people and that they patronize these businesses) and nationhood
  5. 5. is the idea that black people should create a United States of Africa which would safeguard the interestsof black people worldwide.To disseminate the UNIAs program, Garvey founded the Negro World newspaper and to encourage blackeconomic independence, he founded the Black Star Line in 1919 as well as the Negro FactoriesCorporation. The UNIA also initiated the Universal African Legion, a paramilitary group, the Black CrossNurses, the African Black Cross Society and the Black Cross Trading and Navigation Corporation.Garvey attracted millions of supporters and claimed eleven million members for the UNIA. MarcusGarvey, however, did not advocate that all black people should leave the United States to emigrate toAfrica (a strong United States of Africa would protect the interests of all black people everywhere in theworld so a physical migration of all black people in the West was unnecessary and, in some cases,undesirable).Although Marcus Garvey was an ardent supporter of racial separatism (he encouraged black people toseparate themselves from whites residentially, develop their own all black businesses and schools, andpreached against inter-racial marriage as race suicide), he made it clear that he held no hostility towardswhites and believed in the equality of all human beings. Garvey set the precedent for subsequent blacknationalist and pan-Africanist thought including that of Kwame Nkrumah (and several other Africanleaders) the Nation of Islam, Malcolm X and most notably, Carlos Cooks (who is considered theideological son of Marcus Garvey) and his African Nationalist Pioneer Movement. Marcus Garveysbeliefs are articulated in The Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey.Malcolm XBetween 1953 and 1965, while most black leaders worked in the civil rights movement integrate blackpeople into mainstream American life, Malcolm X preached independence. He maintained that Westernculture, and the Judeo-Christian religious traditions on which it is based, was inherently racist. Constantlyridiculing mainstream civil rights leader Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Malcolm X declared thatnonviolence was the "philosophy of the fool". In response to Reverend Kings famous "I Have a Dream"speech, Malcolm X quipped, "While King was having a dream, the rest of us Negroes are having anightmare."Malcolm X believed that black people must develop their own society and ethical values, including theself-help, community-based enterprises that the black Muslims supported. He also thought that AfricanAmericans should reject integration or cooperation with European Americans until they could achieve
  6. 6. cooperation among themselves. Malcolm called for a "black revolution." He declared there "would bebloodshed" if the racism problem in America remained ignored, and he renounced any sort of"compromise" with whites. After taking part in a Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca), he recanted extremistopinions in favor of mainstream Islam and ["true brotherhood"], and was soon after assassinated during aspeech held at The Audubon Ballroom, NYC.Upon his return from Mecca, Malcolm X abandoned his commitment to racial separatism; however, hewas still in favor of Black Nationalism and advocated that black people in the U.S. be self-reliant. Thebeliefs of post-Mecca Malcolm X are articulated in the charter of his Organization of Afro-AmericanUnity (a Black Nationalist group patterned after the Organization of African Unity).Frantz FanonWhile in France Frantz Fanon wrote his first book, Black Skin, White Mask, an analysis of the impact ofcolonial subjugation on the black psyche. This book was a very personal account of Fanon’s experiencebeing black: as a man, an intellectual, and a party to a French education. Although Fanon wrote the bookwhile still in France, most of his other work was written while in North Africa (in particular Algeria). Itwas during this time that he produced his greatest works, A Dying Colonialism and perhaps the mostimportant work on decolonization yet written, The Wretched of the Earth.. In it, Fanon lucidly analyzesthe role of class, race, national culture and violence in the struggle for national liberation. In this seminalwork Fanon expounded his views on the liberating role of violence for the colonized, as well as thegeneral necessity of violence in the anti-colonial struggle. Both books firmly established Fanon in theeyes of much of the Third World as the leading anti-colonial thinker of the 20th century. In 1959 hecompiled his essays on Algeria in a book called LAn Cinq: De la Révolution Algérienne.Black PowerBlack Power was a political movement expressing a new racial consciousness among black people in theUnited States in the 1960s and 1970s. Black Power represented both a conclusion to the decades civilrights movement and an alternative means of combating the racism that persisted despite the efforts ofblack activists during the early 1960s. The meaning of Black Power was debated vigorously while themovement was in progress. To some it represented African-Americans insistence on racial dignity andself-reliance, which was usually interpreted as economic and political independence, as well as freedomfrom European American authority. These themes had been advanced most forcefully in the early 1960s
  7. 7. by Malcolm X. He argued that black people should focus on improving their own communities, ratherthan striving for complete integration, and that black people had a duty to retaliate against violentassaults. The publication of The Autobiography of Malcolm X (1965) created further support for the ideaof African-American self-determination and had a strong influence on the emerging leaders of the BlackPower movement. Other interpreters of Black Power emphasized the cultural heritage of black people,especially the African roots of their identity. This view encouraged study and celebration of black historyand culture. In the late 1960s black college students requested curricula in African-American studies thatexplored their distinctive culture and history. Still another view of black Power called for a revolutionarypolitical struggle to reject racism and economic exploitation in the United States and abroad, as well ascolonialism. This interpretation encouraged the alliance of non-whites, including Hispanics and Asians, toimprove the quality of their lives.Uhuru MovementThe Uhuru Movement is the largest contemporary black movement advocating black nationalism and wasfounded in the 1980s in St. Petersburg, Florida. Composed mainly of the African Peoples Socialist Party,the Uhuru Movement also includes other organizations based in both Africa and the United States. Theseorganizations are in the process of establishing a broader organization called the African SocialistInternational. "Uhuru" is the Swahili word for freedom.The Republic of New Afrika (RNA)A was a social movement organization that proposed three objectives. First, the creation of anindependent Black-majority country situated in the southeastern region of the United States. The visionfor this country was first promulgated on March 31, 1968, at a Black Government Conference held inDetroit, Michigan, United States. Proponents of this vision lay claim to five Southern states (Louisiana,Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina) and the Black-majority counties adjacent to this areain Arkansas, Tennessee and Florida. A similar claim is made for all the Black-majority counties and citiesthroughout the United States. Second, they demanded several billion dollars in reparations from the USgovernment for the damages inflicted on Black people by chattel enslavement, Jim Crow segregation, andpersistent modern-day forms of racism. Third, they demanded a referendum of all African Americans inorder to decide what should be done with their citizenry. Regarding the latter, it was claimed that Blackpeople were not given the choice to decide in regard to what they wanted to do after emancipation.
  8. 8. History of the RNAThe Black Government Conference was convened by the Malcolm X Society and the Group on AdvancedLeadership (GOAL), two influential Detroit-based organizations with broad followings. This weekendmeeting produced a Declaration of Independence (signed by 100 conferees out of approximately 500), aconstitution, and the framework for a provisional government. Robert F. Williams, a controversial humanrights advocate then living in exile in China, was chosen as the first President of the provisionalgovernment; attorney Milton Henry was named First Vice President (a student of Malcolm Xs teachings);and Betty Shabazz, widow of Malcolm X, served as Second Vice President.The Provisional Government of the Republic of New Afrika (PG-RNA) advocated/advocates a form ofcooperative economics through the building of New Communities—named after the Ujamaa conceptpromoted by Tanzanian President Julius Nyerere; militant self-defense through the building of localPeoples Militias and an aboveground standing army called the Black Legion; and respect for internationallaw through the building of organizations that champion the right of self-determination for people ofAfrican descent.During its existence, the organization was involved in numerous controversial issues. For example, itattempted to assist Oceanhill-Brownsville in seceding from the United States during the conflict that tookplace there. Additionally, it was involved with shootouts at New Bethel Baptist Church in 1969 (duringthe one-year anniversary of the founding) and another in Jackson, Mississippi, in 1971 (where it hadbegun to start its occupation of the South on a single farm). Within both events, law-enforcement officialswere killed as well as injured and harsh legal action was imposed against organizational members.The US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) believed the Republic of New Afrika to be a seditiousgroup and conducted raids on its meetings, which led to violent confrontations, and the arrest andrepeated imprisonment of RNA leaders noted above. The group was a target of the COINTELPROoperation by the federal authorities but was also subject to diverse Red Squad activities of Michigan StatePolice and Detroit Police Department—among other cities.There is a new era for "The Republic". It is the party of THE BLACK PATRIOTS-a moderatelyconservative group of New Africans that believe in demonstrating compassion and prosperity for allpeople (most especially, NEW AFRICANS (former African-Americans). To form a more perfect union,the Republic of New Africa is the foundation to create change politically, economically, socially and
  9. 9. culturally among the descendants of slaves in America.The critical difference in "The Republic" is the collective effort to strategically purchase land incentralized regions of the United States of America.Marcus Garvey’s lessons in learning/ How to read this BookFrom time to time we should consult the wisdom of those who have addressed this problem whom wemay have forgotten. One such person who addressed this problem is the Honorable Marcus MosiahGarvey, when he presented his formula for learning in his courses on African Philosophy in the 1930s. Ithink it is most appropriate to preface this series of essays with a review of Mr. Garvey’s formula forlearning as we continue to build our Knowledge of Self and seek specific guideposts to our developmentas a people.These lessons and guideposts in learning can be found in Marcus Garvey, Message to the People, TheCourse of African Philosophy, edited by Dr. Tony Martin.Lesson 1: One must never stop reading. Read everything that you can read, that is of standard knowledge.Don’t waste time reading trashy literature. The idea is that personal experience is not enough for a humanto get all the useful knowledge of life, because the individual life it too short, so we must feed on theexperience of others.Lesson 2: Read history incessantly until you master it. This means your own national history, the historyof the world, social history, industrial history, and the history of the different sciences; but primarily, thehistory of man. If you do not know what went on before you came here and what is happening at the timeyou live, but away from you, you will not know the world and will be ignorant of the world and mankind.Lesson 3: To be able to read intelligently, you must first be able to master the language of your country.To do this, you must be well acquainted with its grammar and the science of it. People judge you by yourwriting and your speech. If you write badly and incorrectly they become prejudiced towards yourintelligence, and if you speak badly and incorrectly, those who hear you become disgusted and will notpay much attention to you, but in their hearts laugh after you.
  10. 10. Lesson 4: A leader who is to teach men and present any fact of truth to man must first be taught in hissubject.Lesson 5: Never write or speak on a subject you know nothing about, for there is always somebody whoknows that particular subject to laugh at you or to ask you embarrassing questions that may make otherslaugh at you.Lesson 6: You should read four hours a day. The best time to read is in the evening after you have retiredfrom your work and after you have rested and before sleeping hours, but do so before morning, so thatduring your sleeping hours what you read may become subconscious, that is to say, planted in yourmemory.Lesson 7: Never keep the constant company of anybody who doesn’t know as much as you or (is) aseducated as you, and from whom you cannot learn something from or reciprocate your learning.Lesson 8: Continue always in the application of the things you desire educationally, culturally, orotherwise, and never give up until you reach your objective.Lesson 9: Try never to repeat yourself in any one discourse in saying the same thing over and over againexcept when you are making new points, because repetition is tiresome and it annoys those who hear therepetition.Lesson 10: Knowledge is power. When you know a thing and can hold your ground on that thing and winover your opponents on that thing, those who hear you learn to have confidence in you and will trust yourability.Lesson 11: In reading books written by white authors, of whatever kind, be aware of the fact that they arenot written for your particular benefit of your race. They always write from their own point of view andonly in the interest of their own race.From: Message to the People: The Course of African by Marcus Garvey, Tony Martin(Editor), September 1986This book was originally written as a primer for RBG Street Scholars Think Tank’sFROLINAN. Thus, to talk about its purpose is to preface it within the context of the Think Tank.
  11. 11. RBG STREET SCHOLARS THINK TANK IS AN ONLINE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM ANDRESEARCH PROJECT DEDICATED TO FURTHER BUILDING THE HIP HOP--BLACKLIBERATION MOVEMENT CONNECTION BY INTEGRATING CONSCIOUS DIGITALEDUTAINMENT WITH A SCHOLARLY SELF DIRECTED LEARNING ENVIRONMENT.With strict attention to developing our students’ basic education skills in the context of the higheststandards of academic excellence, suitable for one to confidently sit for high stake exams(i.e. SAT/ACTand MCATs, LSATs), we simultaneously advance the psycho-emotional healing and spiritual upliftmentof our people by providing KNOWLEDGE, WISDOM AND OVERSTANDING of the historo-cultural,socio-political and psycho-educational experiences of Africans in America in a way that RADICALLYREAPPRAISES EDUCATION from the pained and angry perspective of the oppressed black community.OVERALL GOALS OF THIS SEQUENCE OF ESSAYS1. To familiarize and expose learners to a wide variety of 19th and 20th century African-American leadersand our rich history of struggles for human and civil rights, national liberation and self-determination.4.To draw lessons from the rich legacy of struggle and resistance to oppression within the AfricanAmerican community through critical analysis of videos, photo-stories, multimedia essays andPowerPoint shows and scholarly charts, tables, graphs and PDF documents; thus fostering socio-politicalactivism in the learners own lives.1. To develop, encourage and diversify strategies for learning about and responding to social, political, cultural and moral issues impacting Afrikans in America, thus increasing comprehension and interpretation skills.2. To synthesize serious community issues using multi-faceted content and learning objects which represent the perspective of those who are in an American minority group; and apply said principles and generalizations in investigation of societal issues and problems from an Afrikan-Centered perspective.THE TEACHER’S RESPONSIBILITY TO THE LEARNER1. To help learners identify the proper starting points for their personalized learning program and to discern relevant modes of examination and reporting back on their progress.2. To encourage learners to view Afirkan-centered knowledge and truth as both historical and
  12. 12. contextual. To enable the learner to see value-system conceptual frameworks as cultural constructs, and to appreciate that they can act on their world individually and collectively to transform said constructs.3. To create a partnership with learners by negotiating individualized learning contracts for goals, strategies, and evaluation criteria.4. To be an inspirer and manager of the RBG learning experience rather than just an information provider.5. To help learners acquire the needs assessment techniques necessary to discover what objectives they should set for themselves.6. To encourage the setting of objectives that can be met in several learning domains, ie. cognitive, psychomotor and affective, and offer a variety of options for evidence of successful performance.7. To provide self-directed learners (SDL) with objectives, learning strategies, resources, and evaluation criteria to guide their study, and academic growth.8. To teach inquiry skills, time management, problem solving, critical thinking, decision making, personal development, and self-evaluation.9. To act as an advocate for educationally undeserved and mis-educated New Afrikan populations by facilitating their access to proper knowledge and objectively reliable study tools and resources.10. To help learners navigate, locate and negotiate RBG learning resources.11. To help learners develop positive attitudes and feelings of independence relative to learning, thus building self-esteem, self-image and self-concept as Afrikan people.12. To offer resources and methods that take into account learner personality types and learning styles.13. To design and develop high-quality teaching / learning tools and resources according to Web 2.0 academic and technology trends, standards and learner responses / feedback.RBGStreetScholar, 2012
  13. 13. Contents Articles Marcus Garvey 1 Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League 12 Organization of Afro-American Unity 19 Robert F. Williams 21 Republic of New Afrika 27 Queen Mother Moore 30 Pan-Africanism 32 Kwame Nkrumah 39 Frantz Fanon 47 Elijah Muhammad 55 Nation of Islam 61 Malcolm X 70 Black nationalism 93 Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee 96 Black Power 104 Stokely Carmichael 112 H. Rap Brown 120 Huey P. Newton 123 Black Panther Party 129 Mumia Abu-Jamal 144 Black Liberation Army 156 Dhoruba al-Mujahid bin Wahad 159 Geronimo Pratt 162 Assata Shakur 165 Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party 188 Fannie Lou Hamer 191 1968 Olympics Black Power salute 194 Deacons for Defense and Justice 197 Omali Yeshitela 202 African independence movements 205 Black Arts Movement 214 Black Consciousness Movement 220 Black Power Revolution 228 Reparations for slavery 230The RBG Quest for Black Power Reader A Luta Continua A Frolinan Primer
  14. 14. References Article Sources and Contributors 239 Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 246 Article Licenses License 248The RBG Quest for Black Power Reader A Luta Continua A Frolinan Primer
  15. 15. Marcus Garvey 1 Marcus Garvey Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jr., ONH (17 August 1887 – 10 June 1940)[1] was a Jamaican publisher, journalist, entrepreneur, and orator who was a staunch proponent of the Black Nationalism and Pan-Africanism movements, to which end he founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA-ACL).[2] He founded the Black Star Line, part of the Back-to-Africa movement, which promoted the return of the African diaspora to their ancestral lands. Prior to the twentieth century, leaders such as Prince Hall, Martin Delany, Edward Wilmot Blyden, and Henry Highland Garnet advocated the involvement of the African diaspora in African affairs. Garvey was unique in advancing a Pan-African philosophy to inspire a global mass movement and economic empowerment focusing on Africa known as Garveyism.[2] Promoted by the UNIA as a movement of African Redemption, Garveyism would eventually inspire others, ranging from the Nation of Islam to the Rastafari movement (which proclaims Garvey as a prophet). The intent of the movement was for those of African ancestry to "redeem" Africa and for the European colonial powers to leave it. His essential ideas about Africa were stated in an editorial in the Negro World titled “African Fundamentalism” where he wrote: [3] “ Our union must know no clime, boundary, or nationality… let us hold together under all climes and in every country… ” Early years Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jr. was born in St. Anns Bay, Jamaica to Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Sr., a mason, and Sarah [4] Jane Richards, a domestic worker. Of eleven siblings, only Marcus and his sister Indiana survived until maturity. Garveys father was known to have a large library, and it was from his father that Marcus gained his love for reading.[2] [5] Sometime in 1900, Garvey entered into an apprenticeship with his uncle, Alfred Burrowes, who also had an extensive library, of which young Marcus made good use.[6] [7] The RBG Quest for Black Power Reader A Luta Continua A Frolinan Primer
  16. 16. Marcus Garvey 2 In 1910 Garvey left Jamaica and began traveling throughout the Central American region. He lived in Costa Rica for several months, where he worked as a time-keeper on a banana plantation. He began work as editor for a daily newspaper titled La Nacionale in 1911. Later that year, he moved to Colón, Panama, where he edited a biweekly newspaper before returning to Jamaica in 1912. After years of working on the Caribbean, Garvey left Jamaica to live in London from 1912 to 1914, where he attended Birkbeck College taking classes in Law and Philosophy, worked for the African Times and Orient Review, published by Dusé Mohamed Ali, and sometimes spoke at Hyde Parks Speakers Corner. It is said that Dusé Mohamed Ali influence shaped Garveys speeches, and led him to organize the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) in Jamaica in 1914 (Vincent, 1971). It has been suggested that the UNIA motto, "One God, One Aim, One Destiny", originated from Dusé Alis Islamic influence on Garvey (Rashid, 2002).[8] [9] Garvey named the organization the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities (Imperial) League.[10] At the National Conference of the Universal Negro Improvement Association in 1921, a Los Angeles delegate named Noah Thompson spoke on the floor complaining on the lack of transparency in the groups financial accounts. When accounts were prepared Thompson highlighted several sections with what he felt were irregularities. After corresponding with Booker T. Washington, Garvey arrived in the U.S. on 23 March 1916 aboard the S.S. Tallac to give a lecture tour and to raise funds to establish a school in Jamaica modeled after Washingtons Tuskegee Institute. Garvey visited Tuskegee, and afterward, visited with a number of black leaders. After moving to New York, he found work as a printer by day. He was influenced by Hubert Harrison. At night he would speak on street corners, much like he did in Londons Hyde Park. It was then that Garvey perceived a leadership vacuum among people of African ancestry. On 9 May 1916, he held his first public lecture in New York City at St Marks Church in-the-Bowery and undertook a 38-state speaking tour. In May 1917, Garvey and thirteen others formed the first UNIA division outside Jamaica and began advancing ideas to promote social, political, and economic freedom for blacks. On 2 July, the East St. Louis riots broke out. On 8 July, Garvey delivered an address, titled "The Conspiracy of the East St. Louis Riots", at Lafayette Hall in Harlem. During the speech, he declared the riot was "one of the bloodiest outrages against mankind". By October, rancor within the UNIA had begun to set in. A split occurred in the Harlem division, with Garvey enlisted to become its leader; although he technically held the same position in Jamaica. Garvey next set about the business of developing a program to improve the conditions of those of African ancestry "at home and abroad" under UNIA auspices. On 17 August 1918, publication of the widely distributed Negro World newspaper began. Garvey worked as an editor without pay until November 1920. By June 1919 the membership of the organization had grown to over two million. On 27 June 1919, the Black Star Line of Delaware was incorporated by the members of the UNIA, with Garvey as President. By September, it obtained its first ship. Much fanfare surrounded the inspection of the S.S. Yarmouth and its rechristening as the S.S. Frederick Douglass on 14 September 1919. Such a rapid accomplishment garnered attention from many. Edwin P. Kilroe, Assistant District Attorney in the District Attorneys office of the County of New York, began an investigation into the activities of the UNIA, but apparently didnt find any evidence of wrongdoing or mismanagement. After being called to Kilroes office numerous times, Garvey wrote an editorial on Kilroes activities for the Negro World. Garvey was arrested and indicted for criminal libel in relation to the article, but charges were dismissed after Garvey published a retraction. While in his Harlem office at 56 West 156th Street on 14 October 1919, Garvey received a visit from George Tyler, who told him that Kilroe "had sent him" to get Garvey. Tyler then pulled a .38-caliber revolver and fired four shots, wounding Garvey in the right leg and scalp. Garvey was taken to the hospital and Tyler arrested. The next day, it was let out that Tyler had committed suicide by leaping from the third tier of the Harlem jail as he was being taken to his arraignment. By August 1920, the UNIA claimed four million members. That month, the International Convention of the UNIA was held. With delegates from all over the world in attendance, over 25,000 people filled Madison Square Garden on 1 August 1920 to hear Garvey speak. The RBG Quest for Black Power Reader A Luta Continua A Frolinan Primer
  17. 17. Marcus Garvey 3 Another of Garveys ventures was the Negro Factories Corporation. His plan called for creating the infrastructure to manufacture every marketable commodity in every big U.S. industrial center, as well as in Central America, the West Indies, and Africa. Related endeavors included a grocery chain, restaurant, publishing house, and other businesses. Convinced that blacks should have a permanent homeland in Africa, Garvey sought to develop Liberia. The Liberia program, launched in 1920, was intended to build colleges, universities, industrial plants, and railroads as part of an industrial base from which to operate. However, it was abandoned in the mid-1920s after much opposition from European powers with interests in Liberia. In response to suggestions that he wanted to take all Africans of the Diaspora back to Africa, he wrote, "We do not want all the Negroes in Africa. Some are no good here, and naturally will be no good there."[11] Charge of mail fraud In a memorandum dated 11 October 1919,[12] J. Edgar Hoover, special assistant to the Attorney General and head of the General Intelligence Division (or "anti-radical division") [13] of The Bureau of Investigation or BOI (after 1935, the Federal Bureau of Investigation),[14] wrote a memorandum to Special Agent Ridgely regarding Marcus Garvey. In the memo, Hoover wrote that: “ Unfortunately, however, he [Garvey] has not as yet violated any federal law whereby he could be proceeded against on the grounds of being an undesirable alien, from the point of view of deportation. [15] [16] ” Sometime around November 1919 an investigation by the BOI was begun into the activities of Garvey and the UNIA. Toward this end, the BOI hired James Edward Amos, Arthur Lowell Brent, Thomas Leon Jefferson, James Wormley Jones and Earl E. Titus as its first five African-American agents. Although initial efforts by the BOI were to find grounds upon which to deport Garvey as "an undesirable alien", a charge of mail fraud was brought against Garvey in connection with stock sales of the Black Star Line after the U.S. Post Office and the Attorney General joined the investigation.[16] The accusation centered on the fact that the corporation had not yet purchased a ship with the name "Phyllis Wheatley". Although one was pictured with that name emblazoned on its bow on one of the companys stock brochures, it had not actually been purchased by the BSL and still had the name "Orion". The prosecution produced as evidence a single empty envelope which it claimed contained the brochure. During the trial, a man known as Benny Dancy testified that he didnt remember what was in the envelope, although he regularly received brochures [17] from the Black Star Line. Another witness for the prosecution, Schuyler Cargill, perjured himself after admitting to having been told to mention certain dates in his testimony by Chief Prosecutor Maxwell S. Mattuck. Furthermore, he admitted that he could not remember the names of any coworkers in the office, including the timekeeper who punched employees time cards. Ultimately, he acknowledged being told to lie by Postal Inspector F.E. Shea.[18] He said Shea told him to state that he mailed letters containing the purportedly fraudulent brochures. The Black Star Line did own and operate several ships over the course of its history and was in the process of negotiating for the disputed ship at the time the charges were brought. Assistant District Attorney, Leo Healy, who had been, before becoming District Attorney, an attorney with Harris McGill and Co., the sellers of the first ship, the S.S. Yarmouth, to the Black Star Line Inc., was also a key witness for the government during the trial. Of the four Black Star Line officers charged in connection with the enterprise, only Garvey was found guilty of using the mail service to defraud. His supporters called the trial fraudulent. While there were serious accounting irregularities within the Black Star Line and the claims he used to sell Black Star Line stock could be considered misleading, Garveys supporters contest that the prosecution was a politically motivated miscarriage of justice.[19] When the trial ended on 23 June 1923, Garvey had been sentenced to five years in prison. Garvey blamed Jewish and Roman Catholic jurors and a Jewish federal judge, Julian Mack, for his conviction.[20] He felt they had been biased because of their political objections to his meeting with the acting imperial wizard of the Ku Klux Klan the year The RBG Quest for Black Power Reader A Luta Continua A Frolinan Primer
  18. 18. Marcus Garvey 4 before.[20] In 1928, Garvey told a journalist: "When they wanted to get me they had a Jewish judge try me, and a Jewish prosecutor. I would have been freed but two Jews on the jury held out against me ten hours and succeeded in convicting me, whereupon the Jewish judge gave me the maximum penalty."[20] He initially spent three months in the Tombs Jail awaiting approval of bail. While on bail, he continued to maintain his innocence, travel, speak and organize the UNIA. After numerous attempts at appeal were unsuccessful, he was taken into custody and began serving his sentence at the Atlanta Federal Penitentiary on 8 February 1925.[21] Two days later, he penned his well known "First Message to the Negroes of the World From Atlanta Prison", wherein he made his famous proclamation: “ Look for me in the whirlwind or the storm, look for me all around you, for, with Gods grace, I shall come and bring with me countless ” millions of black slaves who have died in America and the West Indies and the millions in Africa to aid you in the fight for Liberty, Freedom and Life. [22] [23] Professor Judith Stein has stated, “his politics were on trial.” Garveys sentence was eventually commuted by President Calvin Coolidge. Upon his release in November 1927, Garvey was deported via New Orleans to Jamaica, where a large crowd met him at Orretts Wharf in Kingston. Criticism On 4 October 1916, the Daily Gleaner newspaper in Kingston published a letter written by the Very Rev. Fr. Raphael Morgan, a Jamaican-American priest of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, together with over a dozen other [24] like-minded Jamaican-Americans, who wrote in to protest Garveys lectures. Garveys views on Jamaica, they felt, were damaging to both the reputation of their homeland and its people, enumerating several objections to Garveys stated preference for the prejudice of the American whites over that of English whites.[25] Garveys response was published a month later, in which he called the letter a conspiratorial fabrication meant to undermine the success and favour he had gained while in Jamaica and in the United States.[26] While W. E. B. Du Bois felt that the Black Star Line was “original and promising,”[27] he added that “Marcus Garvey is, without doubt, the most dangerous enemy of the Negro race in America and in the world. He is either a lunatic or a traitor.”[28] Du Bois feared that Garveys activities would undermine his efforts toward black rights. Garvey suspected Du Bois was prejudiced against him because he was a Caribbean native with darker skin. Du Bois once described Marcus Garvey as "a little, fat black man; ugly, but with intelligent eyes and a big head."[29] Garvey called Du Bois “purely and simply a white mans nigger" and "a little Dutch, a little French, a little Negro … a mulatto … a monstrosity.” This led to an acrimonious relationship between Garvey and the NAACP.[30] Garvey accused Du Bois of paying conspirators to sabotage the Black Star Line to destroy his reputation.[31] Garvey recognized the influence of the Ku Klux Klan, and in early 1922, he went to Atlanta, Georgia, for a conference with KKK imperial giant Edward Young Clarke. According to Garvey, “I regard the Klan, the Anglo-Saxon clubs and White American societies, as far as the Negro is concerned, as better friends of the race than all other groups of hypocritical whites put together. I like honesty and fair play. You may call me a Klansman if you will, but, potentially, every white man is a Klansman, as far as the Negro in competition with whites socially, economically and politically is concerned, and there is no use lying.”[32] Leo H. Healy publicly accused Garvey of being a member of the Ku Klux Klan in his testimony during the mail fraud trial.[19] After Garveys entente with the Klan, a number of African-American leaders appealed to U.S. Attorney General Harry M. Daugherty to have Garvey incarcerated.[33] The RBG Quest for Black Power Reader A Luta Continua A Frolinan Primer
  19. 19. Marcus Garvey 5 Later years In 1928, Garvey travelled to Geneva to present the Petition of the Negro Race. This petition outlined the worldwide abuse of Africans to the League of Nations. In September 1929, he founded the Peoples Political Party (PPP), Jamaicas first modern political party, which focused on workers rights, education, and aid to the poor. Also in 1929, Garvey was elected councilor for the Allman Town Division of the Kingston and St. Andrew Corporation (KSAC). However, he lost his seat because of having to serve a prison sentence for contempt of court. But, in 1930, Garvey was re-elected, unopposed, along with two other PPP candidates. In April 1931, Garvey launched the Edelweiss Amusement Company. He set the company up to help artists earn their livelihood from their craft. Several Jamaican entertainers — Kidd Harold, Ernest Cupidon, Bim & Bam, and Ranny Williams — went on to become popular after receiving initial exposure that the company gave them. In 1935, Garvey left Jamaica for London. He lived and worked in London until his death in 1940. During these last five years, Garvey remained active and in touch with events in war-torn Ethiopia (then known as Abyssinia) and in the West Indies. In 1937, he wrote the poem Ras Nasibu Of Ogaden[34] in honor of Ethiopian Army Commander (Ras) Nasibu Emmanual. In 1938, he gave evidence before the West Indian Royal Commission on conditions there. Also in 1938 he set up the School of African Philosophy in Toronto to train UNIA leaders. He continued to work on the magazine The Black Man. In 1937, a group of Garveys rivals called the Peace Movement of Ethiopia openly collaborated with the United States Senator from Mississippi, Theodore Bilbo, in the promotion of a repatriation scheme introduced in the US Congress as the Greater Liberia Act. In the Senate, Bilbo was a supporter of Franklin Roosevelts New Deal. Bilbo was an outspoken supporter of segregation and white supremacy and, attracted by the ideas of black separatists like Garvey, Bilbo proposed an amendment to the federal work-relief bill on 6 June 1938, proposing to deport 12 million black Americans to Liberia at federal expense to relieve unemployment.[35] He took the time to write a book titled Take Your Choice, Separation or Mongrelization, advocating the idea. Garvey praised him in return, saying that Bilbo had "done wonderfully well for the Negro".[36] During this period, Evangeline Rondon Paterson, the future grandmother of the 55th Governor of New York State, David Paterson, served as his secretary. Death On 10 June 1940, Garvey died after two strokes, putatively after reading a mistaken, and negative, obituary of himself in the Chicago Defender which stated, in part, that Garvey died "broke, alone and unpopular".[37] Because of travel restrictions during World War II, he was buried at Kensal Green Cemetery in London. Rumours claimed that Garvey was in fact poisoned on a boat on which he was travelling and that was where and how he actually died. In 1964, his remains were exhumed and taken to Jamaica. On 15 November 1964, the government of Jamaica, having proclaimed him Jamaicas first national hero, re-interred him at a shrine in National Heroes Park. The RBG Quest for Black Power Reader A Luta Continua A Frolinan Primer
  20. 20. Marcus Garvey 6 Personal life Marcus Garvey was married twice: to Jamaican Pan-African activist Amy Ashwood (married 1919, divorced 1922), who worked with him in the early years of UNIA; then to the Jamaican journalist and publisher Amy Jacques (married 1922). The latter was mother to his two sons, Marcus III (born 17 September 1930) and Julius. Influence Schools, colleges, highways, and buildings in Africa, Europe, the Caribbean, and the United States have been named in his honor. The UNIA red, black, and green flag has been adopted as the Black Liberation Flag. Since 1980, Garveys bust has been housed in the Organization of American States Hall of Heroes in Washington, D.C. Malcolm Xs parents, Earl and Louise Little, met at a UNIA convention in Montreal. Earl was the president of the UNIA division in Omaha, Nebraska and sold the Negro World newspaper, for which Louise The UNIA flag uses three colors: red, black and covered UNIA activities.[38] green. Kwame Nkrumah named the national shipping line of Ghana the Black Star Line in honor of Garvey and the UNIA. Nkrumah also named the national soccer team the Black Stars as well. The black star at the center of Ghanas flag is also inspired by the Black Star. During a trip to Jamaica, Martin Luther King and his wife Coretta Scott King visited the shrine of Marcus Garvey on 20 June 1965 and laid a wreath.[39] In a speech he told the audience that Garvey "was the first man of color to lead and develop a mass movement. He was the first man on a mass scale and level to give millions of Negroes a sense of dignity and destiny. And make the Negro feel he was somebody."[40] Dr. King was a posthumous recipient of the first Marcus Garvey Prize Flag of Ghana for Human Rights on 10 December 1968 issued by the Jamaican Government and presented to Kings widow. In 2002, scholar Molefi Kete Asante listed Marcus Garvey on his list of 100 Greatest African Americans.[41] Rastafari and Garvey Rastafarians consider Garvey a religious prophet, and sometimes even the reincarnation of Saint John the Baptist. This is partly because of his frequent statements uttered in speeches throughout the 1920s, usually along the lines of "Look to Africa, when a black king shall be crowned for the day of deliverance is at hand!"[42] His beliefs deeply influenced the Rastafari, who took his statements as a prophecy of the crowning of Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia. Early Rastas were associated with his Back-to-Africa movement in Jamaica. This early Rastafari movement was also influenced by a separate, proto-Rasta movement known as the Afro-Athlican Church that was outlined in a religious text known as the Holy Piby — where Garvey was proclaimed to be a prophet as well. Garvey himself never identified with the Rastafari movement,[43] and was, in fact, raised as a Methodist who went on to become a Roman Catholic. The RBG Quest for Black Power Reader A Luta Continua A Frolinan Primer
  21. 21. Marcus Garvey 7 Memorials There are a number of memorials worldwide which honor Marcus Garvey. Most are in Jamaica and the United States. Jamaica • A marker in front of the house of his birth at 32 Market Street, St. Anns Bay, Jamaica.[44] • A statue on the grounds of St. Anns Bay Parish Library. • A major highway in his name in Kingston. • Likeness on the Jamaican 50 cent coin, 20 dollar coin and 25 cent coin. • A building in his name housing the Jamaican Ministry of Foreign A Jamaican 20 dollar coin shows Garvey on its face. Affairs located in New Kingston. • A Marcus Garvey statue at National Heroes Park in Kingston, JA. • The album "Marcus Garvey" and "Garveys Ghost" (a dub version of the "Marcus Garvey" album by reggae legend Burning Spear. • A deejay version by reggae legend Big Youth, based on an instrumental mix of the original Burning Spear recording of "Marcus Garvey". • A cover version of Burning Spears "Marcus Garvey", recorded by reggae singer Spectacular (as Burning Spectacular), was released in 2002 on a 12" vinyl record on the Jamaican label Human Race Records. Produced by Bruno Blum, it features an original recording of a live Marcus Garvey speech in which several key slogans of the Rastafari movement, founded in the 1930s, can be heard. The flip-side includes another recording by Big Youth of the "Marcus Garvey" composition mentioned above. • In the Bob Marley song "So Much Things to Say", Marley sings "Ill never forget, no way, they crucify Jesus Christ, Ill never forget, no way, they stole Marcus Garvey for rights”. • Reggae band The Gladiators recorded the song "Marcus Garvey Time", proclaiming him as a prophet with lyrics like, "Every thing he has said has come to pass". • Deejay/Producer Mikey Dread acknowledges him as an inspiration and calls him a national hero on the 1982 track "In Memory (Jacob, Marcus & Marley)". • Song by Reggae artist Anthony B titled "Honour to Marcus". Trinidad and Tobago • A statue on Harris Promenade, San Fernando, Trinidad United States • Marcus Garvey Festival every year on the third weekend of August at Basu Natural Farms, in Pembroke Township, Illinois. • Park in his name and a New York Public Library branch dedicated to him in New York Citys Harlem. • A major street in his name in the historically African American Brooklyn neighborhood of Bedford Stuyvesant, Brooklyn, New York. • Marcus Garvey Elementary School, Bedford Stuyvesant, Brooklyn, New York. • The Universal Hip Hop Parade held annually in Brooklyn on the Saturday before his birthday to carry on his use of popular culture as a tool of empowerment and to encourage the growth of Black institutions. • A park in his name in the Tenderloin District of San Francisco, California. • A Marcus Garvey Cultural Center, University of Northern Colorado (Greeley, Colorado). The RBG Quest for Black Power Reader A Luta Continua A Frolinan Primer
  22. 22. Marcus Garvey 8 • A secondary school in Trenton, New Jersey. • A Community Center and Senior Housing Community in the Roxbury neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts. • Marcus Garvey school. A K through 8 grade private school in Los Angeles, California. • Marcus Garvey school. A Pre-K through 8 grade public magnet school for math and science in Chicago, Illinois. • Marcus Books stores are named after him in San Francisco and Oakland. • Boston indie band Piebald wrote a song, "If Marcus Garvey Dies, Then Marcus Garvey Lives", for their 1999 release "If It Werent For Venetian Blinds, It Would Be Curtains for us All" • Ska band Hepcat recorded the song "Marcus Garvey" on their album Scientific. • Sinéad OConnors reggae album, released in 2008, has a track named "Marcus Garvey" that is a remake of an earlier song by the same name from the Jamaican reggae artist Burning Spear Canada • Marcus Garvey Centre for Unity, Edmonton, Alberta • Marcus Garvey Day, held annually 17 August in Toronto • United Negro Improvement Association Hall located in Glace Bay, Nova Scotia • Marcus Garvey Bar & Grill, Toronto • Marcus Garvey Centre for Leadership and Education in the Jane-Finch area of Toronto Africa • A major street in his name in Nairobi, Kenya. • A street named after him in Enugu, Nigeria. • A neighborhood bearing his name in the township of Khayelitsha, Cape Town, South Africa. • A library named after him in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. • A bust was created and is on display at a park in the central region in Ghana, along with one of Dr. Martin Luther King. United Kingdom • A small park in his name in West Kensington, London • Marcus Garvey Centre in Lenton, Nottingham, England • A Marcus Garvey Library inside the Tottenham Green Leisure Centre building in North London • Marcus Garvey Way in Brixton, London • Blue plaque at 53 Talgarth Road, Hammersmith, London GARVEY, Marcus (1887-1940) Pan-Africanist Leader, lived and died here, 53 Talgarth Road, W14. [Hammersmith and Fulham 2005] • Marcus Garvey statue in Willesden Green Library, Brent, London References [1] Encyclopedia Britannica Online Marcus Garvey profile (http:/ / www. britannica. com/ eb/ article-9036129/ Marcus-Garvey). Retrieved 20 February 2008. [2] "The "Back to Africa" Myth" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20061230195707/ http:/ / www. unia-acl. org/ archive/ themyth. htm). UNIA-ACL website. 2005-07-14. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. unia-acl. org/ archive/ themyth. htm) on 30 December 2006. . Retrieved 2007-04-01. [3] Garvey, Marcus; Jacques-Garvey, Amy (ed.) (1986). The philosophy and opinions of Marcus Garvey or Africa for the Africans. Dover (Mass.): Majority Press. p. 163. ISBN 0-912469-24-2. [4] Crowder, Ralph L. (1 January 2003). Grand old man of the movement: "John Edward Bruce, Marcus Garvey, and the UNIA". (http:/ / www. thefreelibrary. com/ "Grand+ old+ man+ of+ the+ movement:"+ John+ Edward+ Bruce,+ Marcus+ Garvey,. . . -a0128705776) African-Americans in New York Life and History. Retrieved through freelibrary.com on 2008-02-17. The RBG Quest for Black Power Reader A Luta Continua A Frolinan Primer
  23. 23. Marcus Garvey 9 [5] UNIA-ACL website from Archive.org, The "Back to Africa" Myth. (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20050210185836/ http:/ / www. unia-acl. org/ archive/ themyth. htm), Accessed 19 November 2007. [6] UNIA ACL Website Historical Facts about Marcus Garvey and the UNIA (http:/ / www. unia-acl. org/ info/ historic. htm). Published 28 January 2005 by UNIA-ACL. Accessed 2007-04-01. [7] Historical Facts about Marcus Garvey and the UNIA From Archive.org (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20050325170035/ http:/ / www. unia-acl. org/ info/ historic. htm). Accessed 19 November 2007. [8] http:/ / www. africanholocaust. net/ africanlegends. htm#garvey Garvey and Dusé [9] "The Economics of Marcus Garvey" (http:/ / www. africanholocaust. net/ news_ah/ garvey. html) [10] "The Negros Greatest Enemy" by Marcus Garvey (http:/ / www. cwo. com/ ~lucumi/ garvey3. html), Posted/Revised: 28 May 2002, Last Accessed 31 October 2007 [11] Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey Or, Africa for the Africans By Marcus Garvey, p. 122 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=TiCoYtBtJEsC& pg=RA1-PA122& vq=no+ good+ here& dq=philosophy+ and+ opinions+ of+ marcus+ garvey& sig=18WRd23cpEI2WiTN2VcdWpqo8VQ), Majority Press. Fitchburg, Mass: 1986 Centennial Edition. Retrieved on 1 December 2007. [12] Memorandum to Special Agent Ridgely on wikisource (http:/ / en. wikisource. org/ w/ index. php?title=Memorandum_to_Special_Agent_Ridgely& oldid=470428) [13] Reel 12 Department of Justice-Bureau of Investigation Surveillance of Black Americans, 1916-1925 cont. National Archives and Research Administration, RG 65 Federal Bureau of Investigation cont: 0703 Casefile OG 374217: "Memorandum upon Work of the Radical Division, August 1, 1919 to October 15, 1919, Prepared by J. Edgar Hoover; and Other Memoranda. 1919-1920." 263pp. (http:/ / www. lexisnexis. com/ documents/ academic/ upa_cis/ 1359_FedSurveillAfroAms. pdf) p. 19 [14] Reel 13 Department of Justice-Bureau of Investigation Surveillance of Black Americans, 1916-1925 cont. National Archives and Records Administration, RG 65 Federal Bureau of Investigation cont.: 0626 Casefile OG 391465: Confidential Informants, Memoranda of J. Edgar Hoover, Compensation, Policy, Washington, D.C. 1920. 3pp. p. 22 (http:/ / www. lexisnexis. com/ documents/ academic/ upa_cis/ 1359_FedSurveillAfroAms. pdf) p. xxi [15] "J. Edgar Hoover to Special Agent Ridgely Washington, D.C., October 11, 1919 MEMORANDUM FOR MR. RIDGELY." (http:/ / www. pbs. org/ wgbh/ amex/ garvey/ filmmore/ ps_fbi. html) [16] Theodore Kornweibel (Ed.) Federal Surveillance of Afro-Americans (1917-1925): The First World War, the Red Scare, and the Garvey Movement (http:/ / www. lexisnexis. com/ documents/ academic/ upa_cis/ 1359_FedSurveillAfroAms. pdf) p. x. Retrieved on 1 December 2007. [17] The Trial Part 1 (http:/ / www. marcusgarvey. com/ wmview. php?ArtID=404& page=2) Page 2. Marcusgarvey.com. Retrieved on 1 December 2007. [18] The Trial Part 1, p. 3 (http:/ / www. marcusgarvey. com/ wmview. php?ArtID=404& page=3) Marcusgarvey.com. Retrieved on 1 December 2007. [19] Application for Executive Clemency by Marcus Garvey (http:/ / www. marcusgarvey. com/ wmprint. php?ArtID=272) Marcusgarvey.com. Retrieved on 6 March 2009. [20] Hill, Robert A., ed (1987). Marcus Garvey: Life and Lessons (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=chR4mGJNCS0C& lpg=PR57& ots=6O-7d73RQ5& dq="marcus garvey" "they had a Jewish judge try me, and a Jewish prosecutor. "& pg=PR57#v=onepage& q& f=false). University of California Press. pp. lvii. . Retrieved 2010-05-10. [21] Online Forum: Marcus Garvey vs. United States (http:/ / www. pbs. org/ wgbh/ amex/ garvey/ sfeature/ sf_forum_13. html) [22] First Message to the Negroes of the World from Atlanta Prison" (http:/ / www. unia-acl. org/ archive/ whrlwind. htm) [23] New York Times, "Pardon Marcus Garvey", 5 November 1983, p. 5 [24] Robert A. Hill, Marcus Garvey, Universal Negro Improvement Association. Letter Denouncing Marcus Garvey. In: "The Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association Papers: 1826-August 1919" (http:/ / books. google. ca/ books?id=CKJrUKdSZwkC& printsec=frontcover& source=gbs_navlinks_s). University of California Press, 1983. pp. 196-197. [25] Fr. Oliver Herbel. The African American National Biography by Raphael Morgan (http:/ / www. mywire. com/ a/ African-American-National-Biography/ Morgan-Raphael/ 9463563?& pbl=27) at mywire.com. Accessed 1 January 2008. [26] Daily Gleaner, 14 November 1916. p. 13. At: Lumsden, Joy, MA (Cantab), PhD (UWI). Father Raphael (http:/ / www. joyousjam. com/ fatherraphael/ id9. html). Accessed 23 July 2010. [27] “The Collapse of the Only Thing in the Garvey Movement Which Was Original or Promising” (http:/ / historymatters. gmu. edu/ d/ 5121/ ), Last accessed 2 November 2007. [28] Dubois, "The Crisis", Vol 28, May 1924, pp. 8-9 [29] Hill, Robert A.; Garvey, Marcus; Forczek, Deborah; Universal Negro Improvement Association (1987). The Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association papers (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=6y4hbFXFtv8C& pg=PA233). University of California Press. p. 233. ISBN 9780520058170. . Retrieved 2009-07-09. [30] Grant, Colin (2008). Negro with a Hat: The Rise and Fall of Marcus Garvey and His Dream of Mother Africa. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-536794-2. [31] American Series Introduction Volume I: 1826--August 1919 (http:/ / www. isop. ucla. edu/ africa/ mgpp/ intro01. asp) Accessed 1 April 2007. [32] Spartucus Educational website, Ku Klux Klan (http:/ / www. spartacus. schoolnet. co. uk/ USAkkk. htm), quoting from Negro World (September 1923). Accessed December 3, 2007. The RBG Quest for Black Power Reader A Luta Continua A Frolinan Primer
  24. 24. Marcus Garvey 10 [33] Richard B. Moore, "The Critics and Opponents of Marcus Garvey", in Marcus Garvey and the Vision of Africa, ed. John Henrik Clarke with Amy Jacques Garvey (New York, 1974), p. 228. [34] Poem - Ras Nasibu of the Ogaden (http:/ / www. africawithin. com/ garvey/ ras_nasibu. htm) [35] Current Biography, 1943, p. 50 [36] Brothers and Strangers: Black Zion, Black Slavery, 1914-1940, Ibrahim K. Sundiata, Duke University Press 2003. ISBN 0-8223-3247-7, p. 313 [37] Marcus Garvey: Look for Me in the Whirlwind (http:/ / www. pbs. org/ wgbh/ amex/ garvey/ filmmore/ pt. html), PBS documentary (transcript). Last accessed on December 3, 2007. [38] "People & Events: Earl and Louise Little" (http:/ / www. pbs. org/ wgbh/ amex/ garvey/ peopleevents/ p_little. html). PBS Online. 1999. . Retrieved 2010-06-15. [39] "Martin Luther King Jr. visits Jamaica", 20 June 1965 (http:/ / www. jamaica-gleaner. com/ pages/ history/ story003. html) [40] "The Black 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential African-Americans, Past and Present" by Columbus Salley (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=g3GW-VNyfNYC& printsec=frontcover& dq=The+ Black+ 100:+ A+ Ranking+ of+ the+ Most+ Influential+ African-Americans,+ Past+ and+ Present+ By+ Columbus+ Salley& ei=hm8oR_m1AZyY7wLnlYGBDQ& sig=VSqmV4eO98z_akaw76hSIxqeCZM#PPA82,M1), p. 82, 1999, Citadel Press. [41] Asante, Molefi Kete (2002). 100 Greatest African Americans: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books; ISBN 1-57392-963-8 [42] M.G. Smith, Roy Augier and Rex Nettleford, The Rastafari Movement in Kingston, Jamaica, Kingston: 1960, p. 5 [43] Martin, Tony (21 October 2009). "Marcus Garvey" (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ religion/ religions/ rastafari/ people/ marcusgarvey. shtml). BBC. . Retrieved 18 October 2010. [44] 32 Market Street (http:/ / www. jnht. com/ heritage_site. php?id=279), 25 January 2008 Further reading Works by Marcus Garvey • The Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey. Edited by Amy Jacques Garvey. 412 pages. Majority Press; Centennial edition, 1 November 1986. ISBN 0-912469-24-2. Avery edition. ISBN 0-405-01873-8. • Message to the People: The Course of African Philosophy by Marcus Garvey. Edited by Tony Martin. Foreword by Hon. Charles L. James, president- general, Universal Negro Improvement Association. 212 pages. Majority Press, 1 March 1986. ISBN 0-912469-19-6. • The Poetical Works of Marcus Garvey. Compiled and edited by Tony Martin. 123 pages. Majority Press, 1 June 1983. ISBN 0-912469-02-1. • Hill, Robert A., editor. The Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association Papers. Vols. I-VII, IX. University of California Press, ca. 1983- (ongoing). 1146 pages. University of California Press, 1 May 1991. ISBN 0-520-07208-1. • Hill, Robert A., editor. The Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association Papers: Africa for the Africans 1921-1922. 740 pages. University of California Press, 1 February 1996. ISBN 0-520-20211-2. Books • Burkett, Randall K. Garveyism as a Religious Movement: The Institutionalization of a Black Civil Religion. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press and American Theological Library Association, 1978. • Campbell, Horace. Rasta and Resistance: From Marcus Garvey to Walter Rodney. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press, 1987. • Clarke, John Henrik, editor. Marcus Garvey and the Vision of Africa. With assistance from Amy Jacques Garvey. New York: Vintage Books, 1974. • Cronon, Edmund David. Black Moses: The Story of Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1955, reprinted 1969 and 2007. • Garvey, Amy Jacques, Garvey and Garveyism. London: Collier-MacMillan, 1963, 1968. • Grant, Colin. Negro with a Hat, The Rise and Fall of Marcus Garvey and his Dream of Mother Africa., London: Jonathan Cape, 2008. The RBG Quest for Black Power Reader A Luta Continua A Frolinan Primer
  25. 25. Marcus Garvey 11 • Hill, Robert A., editor. Marcus Garvey, Life and Lessons: A Centennial Companion to the Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association Papers. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987. • Hill, Robert A. The Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association Papers. Vols. I–VII, IX. University of California Press, ca. 1983– (ongoing). • James, Winston. Holding Aloft the Banner of Ethiopia: Caribbean Radicalism in Early Twentieth-Century America. London: Verso, 1998. • Kornweibel Jr., Theodore. Seeing Red: Federal Campaigns Against Black Militancy 1919-1925. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1998. • Lemelle, Sidney, and Robin D. G. Kelley. Imagining Home: Class, Culture, and Nationalism in the African Diaspora. London: Verso, 1994. • Lewis, Rupert. Marcus Garvey: Anti-Colonial Champion. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press, 1988. • Lewis, Rupert, and Bryan, Patrick, eds. Garvey: His Work and Impact. Mona, Jamaica: Institute of Social and Economic Research, 1988. • Lewis, Rupert, and Maureen Warner-Lewis. Garvey: Africa, Europe, The Americas. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press, 1986, 1994. • Manoedi, M. Korete. Garvey and Africa. New York: New York Age Press, 1922. • Martin, Tony. Race First: The Ideological and Organizational Struggle of Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1976. • Martin, Tony. Literary Garveyism: Garvey, Black Arts, and the Harlem Renaissance. Dover, Mass.: Majority Press, 1983. • Martin, Tony. African Fundamentalism: A Literary and Cultural Anthology of Garveys Harlem Renaissance. Dover, Mass.: Majority Press, 1983, 1991. • Martin, Tony. Marcus Garvey: Hero. Dover, Mass.: Majority Press, 1983. • Martin, Tony. The Pan-African Connection: From Slavery to Garvey and Beyond. Dover, Mass.: Majority Press, 1983. • Martin, Tony. The Poetical Works of Marcus Garvey. Dover, Mass.: Majority Press, 1983. • Smith-Irvin, Jeannette. Marcus Garveys Footsoldiers of the Universal Negro Improvement Association. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press, 1989. • Solomon, Mark. The Cry Was Unity: Communists and African-Americans, 1917–1936. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 1998. • Stein, Judith. The World of Marcus Garvey: Race and Class in Modern Society. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1986. • Tolbert, Emory J. The UNIA and Black Los Angeles. Los Angeles: Center of Afro-American Studies, University of California, 1980. • Vincent, Theodore. Black Power and the Garvey Movement. Berkeley, Calif.: Ramparts Press, 1971. • Marcus Garvey: A Controversial Figure in the History of Pan-Africanism by Jérémie Kroubo Dagnini for the Journal of Pan African Studies (http://www.jpanafrican.com/docs/vol2no3/ MarcusGarveyAControversialFigureInTheHistoryOfPanAfricanism.pdf) The RBG Quest for Black Power Reader A Luta Continua A Frolinan Primer
  26. 26. Marcus Garvey 12 External links • Garveys Legacy in Context: Colourism, Black Movements and African Nationalism (http://www. raceandhistory.com/historicalviews/2005/1708.html) • "Marcus Garvey: Look for Me in the Whirlwind." [[PBS (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/garvey/index. html)] documentary film]. • Marcus Garvey web site (http://www.marcusgarvey.com/). • UNIA web site (http://www.unia-acl.org/). • Marcus Garvey Economic Principles (http://www.africanholocaust.net/news_ah/garvey.html) • Marcus Garvey Speaks -Text & Audio- (http://www.black-king.net/library marcus garvey.htm) • Poem - Ras Nasibu of the Ogaden (http://www.africawithin.com/garvey/ras_nasibu.htm) Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League The Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities (Imperial) League (UNIA-ACL) is a black nationalist fraternal organization founded by Marcus Garvey. The organization enjoyed its greatest strength in the 1920s, prior to Garveys deportation from the United States of America, after which its prestige and influence declined. Since a schism in 1949, there have been two organizations claiming the name. According to the preamble of the 1929 constitution as amended, the UNIA is a "social, friendly, humanitarian, charitable, educational, institutional, constructive and expansive society, and is founded by persons desiring to do the utmost to work for the general uplift of the people of African ancestry of the world. And the members pledge themselves to do all in their power to conserve the rights of their noble race and to respect the rights of all mankind, believing always in the Brotherhood of Man and the Fatherhood of God. The motto of the organization is One God! One Aim! One Destiny! Therefore, let justice be done to all mankind, realizing that if the strong oppresses the weak, confusion and discontent will ever mark the path of man but with love, faith and charity towards all the reign of peace and plenty will be heralded into the world and the generations of men shall be called Blessed." The broad mission of the UNIA-ACL led to the establishment of numerous auxiliary components, among them the Universal African Legion, a paramilitary group; the African Black Cross Nurses; African Black Cross Society; the Universal African Motor Corps; the Black Eagle Flying Corps; the Black Star Steamship Line; the Black Cross Trading and Navigation Corporation; as well as the Negro Factories Corporation. The RBG Quest for Black Power Reader A Luta Continua A Frolinan Primer
  27. 27. Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League 13 Name In an article entitled "The Negros Greatest Enemy [1]", published in Current History (September 1923) Garvey explained the origin of the organizations name: "Where did the name of the organization come from? It was while speaking to a West Indian Negro who was a passenger with me from Southampton, who was returning home to the West Indies from Basutoland with his Basuto wife, I further learned of the horrors of native life in Africa. He related to me in conversation such horrible and pitiable tales that my heart bled within me. Retiring from the conversation to my cabin, all day and the following night I pondered over the subject matter of that conversation, and at midnight, lying flat on my back, the vision and thought came to me that I should name the organization the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities (Imperial) League. Such a name I thought would embrace the purpose of all black humanity. Thus to the world a name was born, a movement created, and a man became known." Early history Originally from Jamaica, at 23 Garvey left and traveled throughout Central America and moved for a time to England. During his travels he became convinced that uniting Blacks was the only way to improve their condition. Towards that end, he departed England on 14 June 1914 aboard the S.S. Trent, reaching Jamaica on 15 July 1914. He founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) in August 1914 as a means of uniting all of Africa and its diaspora into "one grand racial hierarchy." After traveling through the United States beginning in March 1916, Garvey inaugurated the New York Division of the UNIA in 1917 with 13 members. After only three months, the organizations dues-paying membership reached 3500. The Negro World was founded August 17, 1918 as a weekly newspaper to express the ideas of the organization. Garvey contributed a front-page editorial each week in which he developed the organizations position on different issues related to people of African ancestry around the world, in general, and the UNIA, in particular. Eventually claiming a circulation of five hundred thousand, the newspaper was printed in several languages. It contained a page specifically for women readers, documented international events related to people of African ancestry, and was distributed throughout the African diaspora until publication ceased in 1933. In 1919 the UNIA purchased the first of what would be numerous Liberty Halls. Located at 114 West 138th Street, New York City the building had a seating capacity of six thousand. It was dedicated on July 27, 1919. Later that year the Association organized the first of its two steamship companies and a separate business corporation. Incorporated in Delaware as a domestic corporation on June 27, 1919, the Black Star Line, Inc. (BSL) was capitalized at ten million dollars. It sold shares individually valued at five dollars to both UNIA members and non-members alike. Proceeds from stock sales were used to purchase first the S.S. Yarmouth and then the S.S. Shadyside. The Shadyside was used by the Association for summer outings and excursions, as well as rented out on charter to other organizations. The BSL later purchased the Kanawha as its third vessel. This small yacht was intended for inter-island transportation in the West Indies and was rechristened the S.S. Antonio Maceo. Also established in 1919 was the Negro Factories Corporation, with a capitalization of one million dollars. It generated income and provided jobs by its numerous enterprises, including a chain of grocery stores and restaurants, steam laundry, tailor shop, dress making shop, millinery store, publishing house and doll factory. With the growth of its membership from 1918 through 1924, as well as, income from its various economic enterprises, UNIA purchased additional Liberty Halls in the USA, Canada, Costa Rica, Belize, Panama, Jamaica, and other countries. Furthermore, UNIA purchased farms in Ohio and other states. It purchased land in Claremont, Virginia with the intention of founding Liberty University. The RBG Quest for Black Power Reader A Luta Continua A Frolinan Primer
  28. 28. Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League 14 First international convention By 1920 the association had over 1,100 divisions in more than 40 countries. Most of the divisions were located in the United States, which had become the UNIAs base of operations. There were, however, offices in several Caribbean countries, with Cuba having the most. Divisions also existed in such diverse countries as Panama, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Venezuela, Ghana, Sierra Leone, Liberia, India, Australia, Nigeria, Namibia, and South Africa. For the entire month of August 1920, the UNIA-ACL held its first international convention at Madison Square Garden in New York City. The 20,000 members in attendance promulgated The Declaration of Rights of the Negro Peoples of the World[2] on August 13, 1920, and elected the leaders of the UNIA as "leaders for the Negro people of the world". The organization put forth a program based on "The Declaration of Rights of the Negro Peoples of the World", marking the evolution of the movement into a black nationalist one. It sought to uplift of the black race and encouraged self-reliance and nationhood. Amongst the declarations was one proclaiming the red, black and green flag the official banner of the African race. (Beginning in the 1960s, black nationalists and Pan-Africanists adopted the same flag as the Black Liberation Flag.) UNIA-ACL officially designated the song "Ethiopia the land of our fathers" as the official anthem of "Africa and the Africans, at home and Abroad". Under the provisions of the UNIA constitution, Gabriel Johnson was Marcus Garvey chairing session of the UNIA in convention. elected Supreme Potentate; G. O. Marke, Supreme Deputy Potentate; J. W. [H]. Eason, leader of the fifteen million "Negroes" of the United States of America; and Henrietta Vinton Davis, International Organizer. Garvey was elected "Provisional President of Africa", a mostly ceremonial title. Liberian program Although UNIA was not solely a "Back to Africa" movement, the organization did work to arrange for migration for African Americans who wanted to go there. In late 1923, an official UNIA delegation which included Robert Lincoln Poston and Henrietta Vinton Davis travelled to Liberia to survey potential landsites. They also assessed the general condition of the country from the standpoint of UNIA members interested in living in Africa. By 1924 the Chief Justice J.J. Dossen of Liberia wrote to UNIA conveying the governments support: "The President directs me to say in reply to your letter of June 8 setting forth the objects and purposes of the Universal Negro Improvement Association, that the Government of Liberia, appreciating as they do the aims of your organization as outlined by you, have no hesitancy in assuring you that they will afford the Association every facility legally possible in effectuating in Liberia its industrial, agricultural and business projects." About two months later, however, the Liberian President unexpectedly ordered all Liberian ports to refuse entry to any member of the "Garvey Movement". This action closely followed the Firestone Rubber Companys agreement with Liberia for a 99-year lease of one million acres (4,000 km²) of land. The land deal had been assisted by American and European governments. Originally Liberia had intended to lease the land to UNIA at an unprecedented dollar an acre ($247/km²). The commercial agreement with Firestone Tire dealt a severe blow to the UNIAs African repatriation program and inspired speculation that the actions were linked.[3] The RBG Quest for Black Power Reader A Luta Continua A Frolinan Primer
  29. 29. Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League 15 Post-Garvey era After Garveys conviction and imprisonment on mail fraud charges in 1925 and deportation to Jamaica in 1927, the organization began to take on a different character. In 1926, George Weston succeeded Garvey in a UNIA Convention Election, becoming the next 2nd elected President-General of the UNIA, Inc. This angered many Garvey supporters and as a result spawned many rival entities such as the "Garvey Clubs" and other organizations based on members differing The UNIA flag (also known as the Black interpretation of the original aims and objects of the UNIA. Nationalist Flag) uses three colors: red, black and green. As a result, the UNIA continued to be officially recognized as the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League, and a rival "UNIA-ACL August 1929 of the World" emerged, headed by Marcus Garvey after his deportation to Jamaica. The UNIA, Inc The UNIA, Inc., after Garveys departure, continued to operate out of New York until 1941. After Westons 1926 election to President-General, he was succeeded by Frederick Augustus Toote (1929), Clifford Bourne (1930), Lionel Antonio Francis (1931–1934), Henrietta Vinton Davis (1934–1940), Lionel Antonio Francis (1940–1961), Captain A L King (1961–1981) and Milton Kelly, Jr. (1981–2007). In a historic 1939 British Supreme Court decision, President-General Francis was recognized as the rightful administrative heir to the huge Sir Isaiah Emmanuel Morter (DSOE) Estate in Belize. The organizations administrative headquarters were then shifted to Belize in 1941 when the President-General relocated there from New York. Upon his death in 1961 during Hurricane Hattie, the presidency shifted back to New York under the leadership of King, formerly president of the Central Division of the UNIA in New York. After his death in the early 1980s, longtime Garveyite organizer Kelly assumed the administrative reigns and continued to head the association until 2007. The UNIA-ACL 1929 of the World The UNIA 1929 headed by Garvey continued operating in Jamaica until he moved to England in 1935. There he set up office for the parent body of the UNIA 1929 and maintained contact with all its divisions. UNIA 1929 conventions were held in Canada in 1936, 1937 and 1938; the 1937 sessions were highlighted by the introduction of the first course of African philosophy conducted by Garvey. Garvey became ill in January 1940, and died on June 10, 1940. UNIA members worldwide participated in eulogies, memorial services and processions in his honor. Secretary-General Ethel Collins briefly managed the affairs of the UNIA from New York until a successor to Garvey could be formally installed to complete his term as President-General. During an emergency commissioners conference in June 1940, James R. Stewart, a commissioner from Ohio and graduate of the course of African philosophy, was named the successor. In the months to follow, the Parent Body of the UNIA was moved from its temporary headquarters in New York to Cleveland. In October 1940 the New Negro World started publishing out of Cleveland. After the 1942 International Convention in Cleveland, a rehabilitating committee of disgruntled members was held in New York during September. The RBG Quest for Black Power Reader A Luta Continua A Frolinan Primer
  30. 30. Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League 16 Parent Body in Monrovia Stewart moved to Monrovia, Liberia in 1949. He took Liberian citizenship and moved the Parent Body of the UNIA there. He continued to lead the Association as President-General until his death in 1964. Stewart and his entire family relocated deeper into the interior of the country, establishing themselves in Gbandela, Liberia. There they established a hospital, school and farm. When Stewart died from cancer in 1964, the Parent Body was moved from Monrovia to Youngstown, Ohio, where James A. Bennett took the reins. In 1968 Bennett was succeeded by Vernon Wilson. After President-General Wilsons death in 1975, Mason Harvgrave became next President General. Hargrave testified during the congressional hearings in August 1987 in relation to the exoneration of Marcus Garvey on charges of mail fraud. The findings of the Judiciary Committee were: Garvey was innocent of the charges against him. Although the Committee determined he had been found guilty earlier due to the social climate of America at the time, they had no legal basis upon which to exonerate a person who was deceased. After President General Hargrave died in 1988, all his papers and other Parent Body material were turned over to the Western Reserve Historical Society in Cleveland, Ohio for safe-keeping. From 1988 until the present, the Cleo Miller, Jr. has held the title of President General. Philadelphia parent body From August to September 1949, the rehabilitating committee held a conference in Detroit, Michigan. Following that conference, the committee denounced the leadership of President Stewart and the UNIA became fragmented once again. Former High Chancellor Thomas W. Harvey became President General of the new faction. An international headquarters was established in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, after a conference was held there in August 1951. Although some divisions severed ties with the Monrovia Parent Body after the Rehabilitation Conference, a number also continued to report to Monrovia consistent with the laws in the constitution. The first International Convention held under President General Harvey occurred in August 1953. William LeVan Sherrill was elected President General then. As First Assistant President General, Sherrill had previously served as acting President General beginning in 1925, during the time when the UNIAs founder Garvey was incarcerated. During his administration, Sherrill claimed to have 36 divisions associated with the Philadelphia Parent Body. Harvey was elected President General in August 1960. Prior to his election, the UNIA began publication of the third house organ, a monthly newspaper entitled "Garveys Voice". President Sherrill resigned in December 1958 and Harvey became Acting President General of the UNIA. Harvey then held the post for nearly 20 years, winning re-election every four years until his death in June 1978. International conventions were held in Philadelphia during August 1973 and 1976. The UNIA Executive Council elected Charles L. James to complete the unexpired term of Thomas W. Harvey on July 1, 1978. In August 1980 the 28th International convention was held in Philadelphia. Conventions were held annually from August 1981 to August 1986. Two of which were held in Chicago. At the 34th Annual Convention in Chicago, Illinois Louis Farrakhan gave the keynote speech on the role of Marcus Garvey, Malcolm X, and Elijah Muhammad in his development. When President General Charles Lynell James died on August 16, 1990 he was the last surviving graduate of the Course of African Philosophy taught by Marcus Garvey. Reginald Wesley Maddox succeeded James as President General on August 26, 1990. In August 1992, Marcus Garvey, Jr. was elected President-General during the convention held in Washington, DC. He held that office until retiring by not seeking reelection during the 2004 convention. During the UNIAs 90th anniversary and the controversial 47th International Convention, Redman Battle was elected the President General of the UNIA-ACL Rehabilitating Committee. The RBG Quest for Black Power Reader A Luta Continua A Frolinan Primer

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