RBG CommuniversityROOT EVILS OF AFRIKASDOWNFALLConcepts in White World Terror DominationClick Here for Full Companion Vide...
ContentsArticles   Colonialism                                                                                 1   Neocolo...
Colonialism                                                                                                               ...
Colonialism                                                                                                               ...
Colonialism                                                                                                               ...
Colonialism                                                                                                               ...
Colonialism                                                                                                               ...
Colonialism                                                                                                               ...
Colonialism                                                                                                               ...
Colonialism                                                                                                               ...
Colonialism                                                                                                               ...
Colonialism                                                                                                               ...
Colonialism                                                                                                               ...
Colonialism                                                                                                               ...
Colonialism                                                                                                               ...
Colonialism                                                                                                               ...
Colonialism                                                                                                               ...
Colonialism                                                                                                               ...
Colonialism                                                                                                             17...
Neocolonialism                                                                                                            ...
Neocolonialism                                                                                                            ...
Neocolonialism                                                                                                            ...
Neocolonialism                                                                                                            ...
Neocolonialism                                                                                                            ...
Neocolonialism                                                                                                            ...
Neocolonialism                                                                                                            ...
Neocolonialism                                                                                                            ...
Neocolonialism                                                                                                            ...
Neocolonialism                                                                                                            ...
ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKA's DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKA's DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKA's DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKA's DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKA's DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKA's DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKA's DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKA's DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKA's DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKA's DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKA's DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKA's DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKA's DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKA's DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKA's DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKA's DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKA's DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKA's DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKA's DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKA's DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKA's DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKA's DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKA's DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKA's DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKA's DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKA's DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKA's DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKA's DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKA's DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKA's DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKA's DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKA's DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKA's DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKA's DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKA's DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKA's DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKA's DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKA's DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKA's DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKA's DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKA's DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
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ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKA's DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination

  1. 1. RBG CommuniversityROOT EVILS OF AFRIKASDOWNFALLConcepts in White World Terror DominationClick Here for Full Companion Video Playlist:"RBG GEO-POLITICAL TRUTH SERUM,Blow Back and Reverberation"by RBG BLAKADEMICS
  2. 2. ContentsArticles Colonialism 1 Neocolonialism 18 Hegemony 31 Cultural hegemony 35 Imperialism 38 Cultural imperialism 45 New Imperialism 51References Article Sources and Contributors 64 Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 66Article Licenses License 68 OPEN / VIEW THE ICEBREAKER VIDEO (Link to full playlist above) ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKAS DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
  3. 3. Colonialism 1 Colonialism Colonialism is the establishment, maintenance, acquisition and expansion of colonies in one territory by people from another territory. It is a process whereby the metropole claims sovereignty over the colony, and the social structure, government, and economics of the colony are changed by colonizers from the metropole. Colonialism is a set of unequal relationships between the metropole and the colony and between the colonists and the indigenous population.[1] The European colonial period was the era from the 1500s to, arguably, the 1990s when several European powers (particularly (but not exclusively) Spain, Portugal, Britain, the Netherlands and France) established colonies in Asia, Africa, and the Americas. At first the countries followed mercantilist policies designed to strengthen the The pith helmet (in this case, of the Second home economy at the expense of rivals, so the colonies were usually French Empire) is an icon of colonialism in tropical lands allowed to trade only with the mother country. By the mid-19th century, however, the powerful British Empire gave up mercantilism and trade restrictions and introduced the principle of free trade, with few restrictions or tariffs. Definitions Collins English Dictionary defines colonialism as "the policy and practice of a power in extending control over weaker peoples or areas."[2] The Merriam-Webster Dictionary offers four definitions, including "something characteristic of a colony" and "control by one power over a dependent area or people."[3] The 2006 Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy "uses the term colonialism to describe the process of European settlement and political control over the rest of the world, including Americas, Australia, and parts of Africa and Asia." It discusses the distinction 1541 founding of Santiago de Chile between colonialism and imperialism and states that "given the difficulty of consistently distinguishing between the two terms, this entry will use colonialism as a broad concept that refers to the project of European political domination from the sixteenth to the twentieth centuries that ended with the national liberation movements of the 1960s."[4] In his preface to Jürgen Osterhammels Colonialism: A Theoretical Overview, Roger Tignor says, "For Osterhammel, the essence of colonialism is the existence of colonies, which are by definition governed differently from other territories such as protectorates or informal spheres of influence."[5] In the book, Osterhammel asks, "How can colonialism be defined independently from colony?"[6] He settles on a three-sentence definition: Colonialism is a relationship between an indigenous (or forcibly imported) majority and a minority of foreign invaders. The fundamental decisions affecting the lives of the colonized people are made and implemented by the colonial rulers in pursuit of interests that are often defined in a distant metropolis. Rejecting cultural compromises with the colonized population, the colonizers are convinced of their own superiority and their ordained mandate to rule.[7] ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKAS DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
  4. 4. Colonialism 2 Types of colonialism Historians often distinguish between two overlapping forms of colonialism: • Settler colonialism involves large-scale immigration, often motivated by religious, political, or economic reasons. • Exploitation colonialism involves fewer colonists and focuses on access to resources for export, typically to the metropole. This category includes trading posts as well as larger colonies where colonists would constitute much of the political and economic administration, but would rely on indigenous resources for labour and material. Prior to the end of the slave trade and widespread abolition, when indigenous labour was unavailable, slaves were often imported to the Americas, first by the Spanish Empire, and later by the Dutch, French and Dutch family in Java, 1927 British. Plantation colonies would be considered exploitation colonialism; but colonizing powers would utilize either type for different territories depending on various social and economic factors as well as climate and geographic conditions. Surrogate colonialism involves a settlement project supported by colonial power, in which most of the settlers do not come from the mainstream of the ruling power. Internal colonialism is a notion of uneven structural power between areas of a nation state. The source of exploitation comes from within the state. Sociocultural evolution As colonialism often played out in pre-populated areas sociocultural evolution included the creation of various ethnically hybrid populations. Colonialism gave rise to culturally and ethnically mixed populations such as the mestizos of the Americas, as well as racially divided populations as found in French Algeria or Southern Rhodesia. In fact everywhere where Colonial powers established a consistent and continued presence hybrid communities existed. Notable examples in Asia include the Anglo-Burmese people, Anglo-Indian, Burgher people, Eurasian Singaporean, Filipino mestizo, Kristang people and Macanese people. In the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia) the vast majority of Dutch settlers were in fact Eurasians known as Indo-Europeans, formally belonging to the European legal class in the colony.[8] [9] ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKAS DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
  5. 5. Colonialism 3 History Activity that could be called colonialism has a long history. The Egyptians, Phoenicians, Greeks and Romans all built colonies in antiquity. The word "metropole" comes from the Greek metropolis [Greek: "μητρόπολις"]—"mother city". The word "colony" comes from the Latin colonia—"a place for agriculture". Between the 11th and 18th centuries, the Vietnamese established World map of colonialism in 1800 military colonies south of their original territory and absorbed the territory, in a process known as nam tiến.[10] Modern colonialism started with the Age of Discovery. Portugal and Spain discovered new lands across the oceans and built trading posts or conquered large extensions of land. For some people, it is this building of colonies across oceans that differentiates colonialism from other types of This map of the world in 1914 shows the large colonial empires that powerful expansionism. These new lands were nations established across the globe divided between the Portuguese Empire and Spanish Empire, first by the papal bull Inter caetera and then by the Treaty of Tordesillas and the Treaty of Zaragoza (1529). This period is also associated with the Commercial Revolution. The late Middle Ages saw reforms in accountancy and banking in Italy and the eastern Mediterranean. These ideas were adopted and adapted in western Europe to the high World map of colonialism at the end of the Second World War in 1945 risks and rewards associated with colonial ventures. The 17th century saw the creation of the French colonial empire and the Dutch Empire, as well as the English colonial empire, which later became the British Empire. It also saw the establishment of a Danish colonial empire and some Swedish overseas colonies. The spread of colonial empires was reduced in the late 18th and early 19th centuries by the American Revolutionary War and the Latin American wars of independence. However, many new colonies were established after this time, including the German colonial empire and Belgian colonial empire. In the late 19th century, many European powers were involved in the Scramble for Africa. The Russian Empire, Ottoman Empire and Austrian Empire existed at the same time as the above empires, but did not expand over oceans. Rather, these empires expanded through the more traditional route of conquest of neighbouring territories. There was, though, some Russian colonization of the Americas across the Bering Strait. The Empire of Japan modelled itself on European colonial empires. The United States of America gained overseas territories after the Spanish-American War for which the term "American Empire" was coined. ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKAS DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
  6. 6. Colonialism 4 After the First World War, the victorious allies divided up the German colonial empire and much of the Ottoman Empire between themselves as League of Nations mandates. These territories were divided into three classes according to how quickly it was deemed that they would be ready for independence.[11] However, decolonisation outside the Americas lagged until after the Second World War. In 1962 the United Nations set up a Special Committee on Decolonization, often called the Committee of 24, to encourage this process. Further, dozens of independence movements and global political solidarity projects such as the Non-Aligned Movement were instrumental in the decolonization efforts of former colonies. European colonies in 1914 The major European empires consisted of the following colonies at the start of World War I (former colonies of the Spanish Empire became independent before 1914 and are not listed; former colonies of other European empires that previously became independent, such as the former French colony Haiti, are not listed): British colonies: • Aden • Anglo-Egyptian Sudan • Ascension Island • Australia • Bahamas • Basutoland • Bechuanaland • British East Africa • British Guiana • British Honduras • British Hong Kong • British Somaliland Colonial Governor of the Seychelles inspecting • Burma police guard of honour in 1972 • Canada • Ceylon • Egypt • Ellice Island • Falkland Islands • Fiji Island • Gambia • Gold Coast • India • Ireland • Jamaica The defence of Rorkes Drift during the Anglo-Zulu War of 1879 • Malaya • New Zealand • Nigeria • Northern Rhodesia • Oman • Papua • Sarawak • Sierra Leone • South Rhodesia ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKAS DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
  7. 7. Colonialism 5 • St. Helena • Swaziland • Trinidad and Tobago • Uganda • Union of South Africa Dutch colonies: • Curaçao and Dependencies • Dutch East Indies • Suriname French colonies: • Algeria • Clipperton Island • Comoros Islands • French Guiana • French Equatorial Africa • Chad • Oubangui-Chari Siege of Constantine (1836) during the French • French Congo conquest of Algeria. • Gabon • French India (Pondichéry, Chandernagor, Karikal, Mahé and Yanaon) • French Indochina • Annam • Cambodia • Cochinchina • Laos • Tonkin • French Polynesia • French Somaliland • French Southern and Antarctic Lands • French West Africa • Benin French officers and Tonkinese riflemen, 1884 • Côte dIvoire • Dahomey • Guinea • French Sudan • Mauritania • Niger • Senegal • Upper Volta • Guadeloupe • Saint Barthélemy • Saint Martin • La Réunion • Madagascar • Martinique ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKAS DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
  8. 8. Colonialism 6 • Morocco • New Caledonia • Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon • Shanghai French Concession (similar concessions in Kouang-Tchéou-Wan, Tientsin, Hankéou) • Tunisia • Vanuatu • Wallis-et-Futuna German Empire colonies: • Cameroon • Caroline Islands • German New Guinea • German East Africa • German South West Africa • Gilbert Islands • Mariana Islands • Marshall Islands Kamerun, 1908 • Togo Portuguese colonies: • Azores • Madeira • Portuguese Africa • Portuguese Angola • Portuguese Cape Verde • Portuguese Congo • Portuguese Guinea • Portuguese Mozambique • Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe • Fort of São João Baptista de Ajudá • Portuguese Asia • Portuguese India Portuguese women in Goa, India, 16th • Portuguese Macau century • Portuguese Timor ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKAS DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
  9. 9. Colonialism 7 Numbers of European settlers in the colonies (1500-1914) By 1914, Europeans had migrated to the colonies in the millions. Some intended to remain in the colonies as temporary settlers, mainly as military personnel or on business. Others went to the colonies as immigrants. British citizens were by far the most numerous population to migrate to the colonies: 2.5 million settled in Canada; 1.5 million in Australia; 750,000 in New Zealand; 450,000 in the Union of South Africa; and 200,000 in India. French citizens also migrated in large numbers, mainly to the colonies in the north African Maghreb region: 1.3 million settled in Algeria; 200,000 in Morocco; 100,000 in Tunisia; while only 20,000 migrated to French Indochina. Dutch and German colonies saw relatively scarce European migration, since Dutch and German colonial expansion focused upon commercial goals rather than settlement. Portugal sent 150,000 settlers to Angola, 80,000 to Mozambique, and 20,000 to Goa. During the Spanish Empire, approximately 550,000 Spanish settlers migrated to Latin Millions of Irish left Ireland for Canada and America.[12] U.S. following the Great Famine in the 1840s. Neocolonialism The term neocolonialism has been used to refer to a variety of contexts since decolonization that took place after World War II. Generally it does not refer to a type of direct colonization, rather, colonialism by other means. Specifically, neocolonialism refers to the theory that former or existing economic relationships, such as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and the Central American Free Trade Agreement, created by former colonial powers were or are used to maintain control of their former colonies and dependencies after the colonial independence movements of the post–World War II period. ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKAS DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
  10. 10. Colonialism 8 Colonialism and the history of thought Universalism The conquest of vast territories brings multitudes of diverse cultures under the central control of the imperial authorities. From the time of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome, this fact has been addressed by empires adopting the concept of universalism, and applying it to their imperial policies towards their subjects far from the imperial capitol. The capitol, the metropole, was the source of ostensibly enlightened policies imposed throughout the distant colonies. The empire that grew from Athenian conquest spurred the spread of Greek language, religion, science and philosophy throughout the colonies. The Athenians considered their own culture superior to all others. They referred to people speaking foreign languages as barbarians, dismissing foreign languages as inferior mutterings that sounded to Greek ears like "bar-bar". Romans found efficiency in imposing a universalist policy towards their colonies in many matters. Roman law was imposed on Roman citizens, as well as colonial subjects, throughout the empire. Latin spread as the common language of government and trade, the lingua franca, throughout the Empire. Romans also imposed peace between their diverse foreign subjects, which they Paris Colonial Exposition described in beneficial terms as the Pax Romana. The use of universal regulation by the Romans marks the emergence of a European concept of universalism and internationalism. Tolerance of other cultures and beliefs has always been secondary to the aims of empires, however. The Roman Empire was tolerant of diverse cultures and religious practises, so long as these did not threaten Roman authority. Napoleons foreign minister, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand, once remarked: "Empire is the art of putting men in their place".[13] Colonialism and geography Settlers acted as the link between the natives and the imperial hegemony, bridging the geographical, ideological and commercial gap between the colonisers and colonised. Advanced technology made possible the expansion of European states. With tools such as cartography, shipbuilding, navigation, mining and agricultural productivity colonisers had an upper hand. Their awareness of the Earths surface and abundance of practical skills provided colonisers with a knowledge that, in turn, created power.[14] Painter and Jeffrey argue that geography as a discipline was not and is not an objective science, rather it is based on assumptions about the physical world. Whereas it may have given “The West” an advantage when it came to exploration, it also created zones of racial inferiority. Geographical beliefs such as environmental determinism, the view that some parts of the world are underdeveloped, legitimised colonialism and created notions of skewed evolution.[14] These are now seen as elementary concepts. Political geographers maintain that colonial behavior was reinforced by the physical mapping of the world, visually separating “them” and “us”. Geographers are primarily focused on the spaces of colonialism and imperialism, more specifically, the material and symbolic appropriation of space enabling colonialism.[15] ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKAS DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
  11. 11. Colonialism 9 Colonialism and imperialism A colony is part of an empire and so colonialism is closely related to imperialism. Assumptions are that colonialism and imperialism are interchangeable, however Robert Young suggests that imperialism is the concept while colonialism is the practice. Colonialism is based on an imperial outlook, thereby creating a consequential relationship. Through an empire, colonialism is established and capitalism is expanded, on the other hand a capitalist economy naturally enforces an empire. In the next section Marxists make a case for this mutually reinforcing relationship. Marxist view of colonialism Marxism views colonialism as a form of capitalism, enforcing exploitation and social change. Marx thought that working within the global capitalist system, colonialism is closely associated with Governor-General Félix Éboué welcomes Charles de uneven development. It is an “instrument of wholesale destruction, Gaulle to Chad. dependency and systematic exploitation producing distorted economies, socio-psychological disorientation, massive poverty and neocolonial dependency.”[16] According to some Marxist historians, in all of the colonial countries ruled by Western European countries “the natives were robbed of more than half their natural span of life by undernourishment”.[17] Colonies are constructed into modes of production. The search for raw materials and the current search for new investment opportunities is a result of inter-capitalist rivalry for capital accumulation. Lenin regarded colonialism as the root cause of imperialism, as imperialism was distinguished by monopoly capitalism via colonialism and as Lyal S. Sunga explains: "Vladimir Lenin advocated forcefully the principle of self-determination of peoples in his "Theses on the Socialist Revolution and the Right of Nations to Self-Determination" as an integral plank in the programme of socialist internationalism" and he quotes Lenin who contended that "The right of nations to self-determination implies exclusively the right to independence in the political sense, the right to free political separation from the oppressor nation. Specifically, this demand for political democracy implies complete freedom to agitate for secession and for a referendum on secession by the seceding nation."[18] In his critique of colonialism in Africa, the Guyanese historian and political activist Walter Rodney states: "The decisiveness of the short period of colonialism and its negative consequences for Africa spring mainly from the fact that Africa lost power. Power is the ultimate determinant in human society, being basic to the relations within any group and between groups. It implies the ability to defend one’s interests and if necessary to impose one’s will by any means available. In relations between peoples, the question of power determines manoeuvrability in bargaining, the extent to which one people respect the interests of another, and eventually the extent to which a people survive as a physical and cultural entity. When one society finds itself forced to relinquish power entirely to another society that in itself is a form of underdevelopment....During the centuries of pre-colonial trade, some control over social political and economic life was retained in Africa, in spite of the disadvantageous commerce with Europeans. That little control over internal matters disappeared under colonialism. Colonialism went much further than trade. It meant a tendency towards direct appropriation by Europeans of the social institutions within Africa. Africans ceased to set indigenous cultural goals and standards, and lost full command of training young members of the society. Those were undoubtedly major steps backwards.... Colonialism was not merely a system of exploitation, but one whose essential purpose was to repatriate the profits to the so-called ‘mother country’. From an African view-point, that amounted to ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKAS DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
  12. 12. Colonialism 10 consistent expatriation of surplus produced by African labour out of African resources. It meant the development of Europe as part of the same dialectical process in which Africa was underdeveloped." “Colonial Africa fell within that part of the international capitalist economy from which surplus was drawn to feed the metropolitan sector. As seen earlier, exploitation of land and labour is essential for human social advance, but only on the assumption that the product is made available within the area where the exploitation takes place. [19][20] Liberalism, capitalism and colonialism Classical liberals generally opposed colonialism (as opposed to colonization) and imperialism, including Adam Smith, Frédéric Bastiat, Richard Cobden, John Bright, Henry Richard, Herbert Spencer, H. R. Fox Bourne, Edward Morel, Josephine Butler, W. J. Fox and William Ewart Gladstone. Moreover, American revolution was the first anti-colonial rebellion, inspiring others.[21] Adam Smith wrote in Wealth of Nations that Britain should liberate all of its colonies and also noted that it would be economically beneficial for British people in the average, although the merchants having mercantilist privileges would lose out.[21] Post-colonialism Further information: Dutch Indies literature Post-colonialism (or post-colonial theory) can refer to a set of theories in philosophy and literature that grapple with the legacy of colonial rule. In this sense, postcolonial literature may be considered a branch of postmodern literature concerned with the political and cultural independence of peoples formerly subjugated in colonial empires. Many practitioners take Edward Saïds book Orientalism (1978) as the theorys founding work (although French theorists such as Aimé Césaire and Frantz Fanon made similar claims decades before Said). Saïd analysed the works of Balzac, Baudelaire and Lautréamont, Anzac Day Parade in Brisbane, Australia. exploring how they both absorbed and helped to shape a societal fantasy of European racial superiority. Writers of post-colonial fiction interact with the traditional colonial discourse, but modify or subvert it; for instance by retelling a familiar story from the perspective of an oppressed minor character in the story. Gayatri Chakravorty Spivaks Can the Subaltern Speak? (1998) gave its name to Subaltern Studies. In A Critique of Postcolonial Reason (1999), Spivak explored how major works of European metaphysics (such as those of Kant and Hegel) not only tend to exclude the subaltern from their discussions, but actively prevent non-Europeans from occupying positions as fully human subjects. Hegels Phenomenology of Spirit (1807), famous for its explicit ethnocentrism, considers Western civilization as the most accomplished of all, while Kant also allowed some traces of racialism to enter his work. ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKAS DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
  13. 13. Colonialism 11 Impact of colonialism and colonization The impacts of colonization are immense and pervasive.[22] Various effects, both immediate and protracted, include the spread of virulent diseases, the establishment of unequal social relations, exploitation, enslavement, medical advances, the creation of new institutions, and technological progress. Colonial practices also spur the spread of languages, literature and cultural institutions. The native cultures of the colonized peoples can also have a powerful influence on the imperial country. The Dutch Public Health Service provides medical care Expansion of trade for the natives of the Dutch East Indies, May 1946 Imperial expansion has been accompanied by economic expansion since ancient times. Greek trade networks spread throughout the Mediterranean region, while Roman trade expanded with the main goal of directing tribute from the colonized areas towards the Roman metropole. With the development of trade routes under the Ottoman Empire, Gujari Hindus, Syrian Muslims, Jews, Armenians, Christians from south and central Europe operated trading routes that supplied Persian and Arab horses to the armies of all three empires, Mocha coffee to Delhi and Belgrade, Persian silk to India and Istanbul.[23] Aztec civilization developed into a large empire that, much like the Roman Empire, had the goal of exacting tribute from the conquered colonial areas. For the Aztecs, the most important tribute was the acquisition of sacrificial victims for their religious rituals.[24] Slaves and indentured servants Further information: Atlantic slave trade and Indentured servant European nations entered their imperial projects with the goal of enriching the European metropole. Exploitation of non-Europeans and other Europeans to support imperial goals was acceptable to the colonizers. Two outgrowths of this imperial agenda were slavery and indentured servitude. In the 17th century, nearly two-thirds of English settlers came to North America as indentured servants.[25] African slavery had existed long before Europeans discovered it as an exploitable means of creating an inexpensive labour force for the Slave memorial in Zanzibar. The Sultan of colonies. Europeans brought transportation technology to the practise, Zanzibar complied with British demands that bringing large numbers of African slaves to the Americas by sail. slavery be banned in Zanzibar and that all the Spain and Portugal had brought African slaves to work at African slaves be freed. colonies such as Cape Verde and the Azores, and then Latin America, by the 16th century. The British, French and Dutch joined in the slave trade in subsequent centuries. Ultimately, around 11 million Africans were taken to the Caribbean and North and South America as slaves by European colonizers.[26] ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKAS DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
  14. 14. Colonialism 12 European empire Colonial destination Number of slaves imported[26] Portuguese Empire Brazil 3,646,800 British Empire British Caribbean 1,665,000 French Empire French Caribbean 1,600,200 Spanish Empire Latin America 1,552,100 Dutch Empire Dutch Caribbean 500,000 British Empire British North America 399,000 Abolitionists in Europe and America protested the inhumane treatment of African slaves, which led to the elimination of the slave trade by the late 19th century. The labour shortage that resulted inspired European colonizers to develop a new source of labour, using a system of indentured servitude. Indentured servants consented to a contract with the European colonizers. Under their contract, the servant would work for an employer for a term of at least a year, while the employer agreed to pay for the servants voyage to the colony, possibly pay for the return to the country of origin, and pay the employee a wage as well. The employee was "indentured" to the employer because they owed a debt back to the employer for their travel expense to the colony, which they were expected to pay through their wages. In practice, indentured servants were exploited through terrible working conditions and burdensome debts created by the employers, with whom the servants had no means of negotiating the debt once they arrived in the colony. Slave traders in Senegal. For centuries India and China were the largest source of indentured servants during the Africans had sold other Africans to the Arabs colonial era. Indentured servants from India travelled to British colonies and Europeans as slaves. in Asia, Africa and the Caribbean, and also to French and Portuguese colonies, while Chinese servants travelled to British and Dutch colonies. Between 1830 and 1930, around 30 million indentured servants migrated from India, and 24 million returned to India. China sent more indentured servants to European colonies, and around the same proportion returned to China.[27] Military innovation Imperial expansion follows military conquest in most instances. Imperial armies therefore have a long history of military innovation in order to gain an advantage over the armies of the people they aim to conquer. Greeks developed the phalanx system, which enabled their military units to present themselves to their enemies as a wall, with foot soldiers using shields to cover one another during their advance on the battlefield. Under Philip II of Macedon, they were able to organize thousands of soldiers into a formidable battle force, bringing together carefully trained infantry and cavalry regiments.[28] Alexander the Great exploited this military foundation further during his conquests. The Spanish Empire held a major advantage over Mesoamerican warriors through the use of weapons made of stronger metal, predominantly iron, which was able to shatter the blades of axes used by the Aztec civilization and others. The European development of firearms using gunpowder cemented their military advantage over the peoples they sought to subjugate in the Americas and elsewhere. ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKAS DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
  15. 15. Colonialism 13 The end of empire The populations of some colonial territories, such as Canada, enjoyed relative peace and prosperity as part of a European power, at least among the majority; however, minority populations such as First Nations peoples and French-Canadians experienced marginalization and resented colonial practises. Francophone residents of Quebec, for example, were vocal in opposing conscription into the armed services to fight on behalf of Britain during World War I, resulting in the Conscription crisis of 1917. Other European colonies had much more Gandhi having tea with Lord Mountbatten, 1947 pronounced conflict between European settlers and the local population. Rebellions broke out in the later decades of the imperial era, such as Indias Sepoy Rebellion. The territorial boundaries imposed by European colonizers, notably in central Africa and south Asia, defied the existing boundaries of native populations that had previously interacted little with one another. European colonizers disregarded native political and cultural animosities, imposing peace upon people under their military control. Native populations were relocated at the will of the colonial administrators. Once independence from European control was achieved, civil war erupted in some former colonies, as native populations fought to capture territory for their own ethnic, cultural or political group. The Partition of India, a 1947 civil war that came in the aftermath of Indias independence from Britain, became a conflict with 500,000 killed. Fighting erupted between Hindu, Sikh and Muslim communities as they fought for territorial dominance. Muslims fought for an independent country to be partitioned where they would not be a religious minority, resulting in the creation of Pakistan.[29] Post-independence population movement In a reversal of the migration patterns experienced during the modern colonial era, post-independence era migration followed a route back towards the imperial country. In some cases, this was a movement of settlers of European origin returning to the land of their birth, or to an ancestral birthplace. 900,000 French colonists (known as the Pied-Noirs) resettled in France following Algerias independence in 1962. A significant number of these migrants were also of Algerian descent. 800,000 people of Portuguese origin migrated to Portugal after The annual Notting Hill Carnival in London is a the independence of former colonies in Africa between 1974 and 1979; celebration led by the Trinidadian and 300,000 settlers of Dutch origin migrated to the Netherlands from the Tobagonian British community. Dutch West Indies after Dutch military control of the colony ended.[30] After WWII 300,000 Dutchmen from the Dutch East Indies, of which the majority were people of Eurasian descent called Indo Europeans, repatriated to the Netherlands. A significant number later migrated to the US, Canada, Australia and New Zealand.[31][32] Global travel and migration in general developed at an increasingly brisk pace throughout the era of European colonial expansion. Citizens of the former colonies of European countries may have a privileged status in some respects with regard to immigration rights when settling in the former European imperial nation. For example, rights to dual citizenship may be generous,[33] or larger immigrant quotas may be extended to former colonies. In some cases, the former European imperial nations continue to foster close political and economic ties with former colonies. The Commonwealth of Nations is an organization that promotes cooperation between and among Britain and its former colonies, the Commonwealth members. A similar organization exists for former colonies of France, the Francophonie; the Community of Portuguese Language Countries plays a similar role for former Portuguese ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKAS DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
  16. 16. Colonialism 14 colonies, and the Dutch Language Union is the equivalent for former colonies of the Netherlands. Migration from former colonies has proven to be problematic for European countries, where the majority population may express hostility to ethnic minorities who have immigrated from former colonies. Cultural and religious conflict have often erupted in France in recent decades, between immigrants from the Maghreb countries of north Africa and the majority population of France. Nonetheless, immigration has changed the ethnic composition of France; by the 1980s, 25% of the total population of "inner Paris" and 14% of the metropolitan region were of foreign origin, mainly Algerian.[34] Impact on health Encounters between explorers and populations in the rest of the world often introduced new diseases, which sometimes caused local epidemics of extraordinary virulence.[35] For example, smallpox, measles, malaria, yellow fever, and others were unknown in pre-Columbian America.[36] Disease killed the entire native (Guanches) population of the Canary Islands in the 16th century. Half the native population of Hispaniola in 1518 was killed by smallpox. Smallpox also ravaged Mexico in the 1520s, killing 150,000 in Tenochtitlan alone, including the emperor, Aztecs dying of smallpox, (“The Florentine and Peru in the 1530s, aiding the European conquerors. Measles killed Codex” 1540–85) a further two million Mexican natives in the 17th century. In 1618–1619, smallpox wiped out 90% of the Massachusetts Bay Native Americans.[37] Smallpox epidemics in 1780–1782 and 1837–1838 brought devastation and drastic depopulation among the Plains Indians.[38] Some believe that the death of up to 95% of the Native American population of the New World was caused by Old World diseases.[39] Over the centuries, the Europeans had developed high degrees of immunity to these diseases, while the indigenous peoples had no time to build such immunity.[40] Smallpox decimated the native population of Australia, killing around 50% of indigenous Australians in the early [41] years of British colonisation. It also killed many New Zealand Māori.[42] As late as 1848–49, as many as 40,000 out of 150,000 Hawaiians are estimated to have died of measles, whooping cough and influenza. Introduced diseases, notably smallpox, nearly wiped out the native population of Easter Island.[43] In 1875, measles killed over 40,000 Fijians, approximately one-third of the population.[44] The Ainu population decreased drastically in the 19th century, due in large part to infectious diseases brought by Japanese settlers pouring into Hokkaido.[45] Conversely, researchers concluded that syphilis was carried from the New World to Europe after Columbuss voyages. The findings suggested Europeans could have carried the nonvenereal tropical bacteria home, where the organisms may have mutated into a more deadly form in the different conditions of Europe.[46] The disease was more frequently fatal than it is today; syphilis was a major killer in Europe during the Renaissance.[47] The first cholera pandemic began in Bengal, then spread across India by 1820. Ten thousand British troops and countless Indians died during this pandemic.[48] Between 1736 and 1834 only some 10% of East India Companys officers survived to take the final voyage home.[49] Waldemar Haffkine, who mainly worked in India, who developed and used vaccines against cholera and bubonic plague in the 1890s, is considered the first microbiologist. ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKAS DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
  17. 17. Colonialism 15 Countering disease As early as 1803, the Spanish Crown organised a mission (the Balmis expedition) to transport the smallpox vaccine to the Spanish colonies, and establish mass vaccination programs there.[50] By 1832, the federal government of the United States established a smallpox vaccination program for Native Americans.[51] Under the direction of Mountstuart Elphinstone a program was launched to propagate smallpox vaccination in India.[52] From the beginning of the 20th century onwards, the elimination or control of disease in tropical countries became a driving force for all colonial powers.[53] The sleeping sickness epidemic in Africa was arrested due to mobile teams systematically screening millions of people at risk.[54] In the 20th century, the world saw the biggest increase in its population in human history due to lessening of the mortality rate in many countries due to medical advances.[55] The world population has grown from 1.6 billion in 1900 to over 7 billion today. Notes [1] Origins – the invention of colonialism: see article on Ronald Daus, references and bibliography [2] "Colonialism" (http:/ / www. collinsdictionary. com/ dictionary/ english/ colonialism). Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins. 2011. . Retrieved 8 January 2012. [3] "Colonialism" (http:/ / www. merriam-webster. com/ dictionary/ colonialism). Merriam-Webbster. Merriam-Webster. 2010. . Retrieved 5 April 2010. [4] Margaret Kohn (2006). "Colonialism" (http:/ / plato. stanford. edu/ entries/ colonialism/ ). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford University. . Retrieved 5 April 2010. [5] Tignor, Roger (2005). preface to Colonialism: a theoretical overview (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=CMfksrnWaUkC& pg=PR10#v=onepage). Markus Weiner Publishers. p. x. ISBN 1-55876-340-6, 9781558763401. . Retrieved 5 April 2010. [6] Osterhammel, Jürgen (2005). Colonialism: a theoretical overview (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=CMfksrnWaUkC& pg=PA15#v=onepage). trans. Shelley Frisch. Markus Weiner Publishers. p. 15. ISBN 1-55876-340-6, 9781558763401. . Retrieved 5 April 2010. [7] Osterhammel, Jürgen (2005). Colonialism: A Theoretical Overview (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=CMfksrnWaUkC& pg=PA16#v=onepage). trans. Shelley Frisch. Markus Weiner Publishers. p. 16. ISBN 1-55876-340-6, 9781558763401. . Retrieved 5 April 2010. [8] Bosma U., Raben R. Being "Dutch" in the Indies: a history of creolisation and empire, 1500–1920 (University of Michigan, NUS Press, 2008) P.223 ISBN 9971-69-373-9 Googlebook (http:/ / books. google. nl/ books?id=47wCTCJX9X4C& dq=Carel+ Pieter+ Brest+ van+ Kempen& source=gbs_navlinks_s) [9] Gouda, Frances ‘Dutch Culture Overseas: Colonial Practice in the Netherlands Indies 1900-1942.’ (Publisher: Equinox, 2008) ISBN 978-979-3780-62-7 Chapter 5, P.163 (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=nN6G-lMk_DEC& source=gbs_navlinks_s) [10] The Le Dynasty and Southward Expansion (http:/ / countrystudies. us/ vietnam/ 11. htm) [11] "The Trusteeship Council - The mandate system of the League of Nations" (http:/ / www. nationsencyclopedia. com/ United-Nations/ The-Trusteeship-Council-THE-MANDATE-SYSTEM-OF-THE-LEAGUE-OF-NATIONS. html). Encyclopedia of the Nations. Advameg. 2010. . Retrieved 8 August 2010. [12] King, Russell (2010). People on the Move: An Atlas of Migration. Berkeley, Los Angeles: University of California Press. pp. 34–5. ISBN 0-520-26151-8. [13] Pagden, Anthony (2003). Peoples and Empires. New York: Modern Library. pp. xxiii. ISBN 0-8129-6761-5. [14] "Painter, J. & Jeffrey, A., 2009. Political Geography 2nd ed., Sage. “Imperialism” pg 23 (GIC) [15] Gallaher, C. et al., 2008. Key Concepts in Political Geography, Sage Publications Ltd. "Imperialism/Colonialism" pg 5 (GIC) [16] Dictionary of Human Geography, "Colonialism" [17] The Labour Government 1945-51 by Denis Nowell Pritt [18] In the Emerging System of International Criminal Law: Developments and Codification, Brill Publishers (1997) at page 90, Sunga traces the origin of the international movement against colonialism, and relates it to the rise of the right to self-determination in international law. [19] Walter Rodney. How Europe Underdeveloped Africa (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=CwSSkemSJLcC& pg=PA224). East African Publishers. p. 149, 224. . [20] Henry Schwarz; Sangeeta Ray (2004). A Companion To Postcolonial Studies (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=eyiZafDHpqoC& pg=PA271). John Wiley & Sons. p. 271. . [21] Liberal Anti-Imperialism (http:/ / www. setav. org/ ups/ dosya/ 24514. pdf), professor Daniel Klein, 1.7.2004 [22] Come Back, Colonialism, All is Forgiven (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ world/ article/ 0,8599,1713275,00. html) [23] Pagden, Anthony (2003). Peoples and Empires. New York: Modern Library. pp. 45. ISBN 0-8129-6761-5. [24] Pagden, Anthony (2003). Peoples and Empires. New York: Modern Library. pp. 5. ISBN 0-8129-6761-5. [25] " White Servitude (http:/ / www. montgomerycollege. edu/ Departments/ hpolscrv/ whiteser. html)", by Richard Hofstadter, Montgomery College ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKAS DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
  18. 18. Colonialism 16 [26] King, Russell (2010). People on the Move: An Atlas of Migration. Berkeley, Los Angeles: University of California Press. pp. 24. ISBN 978-0-520-26124-2. [27] King, Russell (2010). People on the Move: An Atlas of Migration. Berkeley, Los Angeles: University of California Press. pp. 26–7. ISBN 978-0-520-26124-2. [28] Pagden, Anthony (2003). Peoples and Empires. New York: Modern Library. pp. 6. ISBN 0-8129-6761-5. [29] White, Matthew (2012). The Great Big Book of Horrible Things. London: W.W. Norton & Co. Ltd.. pp. 427. ISBN 978-0-393-08192-3. [30] King, Russell (2010). People on the Move: An Atlas of Migration. Berkeley, Los Angeles: University of California Press. pp. 35. ISBN 978-0-520-26124-2. [31] Willlems, Wim "De uittocht uit Indie (1945–1995), De geschiedenis van Indische Nederlanders" (Publisher: Bert Bakker, Amsterdam, 2001). ISBN 90-351-2361-1 [32] Crul, Lindo and Lin Pang. Culture, Structure and Beyond, Changing identities and social positions of immigrants and their children (Het Spinhuis Publishers, 1999). ISBN 90-5589-173-8 [33] "British Nationality Act 1981" (http:/ / www. legislation. gov. uk/ ukpga/ 1981/ 61). The National Archives, United Kingdom. . Retrieved February 24, 2012. [34] Seljuq, Affan (July 1997). "Cultural Conflicts: North African Immigrants in France" (http:/ / www. gmu. edu/ programs/ icar/ ijps/ vol2_2/ seljuq. htm). The International Journal of Peace Studies 2, (2). ISSN 1085-7494. . Retrieved February 24, 2012. [35] Kenneth F. Kiple, ed. The Cambridge Historical Dictionary of Disease (2003) [36] Alfred W. Crosby, Jr., The Columbian Exchange: Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492 (1974) [37] Smallpox The Fight to Eradicate a Global Scourge (http:/ / www. ucpress. edu/ books/ pages/ 9968/ 9968. ch01. html), David A. Koplow [38] "The first smallpox epidemic on the Canadian Plains: In the fur-traders words" (http:/ / www. pubmedcentral. nih. gov/ articlerender. fcgi?artid=2094753), National Institutes of Health [39] The Story Of... Smallpox – and other Deadly Eurasian Germs (http:/ / www. pbs. org/ gunsgermssteel/ variables/ smallpox. html) [40] Stacy Goodling, "Effects of European Diseases on the Inhabitants of the New World" (http:/ / www. millersville. edu/ ~columbus/ papers/ goodling. html) [41] "Smallpox Through History" (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ query?id=1257008292443871). Archived from the original (http:/ / encarta. msn. com/ media_701508643/ Smallpox_Through_History. html) on 2009-10-31. . [42] New Zealand Historical Perspective (http:/ / www. canr. msu. edu/ overseas/ nzenvironsci/ infopart2. htm) [43] How did Easter Islands ancient statues lead to the destruction of an entire ecosystem? (http:/ / www. independent. co. uk/ news/ science/ how-did-easter-islands-ancient-statues-lead-to-the-destruction-of-an-entire-ecosystem-455877. html), The Independent [44] Fiji School of Medicine (http:/ / www. fsm. ac. fj/ aboutfsm. html) [45] Meeting the First Inhabitants (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ asia/ features/ ontheroad/ japan. sapporo. ainu. html), TIMEasia.com, 21 August 2000 [46] Genetic Study Bolsters Columbus Link to Syphilis (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2008/ 01/ 15/ science/ 15syph. html?_r=1), New York Times, January 15, 2008 [47] Columbus May Have Brought Syphilis to Europe (http:/ / www. livescience. com/ history/ 080114-syphilis-columbus. html), LiveScience [48] Choleras seven pandemics (http:/ / www. cbc. ca/ health/ story/ 2008/ 05/ 09/ f-cholera-outbreaks. html). CBC News. December 2, 2008 [49] Sahib: The British Soldier in India, 1750-1914 by Richard Holmes (http:/ / www. asianreviewofbooks. com/ arb/ article. php?article=610) [50] Dr. Francisco de Balmis and his Mission of Mercy, Society of Philippine Health History (http:/ / www. doh. gov. ph/ sphh/ balmis. htm) [51] Lewis Cass and the Politics of Disease: The Indian Vaccination Act of 1832 (http:/ / muse. jhu. edu/ login?uri=/ journals/ wicazo_sa_review/ v018/ 18. 2pearson01. html) [52] Smallpox History - Other histories of smallpox in South Asia (http:/ / www. smallpoxhistory. ucl. ac. uk/ Other Asia/ ongoingwork. htm) [53] Conquest and Disease or Colonialism and Health? (http:/ / www. gresham. ac. uk/ event. asp?PageId=45& EventId=696), Gresham College | Lectures and Events [54] WHO Media centre (2001). Fact sheet N°259: African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness (http:/ / www. who. int/ mediacentre/ factsheets/ fs259/ en/ index. html). . [55] The Origins of African Population Growth, by John Iliffe (http:/ / www. jstor. org/ pss/ 182701), The Journal of African HistoryVol. 30, No. 1 (1989), pp. 165-169 ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKAS DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
  19. 19. Colonialism 17 References • Cooper, Frederick. Colonialism in Question: Theory, Knowledge, History (2005) • Getz, Trevor R. and Heather Streets-Salter, eds. Modern Imperialism and Colonialism: A Global Perspective (2010) • Stuchtey, Benedikt: Colonialism and Imperialism, 1450-1950 (http://nbn-resolving.de/ urn:nbn:de:0159-20101025319), European History Online, Mainz: Institute of European History, 2011, retrieved: July 13, 2011. • Wendt, Reinhard: European Overseas Rule (http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0159-20100921437), European History Online, Mainz: Institute of European History, 2011, retrieved: June 13, 2012. Primary sources • Conrad, Joseph, Heart of Darkness, 1899 • Fanon, Frantz, The Wretched of the Earth, Pref. by Jean-Paul Sartre. Translated by Constance Farrington. London : Penguin Book, 2001 • Kipling, Rudyard, The White Mans Burden, 1899 • Las Casas, Bartolomé de, A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies (1542, published in 1552) • LeCour Grandmaison, Olivier, Coloniser, Exterminer - Sur la guerre et lEtat colonial, Fayard, 2005, ISBN 2-213-62316-3 • Lindqvist, Sven, Exterminate All The Brutes, 1992, New Press; Reprint edition (June 1997), ISBN 978-1-56584-359-2 • Maria Petringa, Brazza, A life for Africa (2006), ISBN 978-1-4259-1198-0 • Jürgen Osterhammel, Colonialism: A Theoretical Overview, Princeton, NJ: M. Wiener, 1997. • Said, Edward, Orientalism, 1978; 25th-anniversary edition 2003 ISBN 978-0-394-74067-6 External links • Liberal opposition to colonialism, imperialism and empire (pdf) (http://lsb.scu.edu/~dklein/papers/PdfPapers/ Liberalanti-imperialism.pdf) - by professor Daniel Klein • Colonialism (http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/colonialism) entry by Margaret Kohn in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy • Globalization (and the metaphysics of control in a free market world) (http://www.pinkyshow.org/archives/ episodes/070307/) - an online video on globalization, colonialism, and control. ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKAS DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
  20. 20. Neocolonialism 18 Neocolonialism Neocolonialism (also Neo-colonialism) is the geopolitical practice of using capitalism, business globalization, and cultural imperialism to control a country, in lieu of either direct military control or indirect political control, i.e. imperialism and hegemony. The term neo-colonialism was coined by the Ghanaian politician Kwame Nkrumah, to describe the socio-economic and political control that can be exercised economically, linguistically, and culturally, whereby promotion of the culture of the neo-colonist country, facilitates the cultural assimilation of the colonised people, and thus opens the national economy to the multinational corporations of the neo-colonial country. The Motherland and her dependant colonial offspring. (William-Adolphe Bouguereau, 1883) The European world empires and their colonies in the late 19th The European world empires and their colonies in the mid 20th century, before the Spanish-American War (1898), Boxer Rebellion century, after the Second World War (1939–45). (1899–1901), and the Second Boer War (1899–1902). In post-colonial studies, the term neo-colonialism describes the domination-praxis (social, economic, cultural) of countries from the developed world in the respective internal affairs of the countries of the developing world; that, despite the decolonisation occurred in the aftermath of the Second World War (1939–45), the (former) colonial powers continue to apply existing and past international economic arrangements with their former colony countries, and so maintain colonial control. A neo-colonialism critique can include de facto colonialism (imperialist or hegemonic), and an economic critique of the disproportionate involvement of modern capitalist business in the economy of a developing country, whereby multinational corporations continue to exploit the natural resources and the people of the former colony; that such economic control is inherently neo-colonial, and thus is akin to the ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKAS DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
  21. 21. Neocolonialism 19 imperial and hegemonic varieties of colonialism practiced by the empires of Great Britain, France, and other European countries, from the 16th to the 20th centuries.[1] The ideology and praxis of neo-colonialism are discussed in the works of Jean-Paul Sartre (Colonialism and Neo-colonialism, 1964)[2] and Noam Chomsky (The Washington Connection and Third World Fascism, 1979).[3] The term Origins The political-science term neo-colonialism became popular usage in reference to the continued European control — economic, cultural, etc. — of African countries that had been decolonized in the aftermath of the Second World War (1939–45). Kwame Nkrumah, president of Ghana (1960–66), coined the term neo-colonialism in the book Neo-Colonialism, the Last Stage of Imperialism (1965)[4][5] As a political scientist, Nkrumah theoretically developed and extended, to the post–War 20th century, the socio-economic and political arguments presented by Lenin in the pamphlet Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism (1917), about 19th-century imperialism as the logical extension of geopolitical power to meet the financial investment needs of the political economy of capitalism.[6] A 1989 edition of a ten-kopeck U.S.S.R. postage stamp of Kwame Nkrumah, the Ghanaian politician who coined the term Neo-colonialism. In Neo-Colonialism, the Last Stage of Imperialism, Kwame Nkrumah said that: In place of colonialism, as the main instrument of imperialism, we have today neo-colonialism . . . [which] like colonialism, is an attempt to export the social conflicts of the capitalist countries. . . . The result of neo-colonialism is that foreign capital is used for the exploitation rather than for the development of the less developed parts of the world. Investment, under neo-colonialism, increases, rather than decreases, the gap between the rich and the poor countries of the world. The struggle against neo-colonialism is not aimed at excluding the capital of the developed world from operating in less developed countries. It is aimed at preventing the financial power of the developed countries being used in such a way as to impoverish the less developed.[7] The Cuban revolutionary Ché Guevara In 1965, at Algiers, in the Afro–Asian Conference, the Cuban described neo-colonialism as the continued colonial rule of decolonized countries by revolutionary Ché Guevara spoke to the participants of the Second other means. Economic Seminar of Afro–Asian Solidarity about the continued foreign domination of the underdeveloped countries of the world: ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKAS DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
  22. 22. Neocolonialism 20 As long as imperialism exists it will, by definition, exert its domination over other countries. Today, that domination is called neo-colonialism. — Ché Guevara (24 February 1965)[8] The non-aligned world “Neo-colonialism” became the standard term, describing a type of foreign intervention, because of its practical and historical application to the internal affairs (economic, social, political) of the countries of the Pan-Africanist movement and because of its like usage in the Bandung Conference (Asian–African Conference, 1955), from which derived the Non-Aligned Movement (1961). The formal definition of neo-colonialism was established by the All-African Peoples’ Conference (AAPC) and published in the Resolution on Neo-colonialism of the The non-aligned world: "We face neither East nor organisation. At the Tunis conference (1960) and at the Cairo West: We face forward", a Zambian political conference (1961), the AAPC specifically identified as advertisement quotes Kwame Nkrumah. (2005) neo-colonial behaviour, the actions of the French Community of independent states, which was organised by France.[9] Throughout the decades of the U.S.–U.S.S.R. Cold War (1945–91), the countries of the Non-Aligned Movement and the Organization of Solidarity with the People of Asia, Africa and Latin America defined neo-colonialism as the primary, collective enemy of the economies and cultures of their respective countries. Moreover, neo-colonialism was integrated to the national-liberation ideologies of Marxist guerrilla armies. During the 1970s, in the Portuguese African colonies of Mozambique and Angola, upon assuming government power, the Liberation Front of Mozambique (FRELIMO, Frente de Libertação de Moçambique) and the People’s Movement for the Liberation of Angola — Labour Party (MPLA, Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola — Partido do Trabalho), respectively, established policies to counter neo-colonial agreements with the (former) colonist country. Paternalistic neo-colonialism The term “paternalistic neo-colonialism” describes the ideologic and cultural beliefs, by the people of the colonial country, that their continued (neo) colonial domination of a colonial people, is, in the long term, to the benefit of the subject people. The praxis of paternalistic neo-colonialism illuminates the basic belief-system as racialist and as exploitative, because it is a reformulation of the imperialist racism of the French Mission civilisatrice and of the Portuguese Missão civilizadora, each a type of “civilizing mission” that was characteristic of the varieties of European imperialism in the 19th century. In imperial practice, the civilising mission is an ideological rationale for military intervention and colonisation, which actions rationalise imperialism as the national and cultural duty to propagate European civilisation, by establishing colonies in the Other countries of the other continents of the Earth. In practice, colonialism was the economic exploitation and the cultural Westernization of the indigenous peoples, which was effected with the colonial ideology of “cultural assimilation”; a basic principle of empire of French and Portuguese colonial rule in the Asia of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Culturally, each European colonial power, Portugal, Great Britain, France, et al., exercised a self-imposed moral and imperial duty to take Western civilization to the “primitive cultures” of Asia, Africa, and Oceania. Yet, because each primitive culture was “The Other” to a European culture, the exotic African, Asian, and Oceanian cultures were perceived as cultural inferiors. ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKAS DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
  23. 23. Neocolonialism 21 Françafrique The representative example of European neo-colonialism is Françafrique, the “French Africa” constituted by the continued close relationships between Metropole France and its former African country colonies. In 1955, the initial usage of the “French Africa” term, by President Félix Houphouët-Boigny, of Côte d’Ivoire, denoted positive social, cultural, and economic Franco–African relations. It was later was applied by critics of neo-colonialism to describe an imbalanced international relation. The term Françafrique is derived from the essay La Françafrique, le plus long scandale de la République (French Africa: The Longest Scandal of the Republic, 1998), by François-Xavier Verschave, which critically analysed French neo-colonial policies towards the countries of Africa.[10] Moreover, Main basse sur le Cameroun, autopsie d’une décolonisation (Cruel Hand on Cameroon: Autopsy of a Decolonization, 1972), by Mongo Beti, is a critical history of contemporary Cameroon that reported the continued dependance — economic, social, cultural — of decolonised African nations and countries upon Metropole France, whose dependance was actively continued by the the post-independence, national political élites of the given countries. The politician Jacques Foccart, the principal advisor for African matters to the French presidents Charles de Gaulle (1958–69) and Georges Pompidou (1969–1974), was the principal proponent of neo-colonial Françafrique.[11] The French Africa works of Verschave and Beti reported a forty-year, post-independence relationship with the former colonial peoples of France, which feature colonial garrisons in situ and monopolies by French multinational corporations, usually for the exploitation of mineral resources. The African leaders with close ties to France — especially during the Russo–American Cold War (1945–91) — acted more as agents of French business and geopolitical interests, than as the national leaders of sovereign states, such as Omar Bongo (Gabon), Félix Houphouët-Boigny (Côte dIvoire), Gnassingbé Eyadéma (Togo), Denis Sassou-Nguesso (Republic of the Congo), Idriss Déby (Chad), and Hamani Diori (Niger). Francophonie The French Community (1958–95) and the seventy-five-country Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (International Francophone Organisation) were agents of French neo-colonial African influence, especially by means of the French language; about which, in 1966, the Algerian intellectual Kateb Yacine said: La Francophonie is a neo-colonial political machine, which only perpetuates our alienation, but the usage of the French language does not mean that one is an agent of a foreign powe; and I write in French to tell the French that I am not French. — Kateb Yacine biography, Arabesques[12][13] Belgian Congo After a hastened decolonization process of the Belgian Congo, Belgium continued to control, through the Société Générale de Belgique, an estimate of 70% of the Congolese economy following the decolonization process. The most contested part was in the province of Katanga where the Union Minière du Haut Katanga, part of the Société, had control over the mineral- and resource-rich province. After a failed attempt to nationalize the mining industry in the 1960s, it was reopened to foreign investment. ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKAS DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
  24. 24. Neocolonialism 22 Neo-colonial economic dominance In 1961, regarding the economic mechanism of neo-colonial control, in the speech Cuba: Historical Exception or Vanguard in the Anti-colonial Struggle?, the Cuban revolutionary Ché Guevara said: We, politely referred to as “underdeveloped”, in truth, are colonial, semi-colonial or dependent countries. We are countries whose economies have been distorted by imperialism, which has abnormally developed those branches of industry or agriculture needed to complement its complex economy. “Underdevelopment”, or distorted development, brings a dangerous specialization in raw materials, inherent in which is the threat Neo-colonialism: U.S. President Harry Truman and Mohammad of hunger for all our peoples. We, the Mosaddeq, the Iranian Prime Minister in 1951. Two years later, the Persian nationalisation of the petroleum of Iran was halted with “underdeveloped”, are also those with the single Operation Ajax, a British–American coup d’ état, which deposed crop, the single product, the single market. A P.M. Mossadeq on 19 August 1953, and reinstated the deposed, single product whose uncertain sale depends on a absolute monarchy of the Pahlavi family. single market imposing and fixing conditions. That is the great formula for imperialist economic domination. — Ché Guevara, 9 April 1961.[14] Dependency theory Dependency theory is the theoretic basis of economic neo-colonialism, which proposes that the global economic system comprises wealthy countries at the center, and poor countries at the periphery. Economic neo-colonialism extracts the human and the natural resources of a peripheral (poor) country to flow to the Petroleum-producing Africa: U.S. President Jimmy Carter and Lt. economies of the wealthy countries at the center of the Gen. Olusegun Obasanjo on tour of Lagos, Nigeria, in April, 1978. global economic system; hence, the poverty of the Three years earlier, with a coup d’ état, Gen. Obasanjo assumed power, and later was politically courted by the U.S. and the U.S.S.R., peripheral countries is the result of the how they are as part of the Cold War. integrated to the global economic system. Dependency theory derives from the Marxist analysis of economic inequalities within the world’s system of economies, thus, the under-development of the Global South is a direct result of the development in the Global North; the theories of the semi-colony from the late 19th century.[15] The Marxist perspective of the Theory of Colonial Dependency is contrasted with the capitalist economics of the free market, which propose that such poverty is a development stage in the poor country’s progress towards full, economic integration to the global economic system. Proponents of Dependency Theory, such as Venezuelan historian Federico Brito Figueroa, who has investigated the socio-economic bases of neo-colonial dependency, have influenced the thinking of the current President of Venezuela, Hugo Chávez. ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKAS DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
  25. 25. Neocolonialism 23 The Cold War During the mid-to-late 20th century, in the course of the Cold War (1945–91) ideological conflict between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R., each country and its satellite states accused each other of practising neo-colonialism in their imperial and hegemonic pursuits.[16][17][18][19][20][21][22] The geopolitical conditions that defined the Russo–American Cold War led to proxy war, fought by client states in the decolonised countries; Cuba, the Warsaw Pact bloc, Egypt under the leadership of Gamal Abdel Nasser (1956–70), et al. accused the U.S. of sponsoring anti-democratic governments whose régimes did not represent the interests of the majority of the populace, and of deposing Third-World elected governments (African, Asian, Latin American) who did not subscribe to the geopolitical interests of the U.S., as defined by the East–West Cold War. In the 1960s, under the leadership of Chairman Mehdi Ben Barka, the Cuban Tricontinental Conference (Organization of Solidarity with the People of Asia, Africa and Latin America) recognised and supported the validity of revolutionary anti-colonialism as a means for colonised peoples of the Third World to achieve their self-determination, which policy angered the U.S. and France. Moreover, Chairman Barka headed the Commission on Neo-colonialism, which dealt with the worked to resolve the neo-colonial involvement of colonial powers in decolonised counties; and said that the U.S., as the leading capitalist country of the world, was, in practise, the principal neo-colonialist political actor. Multinational corporations Critics of neo-colonialism also argue that investment by multinational corporations enriches few in underdeveloped countries, and causes humanitarian, environmental and ecological devastation to the populations which inhabit the neocolonies whose "development" and economy is now dependent on foreign markets and large scale trade agreements. This, it is argued, results in unsustainable development and perpetual underdevelopment; a dependency which cultivates those countries as reservoirs of cheap labor and raw materials, while restricting their access to advanced production techniques to develop their own economies. In some countries, privatization of national resources, while initially leading to immediate large scale influx of investment capital, is often followed by dramatic increases in the rate of unemployment, poverty, and a decline in per-capita income.[23] This is particularly true in the West African nations of Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, and Mauritania where fishing has historically been central to the local economy. Beginning in 1979, the European Union began brokering fishing rights contracts off the coast of West Africa. This continues to this day. Commercial unsustainable over-fishing from foreign corporations have played a significant role in the large-scale unemployment and migration of people across the region.[24] This stands in direct opposition to United Nations Treaty on the Seas which recognizes the importance of fishing to local communities and insists that government fishing agreements with foreign companies should be targeted at surplus stocks only.[25] ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKAS DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
  26. 26. Neocolonialism 24 International banks Critics of neo-colonialism portray the choice to grant or to refuse granting loans (particularly those financing otherwise unpayable Third World debt), especially by international banks such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the World Bank, as a decisive form of control. That, in order to qualify for such loans, and other forms of financial aid, economically weak countries are forced to take impose the financial repayment burdens upon their populations, to ensure that the economic interests of the lenders — the World Bank, the IMF, et al. — are met, at the expense, the (continued) impoverishment of the people and their economies; although meant to improve economically Economic neo-colonialism, 2004: A Jakartan protestor against the World Bank’s manipulation of the economy of Indonesia. improve the life of the borrower country, the financial and economic “structural adjustments” required by the lenders perpetuate the poverty of the borrower society. Neo-colonial praxis allows certain cartels of state-supported organisations, such as the World Bank, to control and exploit the under-developed countries by fostering unpayable national debts. In effect, Third World governments give commercial concessions and business monopolies to foreign multinational corporations in return for the consolidation of economic power and bribes. In most cases, much of the money loaned to such Third World countries is returned “kicked-back” to the multinational corporations fovoured by the given Third World government; hence, the bank loans effectively are financial subsidies to the corporations, by the lending organisation, which is the practise of corporatocracy, government by business corporation. The banks and the organizations accused of economic neo-imperialism include the World Bank, the World Trade Organization, the Group of Eight, and the World Economic Forum. In Confessions of an Economic Hit Man (2004), by John Perkins, reports that First World countries, such as the U.S., practise such neo-colonialism. The International Monetary Fund To alleviate some of the effects of neo-colonialism, the American economist Jeffrey Sachs recommended that the entire African debt (ca. 200 billion U.S. dollars) be dismissed, and recommended that African nations not repay the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF): The time has come to end this charade. The debts are unaffordable. If they won’t cancel the debts, I would suggest obstruction; you do it, yourselves. Africa should say: “Thank you very much, but we need this money to meet the needs of children who are dying, right now, so, we will put the debt-servicing payments into urgent social investment in health, education, drinking water, the control of AIDS, and other needs”. — Prof. Jeffrey Sachs, Director of The Earth Institute (Columba University), and Special Economic Advisor to UN Secretary General Kofi Annan. ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKAS DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
  27. 27. Neocolonialism 25 Sino–African relations Historically, China and Somalia had a strong trading tie. In recent years, the Peoples Republic of China has built increasingly stronger ties with African nations.[26][27] China is currently Africas largest trading partner.[28][29] As of August 2007, there were an estimated 750,000 Chinese nationals working or living for extended periods in different African countries.[30][31] China is picking up natural resources — petroleum and minerals — to fuel the Chinese economy and to finance international business enterprises.[32][33] In 2006, two-way trade had increased to $50 billion.[34] Not all dealings have involved direct monetary exchanges. In 2007, the governments of China and Democratic Republic of the Congo entered into an agreement whereby Chinese state-owned firms would provide various services (infrastructure projects) in exchange an equivalent amount of copper ore extracted from Congolese copper mines.[35] Human rights advocates and opponents of the Sudanese government portray Chinas role in providing weapons and aircraft as a cynical attempt to obtain petroleum and natural gas just as colonial powers once supplied African chieftains with the military means to maintain control as they extracted natural resources.[36][37][38] According to Chinas critics, China has offered Sudan support threatening to use its veto on the U.N. Security Council to protect Khartoum from sanctions and has been able to water down every resolution on Darfur in order to protect its interests in Sudan.[39] Exotic animals such as the giraffe, caught and sold by Somali merchants, were very popular Communist Chinese rescue commodities in Ming Dynasty China. The cash money reserves of Communist China allowed their participation in the development of the economies of Third World African countries, as a counter to the financial neo-colonialism of the International Monetary Fund; the example case is the lending of money to Angola, in 2006, [35] that allowed the Angolans to not borrow money from the IMF. South Korea’s land acquisitions To ensure a reliable, long-term supply of food stuffs, the South Korean government and powerful Korean multinational corporations from have bought the exploitation rights to millions of hectares of agricultural land in under-developed countries of the Third World. Thereby, South Korea no longer imports food, because said lands are effectively part of Korea; such agricultural imperialism might be considered a form of neo-colonialism.[40] South Koreas largely mountainous land area of just over 100,000 square kilometres supports a populace of some 50 million people, yet the industrialised economy (ca. $1,000,000,000,000) was almost the equal of the entire economy of Africa, in 2007.[41] South Koreas RG Energy Resources Asset Management CEO Park Yong-soo stressed that "the nation does not produce a single drop of crude oil and other key industrial minerals. To power economic growth and support peoples livelihoods, we cannot emphasize too much that securing natural resources in foreign countries is a must for our future survival."[42] The head of the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), Jacques Diouf, has warned that the controversial rise in land deals could create a form of "neo-colonialism", with poor states producing food for the rich at the expense of their own hungry people. ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKAS DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
  28. 28. Neocolonialism 26 In 2008, the South Korean multinational Daewoo Logistics secured 1.3 million hectares of farmland in Madagascar, half the size of Belgium, to grow maize and crops for biofuels. Roughly half of the countrys arable land, as well as rainforests of rich and unique biodiversity, were to be converted into palm and corn monocultures, producing food for export from a country where a third of the population and 50 percent of children under 5 are malnourished, using workers imported from South Africa instead of locals. Those living on the land were never consulted or informed, despite being dependent on the land for food and income. The controversial deal played a major part in prolonged anti-government protests on the island that resulted in over a hundred deaths.[40] Shortly after the Madagascar deal, Tanzania announced that South Korea was in talks to develop 100,000 hectares for food production and processing for 700 to 800 billion won. Scheduled to be completed in 2010, it will be the largest single piece of agricultural infrastructure South Korea has ever built overseas.[40] In 2009, Hyundai Heavy Industries acquired a majority stake in a company cultivating 10,000 hectares of farmland in the Russian Far East and a wealthy South Korean provincial government secured 95,000 hectares of farmland in Oriental Mindoro, central Philippines, to grow corn. The South Jeolla province became the first provincial government to benefit from a newly created central government fund to develop farmland overseas, receiving a cheap loan of $1.9 million for the Mindoro project. The feedstock is expected to produce 10,000 tonnes of feed in the first year for South Korea.[43] South Korean multinationals and provincial governments have also purchased land in Sulawesi, Indonesia, Cambodia and Bulgan, Mongolia. The South Korean government itself announced its intention to invest 30 billion won in land in Paraguay and Uruguay. Discussions with Laos, Myanmar and Senegal are also currently underway.[40] The South Korean governments strategy is quickly yielding results and despite predicting that farmland is shrinking on the country, the government announced in August 2009 that South Korea would enjoy a 10% increase in rice production in 2009, the first since 2005, and the government has begun purchasing large quantities of rice to keep prices stable.[40] Other approaches to neo-colonialism Although the concept of neo-colonialism was originally developed within a Marxist theoretical framework and is generally employed by the political left, the term "neo-colonialism" is also used within other theoretical frameworks. Cultural theory One variant of neo-colonialism theory critiques the existence of cultural colonialism, the desire of wealthy nations to control other nations values and perceptions through cultural means, such as media, language, education and religion, ultimately for economic reasons. One element of this is a critique of "Colonial Mentality" which writers have traced well beyond the legacy of 19th century colonial empires. These critics argue that people, once subject to colonial or imperial rule, latch onto physical and cultural differences between the foreigners and themselves, leading some to associate power and success with the foreigners ways. This eventually leads to the foreigners ways being regarded as the better way and being held in a higher esteem than previous indigenous ways. In much the same fashion, and with the same reasoning of better-ness, the colonised may over time equate the colonisers race or ethnicity itself as being responsible for their superiority. Cultural rejections of colonialism, such as the Negritude movement, or simply the embracing of seemingly authentic local culture are then seen in a post colonial world as a necessary part of the struggle against domination. By the same reasoning, importation or continuation of cultural mores or elements from former colonial powers may be regarded as a form of neo-colonialism. ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKAS DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination
  29. 29. Neocolonialism 27 Post-colonialism theory Post-colonialism theories in philosophy, film, political science, and post-colonial literature deal with the cultural legacy of colonial rule; that is, the cultural identity of the colonised peoples, in which neo-colonialism is the background for the contemporary dilemmas of developing a national identity after colonial rule. Post-colonialism studies how writers articulate, present, and celebrate their post-colonial national identity, which often first must be reclaimed from the coloniser, whilst maintaining strong connections with the colonialist country; how knowledge of the sub-ordinated (colonised) people was generated, and applied against the colonised people in service to the cultural and economic interests of the colonial country; and how colonialist literature justified colonialism by misrepresenting the colonised people as an inferior race whose society, culture, and economy must be managed for them. Post-colonial studies comprehend Subaltern Studies of “history from below”; post-colonial manifestations of people outside the hegemony; the psychopathology of colonization (by Frantz Fanon); and the cinema of film makers such as the Cuban Third Cinema, e.g. Tomás Gutiérrez Alea, and the Filipino Kidlat Tahimik. Critical theory While critiques of postcolonialism/neo-colonialism theory is widely practiced in literary theory, international relations theory also has defined "postcolonialism" as a field of study. While the lasting effects of cultural colonialism is of central interest in cultural critiques of neo-colonialism, their intellectual antecedents are economic theories of neo-colonialism: Marxist dependency theory and mainstream criticism of capitalist neoliberalism. critical international relations theory frequently references neo-colonialism from Marxist positions as well as postpositivist positions, including postmodernist, postcolonial and feminist approaches, which differ from both realism and liberalism in their epistemological and ontological premises. Conservation and neo-colonialism There have been other critiques that the modern conservation movement, as taken up by international organizations such as the World Wide Fund for Nature, has inadvertently set up a neocolonialist relationship with underdeveloped nations.[44] References [1] United Nations General Assembly Resolutions 1514 (http:/ / wpik. org/ Src/ unga1514. html) and 1541 (http:/ / wpik. org/ Src/ unga1541. html) [2] Sartre, Jean-Paul (2001-03-27). Colonialism and neo-colonialism. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-19146-3. [3] Chomsky, Noam; Edward S. Herman (1979-07-01). The Washington connection and Third World fascism. Black Rose Books Ltd.. p. 42ff. ISBN 978-0-919618-88-6. [4] Neo-Colonialism: the Last Stage of Imperialism (http:/ / www. marxists. org/ subject/ africa/ nkrumah/ neo-colonialism/ index. htm) (1965). [5] Ali Mazrui, Willy Mutunga, ed. Debating the African Condition: Governance and Leadership. Africa World Press, 2003 ISBN 1-59221-147-X pp.19-20, 69. [6] Vladimir Ilyich Lenin. Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism (http:/ / www. marxists. org/ archive/ lenin/ works/ 1916/ imp-hsc/ index. htm). transcribed from Lenin’s Selected Works, Progress Publishers, 1963, Moscow, Volume 1, pp. 667–766. [7] From the Introduction. Kwame Nkrumah. Neo-Colonialism, The Last Stage of Imperialism (http:/ / www. marxists. org/ subject/ africa/ nkrumah/ neo-colonialism/ introduction. htm). First Published: Thomas Nelson & Sons, Ltd., London (1965). Published in the USA by International Publishers Co., Inc., (1966); [8] "At the Afro-Asian Conference in Algeria" (http:/ / www. marxists. org/ archive/ guevara/ 1965/ 02/ 24. htm) speech by Ché Guevara to the Second Economic Seminar of Afro–Asian Solidarity, in Algiers, on 24 February 1965 [9] Wallerstein, p. 52: ‘It attempted the one serious, collectively agreed-upon definition of neo-colonialism, the key concept in the armory of the revolutionary core of the movement for African unity’; and William D. Graf’s review of Neo-colonialism and African Politics: a Survey of the Impact of Neo-colonialism on African Political Behaviour (1980, Yolamu R. Barongo, in the Canadian Journal of African Studies, p. 601: ‘The term, itself, originated in Africa, probably with Nkrumah, and received collective recognition at the 1961 All-African Peoples Conference. [10] François-Xavier Verschave. La Françafrique, le plus long scandale de la République. Paris (ISBN 2234049482). [11] Kaye Whiteman, “The Man Who Ran Françafrique — French Politician Jacques Foccart’s Role in France’s Colonization of Africa Under the Leadership of Charles de Gaulle”, obituary in The National Interest, Fall 1997. ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKAS DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination

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