RBG Comprehensive Drug Abuse  Prevention Education & Discussion  Forum: 4 Lessons   Tutorials written and designed by RBG ...
RBG Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention Education Interactive Booklet                         Intro: Historical BackdropAt...
RBG Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention Education Interactive BookletOf all the discipline of study history is best qualif...
LESSON 1                                         Illegal Drugs & How They                                         Got That...
Play Minister Malcolm X — You Got Whites Disease                                      RBG on What is Black                ...
"For decades, the CIA, the Pentagon, and secret organizations like Oliver Norths                    Enterprise have been s...
Leaving the unsupportable arguments aside, is there a supportable case that CIA directlyintended for African-Americans to ...
LESSON 2Illegal Drugs & How They Got That Way:Cocaine / Crack                                  "Prevent the rise of a blac...
RBG Blakademics                                                                   June 2010       The Complete Archive of ...
LESSON 3Illegal Drugs & How They Got That Way: The Opiate/Morphine and Heroin StoryNote: My two videos on the topic were b...
RBG Blakademics                                                              June 2010use the same death-walks against tho...
War on Drugs (The Prison Industrial Complex)    (1999) and MoreWar on Drugs (The Prison Industrial Complex)               ...
RBG Blakademics                                                                  June 2010                                ...
LESSON 4                 ATOD BRAIN ACTION OF COCAINE OPIATES AND MARIJUANA.PPT,               2.6 MBIn the artic where t...
esteem booster. Thats a really hard thing to come down on people, but they feel like theiractually doing something for the...
drugs such as cocaine, amphetamines, hallucinogens, neuroleptic (tranquilizers), marijuana,„agent orange‟...parquets, tetr...
APPEDIXNineteenth-century America - a "dope fiends paradise"Source: http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/library/studies/cu...
RBG Blakademics                                                                    June 2010In 1871 a Massachusetts offici...
RBG Blakademics                                                                       June 2010The nineteenth-century use ...
RBG Blakademics                                                                      June 2010occupies but little space. ....
RBG Blakademics        June 2010                  25
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RBG Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention Education Interactive Booklet

  1. 1. RBG Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention Education & Discussion Forum: 4 Lessons Tutorials written and designed by RBG Street ScholarDrug abuse and addiction and dope dealing are just one of the many faces ofNew Afrikan oppression born in the U.S.A. It is a primary problem secondary tomore primary causes, i.e. white supremacy / racism and black escapism,unconsciousness, feelings of hopelessness, helplessness and victimperpetrator co-optation. Here we present the history of cocaine and heroinleading right on up to the present day and time. Note that we open this tutorialwith a presentation on alcohol (a drug used by the Europeans in their holocaustof Afrikan enslavement) this drug and tobacco are to date the most ominouskillers of Black folx, as so called legal drugs. 1
  2. 2. RBG Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention Education Interactive Booklet Intro: Historical BackdropAtlantic triangular slave trade: Afrikan Slaves, Sugar Cane and Rum(Companion reader The Triangular Trade and Prison Slavery)The best-known triangular trading system is the transatlantic slave trade, that operated duringthe 17th, 18th, and early 19th centuries, carrying slaves, cash crops, and manufactured goodsbetween West Africa, Caribbean or American colonies and the European colonial powers, withthe northern colonies of British North America, especially New England, sometimes taking overthe role of Europe.http://africanhistory.about.com/od/slavery/tp/TransAtlantic001.htm Depiction of the classical model of the Triangular trade. The use of African slaves was fundamental to growing colonial cash crops, which were exported to Europe. European goods, in turn, were used to purchase African slaves, which were then brought on the sea lane west from Africa to the Americas, the so called middle passage. http://www.nmm.ac.uk/freedom/viewTheme.cfm/theme/triangularA classic example would be the trade of sugar (often in its liquid form,molasses) from the Caribbean to Europe or New England, where it wasdistilled into rum, some of which was then used to purchase new slavesin West Africa.The trade represented a profitable enterprise for merchants andinvestors. The business was risky, competitive and severe, but enslavedAfricans fetched a high price at auctions, making the trade in humancargo a lucrative business.Diagram illustrating the stowage of African slaves on a British slave ship.The first leg of the triangle was from a European port to Africa, in whichships carried supplies for sale and trade, such as copper, cloth, trinkets,slave beads, guns and ammunition.When the slave ship arrived, its cargo would be sold or bartered for slaves, who were tightlypacked like any other cargo to maximize profits.On the second leg, ships made the journey of the Middle Passage from Africa to the New World.Once the slave ship reached the New World, enslaved survivors were sold in the Caribbean orthe Americas.The ships were then prepared to get them thoroughly cleaned, drained, and loaded with exportgoods for a return voyage, the third leg, to their home port.[4] From the West Indies the mainexport cargoes were sugar, rum, and molasses; from Virginia, commodities were tobacco andhemp. The ship then returned to Europe to complete the triangle.Further study: The Transatlantic Slave Trade Database, a portal to data concerning the history of the triangular trade of transatlantic slave trade voyages. Report of the Brown University Steering Committee on Slavery and Justice 2
  3. 3. RBG Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention Education Interactive BookletOf all the discipline of study history is best qualified to reward all research...The first video isvery telling in that respect. Keep in mind, white folk commented every crime on the books firstand engaged in every vice under the Sun. Then they were smart enough to know how to usethe same death-walks against those whom they would oppress...And yes everyone becomesslave to the dope, but when amerikkka sneezes, New Afrikan people convulse... War andoppression abroad has resulted in heroin making a comeback at home once again. Generationsof our young folk are having their lives destroyed by jails / prisons, insanity and death, by takingand selling crack cocaine. It is my hope that by your reading, viewing and discussing theselessons you will be in a better position to pull some elses coat in the interest of us stoppingcooperation in our own genocide.Just the Facts RBG:Fact: The more things change the more things stay the same. The War on Drugs is the UnitedSnakes of Amerikkkas way of fully reconstituting slavery. How you ask. Well, quite as it is kept,slavery really was never completely abolished: The Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S.Constitution reads: neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment forcrime where of the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the UnitedStates, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. With its ratification in December 1865, thisamendment put an official end to the injustice of slavery as it was then practiced while at thesame time paving the way for a new slavery that flourishes to this day; namely, the prisonindustrial complex (PIC).African Americans constitute about 12% of the American population, and around 13% of drugusers, nearly the same number, which is what youd expect. Additionally, 9.7% of Blacks usedrugs, compared to 8.1% for whites, again similar numbers, in line with expectations. So youdexpect that the rates of incarceration for drug possession for Blacks and whites to be similar.But theyre not. Blacks make up 35% of those arrested for possession, 55% of those convicted,and 74% of those sentenced. How, exactly, in a fair society, would 13% of drug users make up74% of those sentenced for drug violations? And how can 35% of arrests make up 74% ofinmates? This is nothing but socio-structural and institutionalized racism.In South Africa during Apartheid 851 per 100,000 black males were incarcerated. Currently inthe United States, under the banner of the "War on Drugs" 4,919 per 100,000 black males areincarcerated. Nearly 1/3 of black men in their 20s are in prison, on probation or parole. Ourinstitutionalized racism is worse than the worst post-slavery institutionalized racism. More NewAfrican are presently in jail than were enslaved in the 19th century. 3
  4. 4. LESSON 1 Illegal Drugs & How They Got That Way: Cocaine / Crack RBG PhotoStory Mini-Lecture: The Dope Game-f. T-K.A.S.H. and Paris- Made in AmericaThis is an ongoing learning series, including power points, photo slide shows,videos and essays.By series end the learner will be clear on who the original dope addicts were andhow dope is presently used as a tool of New Afrikan oppression / the re-constitution of slavery.Narcotization of the Black Community:CIA Ties, White Lines & Mo White Lies 4
  5. 5. Play Minister Malcolm X — You Got Whites Disease RBG on What is Black Oppression in Amerikkka, f. Paris Presents Hard Truth Soldiers Vol. 1 5
  6. 6. "For decades, the CIA, the Pentagon, and secret organizations like Oliver Norths Enterprise have been supporting and protecting the worlds biggest drug dealers.... The Contras and some of their Central American allies ... have been documented by DEA as supplying ... at least 50 percent of our national cocaine consumption. They were the main conduit to the United States for Colombian cocaine during the 1980s. The rest of the drug supply ... came from other CIA-supported groups, such as DFS (the Mexican CIA) ... [and] other groups and/or individuals like Manual Noriega." (Ex- DEA agent Michael Levine: The Big White Lie: The CIA and the Cocaine/Crack Epidemic) "The CIA functionally gains influence and control in governments corrupted by criminal Narco-trafficking. Politically, the CIA exerts influence by leveraging Narco- militarists and corrupted politicians... This is really NEO-Narco-colonialism, whereby local criminal proxies do the bidding of the patron government seeking expanded influence. But because of the quid-pro-quo of protecting the criminal proxies illicit pipelines, the result is still a functional Narco-colonialism, involving a narcoticscommodity in the actual practical execution of policy, with the very different twist of covert action."-- from the analysis section of this web site: (http://ciadrugs.homestead.com/files/analysis.html)For more see The C.I.A. & Drugs Narco-colonialism in the 20th Century GNNs award winning documentary on the CIAs involvement with selling of narcotics. Tracking the covert history of CIA drug smuggling from Nicaragua to Arkansas and South Central Los Angeles, GNN sheds light on the darkest secret of the Agencys operational directorate. Cut to the ambient Hip Hop loops of DJ Trek-e, Crack The CIA features explosive footage of Mike Rupperts historical televised confrontation with CIA Director John Deutch. Dont blink! More at GNN(site has been removed) 6
  7. 7. Leaving the unsupportable arguments aside, is there a supportable case that CIA directlyintended for African-Americans to receive the cocaine which it knew would be turned into crackcocaine and which it knew would prove so addictive as to destroy entire communities?” Theanswer is absolutely, yes."Blacks Were Targeted for CIA Cocaine It Can Be ProvenBy Michael C. Ruppert 7
  8. 8. LESSON 2Illegal Drugs & How They Got That Way:Cocaine / Crack "Prevent the rise of a black messiah," "In time, the cocaine that flooded Los Angeles helped spark a "crack explosion" in urban America and provided the cash and connections needed for Los Angeless gangs to buy Uzi sub-machine guns, AK-47 rifles, and other assault weapons that would fuel deadly gang turf wars, drive-by shootings, murders and robberies -- courtesy of the U.S. government, according to the article. 8
  9. 9. RBG Blakademics June 2010 The Complete Archive of Gary Webbs Explosive Series: "Dark Alliance" (NarcoNews)Stories by Gary WebbMercury News Staff WriterFor the better part of a decade, a San Francisco Bay Area drug ring sold tons of cocaine to theCrips and Bloods street gangs of Los Angeles and funneled millions in drug profits to a LatinAmerican guerrilla army run by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, a Mercury Newsinvestigation has found. This drug network opened the first pipeline between Colombiascocaine cartels and the black neighborhoods of Los Angeles, a city now known as the crackcapital of the world. 9
  10. 10. LESSON 3Illegal Drugs & How They Got That Way: The Opiate/Morphine and Heroin StoryNote: My two videos on the topic were banned from You Tube, but are available on RBGWorldwide for viewing and study. PREVIOUSLY IN THIS LEARNING SERIES: We saw and read how the CIA flooded our communities with drugs / thus gun money--where there are no jobs and lots of hopelessness, unconsciousness, frustration and confusion; they create the power-keg...Then under the guise of upholding law and order, they justify killings us and locking us down in the eyes of the public. Consequently legitimizing 21 st century slavery in PIC (Prison Industrial Complex) face. Please comment and e-mail to a friend.It clearly shows how racism and repressionpressed upon Blacks has always been partand parcel to U.S. drug laws; in spite of ytbeing the original users, abusers andaddicts. Like Dr Neely Fuller Jr. say "If youdont understand white supremacy,everything else will confuse you." However,when you view these things in the context ofwhite supremacy / racism your visionbecomes shaper in the overall overstandingof the science of oppression.RECALL MY OPENING STATEMENT WAS:Of all the disciplines of study history is best qualified to reward all research...The firstvideo is very telling in that respect. Keep in mind, white folk commented every crime onthe books first and engaged in every vice...then they were smart enough to know how to 10
  11. 11. RBG Blakademics June 2010use the same death-walks against those whom they would oppress...And yes everyonebecomes slave to the dope, but when amerikkka sneezes, black people convulse...pleasecontinue as to be brought up to date--oppression has resulted in heroin making acomeback once again.Washingtons Hidden Agenda: Restore the Drug TradeThe Spoils of War: Afghanistan’s Multibillion Dollar HeroinTrade by Michel Chossudovskywww.globalresearch.ca 5 April 2004The URL of this article is: http://globalresearch.ca/articles/CHO404A.html 11
  12. 12. War on Drugs (The Prison Industrial Complex) (1999) and MoreWar on Drugs (The Prison Industrial Complex) (1999) The first few minutes of the film below are in Dutch, but the rest is in English. The war on drugs has been going on for more than three decades today; nearly 500,000 Americans are imprisoned on drug charges. In 1980 the number was 50,000. Last year $40 billion in taxpayer dollars were spent in fighting the war on drugs. 12
  13. 13. RBG Blakademics June 2010 As a result of the incarceration obsession, the United States operates the largest prison system on the planet, and the U.S. nonviolent prisoner population is larger than the combined populations of Wyoming and Alaska. Try to imagine the Drug Enforcement Administration erecting razor wire barricades around two states to control crime and youll get the picture. According to the U.S. Dept of Justice, the number of offenders under age 18 imprisoned for drug offenses increased twelvefold from 1985 to 1997. The group most affected by this propensity for incarceration is African-Americans. From 1985 to 1997, the percentage of African-American young people put in prison increased from 53 to 62 percent. Today, 89 percent of police departments have paramilitary units, and 46 percent have been trained by active duty armed forces. The most common use of paramilitary units is serving drug-related search warrants, which usually involve no-knock entries into private homes. BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL AND CULTURAL CONSIDERATIONS: RBG Member Only Access PDF Docs for download and a PowerPoints on the Biology of Addiction  ATOD-Pregnancy & Drug Use.pdf, 55 KB  ATOD-Race & Prison.pdf, 62 KB  ATOD-Race & HIV-AIDS.pdf, 51 KB 13
  14. 14. LESSON 4  ATOD BRAIN ACTION OF COCAINE OPIATES AND MARIJUANA.PPT, 2.6 MBIn the artic where the indigenous people sometimes might hunta wolf theyll take a double edge blade and theyll put blood onthe blade and melt the ice and stick the handle in the ice so onlythe blade is protruding. And that a wolf who smells the bloodand wants to eat will come and lick the blade trying to eat andwhat happens is when the wolf licks the blade he cuts histongue and he bleeds and he thinks hes really having a goodmeal and he drinks, and he licks and licks and of course hesdrinking his own blood and he kills himself. - Wolves (1st trackon "Lets Get Free"). Stic: Thats the Chairman Omali from INPDUM (International Peoples Democratic Uhuru Movement) speaking. Its about brothers having to hustle because they dont have any money or opportunities that were aware of. The government pumps crack into the community to keep brothers down, such as the Black Panthers, etc. Brothers feel its a bright idea when they see they could get $50 from this little piece of glass rock product. When youre able to eat when yesterday you wasnt, thats a real self- 14
  15. 15. esteem booster. Thats a really hard thing to come down on people, but they feel like theiractually doing something for themselves but the effect is like a wolf licking a blade, hes tastingthe blood but he dont realize that its his own blood. Hes so blood thirsty, so hungry to eat. Itsnot the wolfs fault, he got to eat just like everybody else, hes been tricked into thinking theblade is opportunity. Brothers are tricked into thinking that Crack-Cocaine is our opportunity andwere licking the blade and the blood were tasting is us in prison, getting shot at parties andliving in a military state.Chairman Omali says we need to blame the hunter, the CIA, government; the people whoset us up in these conditions and robbed us from Africa and have been living off of us since wegot here; the people who really benefit from the drug trade. The same crack-cocaine after a fewyears dont start to look better, it looks fucked up. So the money is going somewhere, could it befor more police officers? Weapons? And all the new sophisticated technology? Thats what theintro to the album is represents. To look at things for what they really are and stop licking theblade and start using it.Extracts from The RBG Melanins PaperMELANIN, NEGATIVE MUSIC AND THE DOPE GAME In their ongoing effort to physically, mentally and spiritually destroy people of color, oppressors (scientists, chemists) create “designer drugs” that are specially structured to chemically bind with the melanin molecule and cause melanin to become toxic to Blacks! The molecules of these drugs resemble the Melanin molecule. The body is thus fooled and its balance is thrown off as it relies on contaminated melanin in order to function. Major culprits include heroin, cocaine/crack, ecstasy and yes, marijuana. If dopamine is depleted, such as in cocaine addiction, the body will attempt to replenish the dopamine by increasing its synthesis. That mean tyrosine will now be shunted away from melanin synthesis. So, in short, for those of us that have brain functions that are more dependent on neuromelanin(people of Afrikan descent), those areas will become compromised.Blacks get addicted faster, stay addicted longer, and suffer the worse...from these drugs whichare deliberately placed in Black communities. In his vital book, MELANIN: The Chemical Key toBlack Greatness, essential reading for all Melanated People, Carol Barnes clearly documentsthis subject along with the wonders of Melanin. He shows how illegal drugs alter or changeMelanin‟s chemical structure and thus alter many life supporting functions. Toxic drugs andchemicals are destroying the heart of the Black community and causing many deaths. Barneswrites: “MELANIN can become toxic to the BLACK HUMAN because it combines with harmful 15
  16. 16. drugs such as cocaine, amphetamines, hallucinogens, neuroleptic (tranquilizers), marijuana,„agent orange‟...parquets, tetracyclines...”Toxic drugs such as cocaine, LSD, and even marijuana are very similar to Melanin and the sub-units that make up the Melanin substance. Many health-conscious Blacks consider marijuana tobe a safe healthy herb, not realizing that once this (or any herb) is “cooked,” it becomes a drugas far as your body is concerned!Even legal drugs (tetracyclines, neuroleptics, etc.) have a remarkable affinity for reacting with orbinding to Melanin and may be toxic to all Melanin centers in the Black human.Other culprits which bind with Melanin and cause death for Blacks are aromatic and lipidcompounds. Melanin shows extreme affinity for binding with “aromatic and lipid compounds.”Lipid means fat. Lipid or fat compounds (fatty acids) are animal and vegetable oil /fats used forfrying and cooking. Examples are shortening and corn oil. Aromatic compounds containbenzene, a major component of gasoline.Herbicides (parquets, agent orange, etc.) bind irreversibly with Melanin and remain in the Blackhuman throughout life causing many disorders. Hence Blacks especially, should buy organicallygrown food.Most Blacks test positive in the urine test for marijuana! People having high levels of Melanin ora high number of pigmented centers, such as the Black human, tend to show a positive test forthe use of marijuana because the chemical species found in the urine which indicatessomeone‟s use of marijuana is also found in the urine of Black humans. 16
  17. 17. APPEDIXNineteenth-century America - a "dope fiends paradise"Source: http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/library/studies/cu/cu1.htmlThe United States of America during the nineteenth century could quite properly be describedas a "dope fiends paradise."Opium was on legal sale conveniently and at low prices throughout the century; morphine cameinto common use during and after the Civil War; and heroin was marketed toward the end of thecentury. These opiates and countless pharmaceutical preparations containing them "were asfreely accessible as aspirin is today." 1 They flowed mostly through five broad channels ofdistribution, all of them quite legal:1) Physicians dispensed opiates directly to patients, or wrote prescriptions for them.(2) Drugstores sold opiates over the counter to customers without a prescription.(3) Grocery and general stores as well as pharmacies stocked and sold opiates. An 1883-1885survey of the state of Iowa, which then had a population of less than 2,000,000, found 3,000stores in the state where opiates were on sale--- and this did not include the physicians whodispensed opiates directly. 2(4) For users unable or unwilling to patronize a nearby store, opiates could be ordered by mail.(5) Finally, there were countless patent medicines on the market containing opium or morphine.They were sold under such names as Ayers Cherry Pectoral, Mrs. Winslows Soothing Syrup,Darbys Carminative, Godfreys Cordial, McMunns Elixir of Opium, Dovers Powder, 3 and so on.Some were teething syrups for young children, some were "soothing syrups," some wererecommended for diarrhea and dysentery or for "womens trouble." They were widely advertisedin newspapers and magazines and on billboards as "pain-killers," "cough mixtures," "womensfriends, "consumption cures," and so on. 4 One wholesale drug house, it is said, distributedmore than 600 proprietary medicines and other products containing opiates. 5Most of the opium consumed in the United States during the nineteenth century was legallyimported. Morphine was legally manufactured here from the imported opium. 6 But opiumpoppies were also legally grown within the United States. One early reference--- perhaps theearliest--- was in a letter from a Philadelphia physician, Dr. Thomas Bond, who wrote to aPennsylvania farmer on August 24, 1781: "The opium you sent is pure and of good quality. Ihope you will take care of the seed." 7 During the War of 1812, opium was scarce, but "someparties produced it in New Hampshire and sold the product at from $10 to $12 per pound." 8 17
  18. 18. RBG Blakademics June 2010In 1871 a Massachusetts official reported:There are so many channels through which the drug may be brought into the State, that Isuppose it would be almost impossible to determine how much foreign opium is used here; but itmay easily be shown that the home production increases every year. Opium has been recentlymade from white poppies, cultivated for the purpose, in Vermont, New Hampshire, andConnecticut, the annual production being estimated by hundreds of pounds, and this hasgenerally been absorbed in the communities where it is made. It has also been brought herefrom Florida and Louisiana, while comparatively large quantities are regularly sent east fromCalifornia and Arizona, where its cultivation is becoming an important branch of industry, tenacres of poppies being said to yield, in Arizona, twelve hundred pounds of opium. 9 Opium was also produced in the Confederate states (Virginia, Tennessee, South Carolina,Georgia) 10 during the Civil War--- and perhaps thereafter. Though some states outlawed itearlier, Congress did not ban the cultivation of opium poppies nationally until 1942. 11The nineteenth-century distribution system reached into towns, villages, and hamlets as well asthe large cities. A New England physician-druggist wrote about 1870:In this town I began business twenty years since. The population then at 10,000 has increasedonly inconsiderably, but my sales have advanced from 50 pounds of opium the first year to 300pounds now; and of laudanum [opium in alcohol] four times upon what was formerly required.About 50 regular purchasers come to my shop, and as many more, perhaps, are divided amongthe other three apothecaries in the place. Some country dealers also have their quota ofdependents. 12A correspondent for the Portland (Maine) Press had this to say about opium users in 1868: "Inthe little village of Auburn ... at least fifty such (as counted up by a resident apothecary)regularly purchase their supplies hereabouts; and the country grocers too, not a few of them,find occasion for keeping themselves supplied with a stock." 13A survey of 10,000 prescriptions filled by thirty-five Boston drugstores in 1888 revealed that1,481 of them contained opiates. Among prescriptions refilled three or more times, 78 percentcontained opiates . 14One Massachusetts druggist, asked to review his opiate sales, added a picturesque detail. Hehad only one steady customer, he reported - and that a noted temperance lecturer." 15Nor was the Middle West different from New England. The Annual Report of the Michigan StateBoard of Health for 1878 reported three opium eaters in the village of Huron (population 437),four opium eaters and one morphine eater in the village of Otisville (population 1,365), 18 opiumeaters and 20 morphine eaters in the town of Hillsdale (population 4,189), and so on around thestate. 16 Some children were included in the statistics.Though called "opium eaters" in the medical literature, most nineteenth century opium users(including Thomas De Quincey, author of Confessions of an English Opium-Eater) were in factopium drinkers; they drank laudanum or other opiate liquids. Similarly "morphine eaters"included many who took morphine by injection or in other ways. In a number of the quotationswhich follow, "opium eaters" refers generally to morphine as well as opium users. Opiumsmokers, however, were considered to be in a separate category (see Chapter 6). 18
  19. 19. RBG Blakademics June 2010The nineteenth-century use of opiates was more or less the same in Britain. A classic report onthe English industrial system, The Factory System Illustrated (1842), by W. Dodd, noted thatfactory workers of the time used opiates--- notably laudanum--- to quiet crying babies. 17In the official Report of the Medical Officer of the Privy Council for 1864 it was observed: "Topush the sale of opiate ... is the great aim of some enterprising wholesale merchants. Bydruggists it is considered the leading article." 18 The report also noted the giving of opiates toinfants; 19 Karl Marx, citing this report in Capital (1867), spoke of the English working-classcustom of "dosing children with opiates ." 20 In 1873 an English physician reported:... Amongst the three millions and three-quarters [people in London] there are to be found somepersons here and there who take [opium] as a luxury, though by far the greater number of thosewho take it in anything like quantity do so for some old neuralgia or rheumatic malady, andbegan under medical advice. Neither is it to be found over the agricultural or manufacturingdistricts, save in the most scattered and casual way. The genuine opium-eating districts are theague and fen districts of Norfolk and Lincolnshire. There it is not casual, accidental, or rare, butpopular, habitual, and common. Anyone who visits such a town as Louth or Wisbeach, andstrolls about the streets on a Saturday evening, watching the country people as they do theirmarketing, may soon satisfy himself that the crowds in the chemists shops come for opium; andthey have a peculiar way of getting it. They go in, lay down their money, and receive the opiumpills in exchange without saying a word. For instance, I was at Wisbeach one evening in August1871; went into a chemists shop; laid a penny on the counter. The chemist said --- "The best?" Inodded. He gave me a pill box and took up the penny; and so the purchase was completedwithout my having uttered a syllable. You offer money, and get opium as a matter of course.This may show how familiar the custom is....In these districts it is taken by people of all classes, but especially by the poor and miserable,and by those who in other districts would seek comfort from gin or beer. 21 Godfreys Cordial--- a mixture of opium, molasses for sweetening, and sassafras for flavoring---was especially popular in England. Dr. C. Fraser Brockington reports that in mid-nineteenth---century Coventry, ten gallons of Godfreys Cordial enough for 12,000 doses--- was sold weekly,and was administered to 3,000 infants under two years of age.Even greater quantities of opium mixtures were said to be sold in Nottingham.... Every surgeonin Marshland testified to the fact that "there was not a labourers house in which the bottle ofopium was not to be seen, and not a child, but who got it in some form." . . . Wholesaledruggists reported the sale of immense quantities of opium; a retail druggist dispensed up to200 pounds a year-in pills and penny sticks or as Godfreys Cordial.... To some extent this wasa practice which had been taken on during the years when malaria was indigenous in the Fensand when, a century before, the poppy had been cultivated for the London market. 22The nonmedicinal use of opiates, while legal in both the United States and England, was notconsidered respectable. Indeed, as an anonymous but perceptive and well-informed Americanwriter noted in the Catholic World for September 1881, it was as disreputable as drinkingalcoholic beverages--- and much harder to detect:The gentleman who would not be seen in a bar-room, however respectable, or who would notpurchase liquor and use it at home, lest the odor might be detected upon his person, procureshis supply of morphia and has it in his pocket ready for instantaneous use. It is odorless and 19
  20. 20. RBG Blakademics June 2010occupies but little space. . . . He zealously guards his secret from his nearest friend--- forpopular wisdom has branded as a disgrace that which he regards as a misfortune. . . 23Opiate use was also frowned upon in some circles as immoral--- a vice akin to dancing,smoking, theater-going, gambling, or sexual promiscuity. But while deemed immoral, it isimportant to note that opiate use in the nineteenth century was not subject to the moralsanctions current today. Employees were not fired for addiction. Wives did not divorce theiraddicted husbands, or husbands their addicted wives. Children were not taken from their homesand lodged in foster homes or institutions because one or both parents were addicted. Addictscontinued to participate fully in the life of the community. Addicted children and young peoplecontinued to go to school, Sunday School, and college. Thus, the nineteenth century avoidedone of the most disastrous effects of current narcotics laws and attitudes--- the rise of a deviantaddict subculture, cut off from respectable society and without a "road back" to respectability.Our nineteenth-century forbears correctly perceived the major objection to the opiates. They areaddicting. Though the word "addiction" was seldom used during the nineteenth century, thephenomenon was well understood. The true nature of the narcotic evil becomes visible, theCatholic World article pointed out, when someone who has been using an opiate for some timeattempts to give up its use. Suddenly his eyes are opened to his folly and he realizes thestartling fact that he is in the coils of a serpent as merciless as the boa-constrictor and asrelentless as fate. With a firm determination to free himself he discontinues its use. Now hissufferings begin and steadily increase until they become unbearable. The tortures of Dives arehis; but unlike that miser, he has only to stretch forth his hand to find oceans with which tosatisfy his thirst. That human nature is not often equal to so extraordinary a self-denial affordslittle cause for astonishment. . . . Again and again he essays release from a bondage sohumiliating, but meets with failure only, and at last submits to his fate a confirmed opium-eater.24The terms "addicting" and "addiction" will be further discussed later.Our nineteenth-century forbears also perceived opiate use as a "will-weakening" vice--- forsurely, they insisted, a man or woman of strong will could stop if he tried hard enough. The factwas generally known that addicts deprived of their opiates (when hospitalized for some illnessunrelated to their addiction, for example) would lie or even steal to get their drug, and addicts"cured" of their addiction repeatedly relapsed. Hence there was much talk of the moraldegeneration caused by the opiates.Nevertheless, there was very little popular support for a law banning these substances."Powerful organizations for the suppression ... of alcoholic stimulants exist throughout the land,"25 the 1881 article in the Catholic World noted, but there were no similar anti-opiateorganizations.The reason for this lack of demand for opiate prohibition was quite simple: the drugs were notviewed as a menace to society and, as we shall demonstrate in subsequent chapters, they werenot in fact a menace.See source for full footnotes and references to this paper: http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/library/studies/cu/cu1.html 20
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