RBG Communiversity 2013 -An Multimedia Interactive Guidebook


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RBG Communiversity 2013 -An Multimedia Interactive Guidebook

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RBG Communiversity 2013 -An Multimedia Interactive Guidebook

  1. 1. A Multimedia InteractiveGuidebook-2013 Healing is work, not gambling. It is the work of inspiration, not manipulation. If we the healers are to do the work of helping bring our whole people together again, we need to know such work is the work of a community. It cannot be done by an individual. It should not depend on people who do not understand the healing vocation….The work of healing is work for inspirers working long andsteadily in a group that grows over generations, until there are inspirers, healerswherever our people are scattered, able to bring us together again.Ayi Kwei Armah ABOUT RBG COMMUNIVERSITYRBG Communiversity 2013 |A Multimedia Interactive Guidebook 1|Page
  2. 2. WEB 2.0 EDUCATIONDedicated to Implementing the Teachings of Our Elders and Ancestors.Communiversity Mission:TO Represent the interests and concerns of all Learners and Teachers at RBGCommuniversity,TO Bring Together all aspects of New Afrikan (Black) peoples life for thepurpose of improving our social, political, economic, educational and moralcondition in America,TO Encourage Unity among our elders and youth, and the Afrikan Family,Community and Nation at large,TO Discourage and Abate socio-structural, institutional and individual acts andsymbols of white supremacy / racism.TO Heighten Awareness and coalitions between all people, regardless of race,sex, religion, or national origin when said groups are willing to work in our bestinterest, andTO Promote a Hip-Hop-Black Liberation spirit of academic excellence, prestigeand scholarship.Project DescriptionThis Educational Program and Research Project is Dedicated to Further Buildingthe Hip Hop--Black Liberation Movement Connection by Integrating ConsciousDigital Edutainment with A Scholarly Self Directed Learning Environment.PrimerThe RBG Quest for Black Power Reader | Aluta Continua, A Frolinan PrimerPublic Home Page:https://www.facebook.com/RBGCommuniversityRBG Communiversity 2013 |A Multimedia Interactive Guidebook 2|Page
  3. 3. Education towards Nationhood, Essential BackgroundBy RBG Street ScholarIt is abundantly clear that New Afrikans (Afrikan people in America) continue to be miseducatedinside and outside of the American education system. This problem is discussed in a variety ofways in conversations every day in our communities throughout America, but very few havecommitted to implementing academic programs to counter this miseducation. We considerourselves to be among the very few, as we have chosen to deploy an educational solution forNew Afrikan peoples habilitation and National development. RBG Communiversity is notsimply articulating the problem; it is striving to be a real-time solution. We believe that the timeis ripe (and long overdue) for us heed the long-standing and most often overlooked, calls forAfrikan Unity, Cultural Development, Education and Social Transformation. Such is whatRBG Communiversity most fundamentally represents. It is a “National Program of NewAfrikan Decolonization” that attempts to positively reflect and impact the cultural, political,socioeconomic and moral needs of the masses of New Afrikan people. RBG Communiversityrepresents a current-day archetype for New Afrikan Education and Nation-building paradigmand praxis. Contrary to the prevailing, misinformed assumptions, RBG philosophy, ideology andpraxis (Black Nationalism and PanAfrikanism) are not rabid hateful assertions of Blacksupremacy. Unlike white Nationalism and American patriotism, RBG (Black Nationalism andPan-Afrikanism) and its proponents do not seek to humiliate, exploit, or oppress any person orpeople. Rather, RBG Communiversity represents a positive affirmation of the cultural, political,social, economic and moral identity and concerns of Afrikan people. In its most rudimentaryforms, it reacts to the brutality, psychic violent and repressive conditions under which Afrikanpeople have historically and continue to live under. The system, business and culture of whitesupremacy / racism create an environment where whites are necessarily viewed with suspicion,but we are not anti-white. We are Afrikan/ Black on purpose and Black people must first andforemost be beholden to each other. The most basic expression of RBG (Black Nationalism andPan-Afrikanism ) thought is that Black / Afrikan people in America and throughout the diasporaare bound by the common history and experience of historical chattel and modern day mentalslavery, suffering and premature death under the boot heel of white supremacy / racism.RBG Communiversity 2013 |A Multimedia Interactive Guidebook 3|Page
  4. 4. Most importantly, RBG is about self-reliance, self-respect and self-defense toward the totalliberation and unification of all Afrikan people that desire to defend, define and develop in ourown image and interest. In keeping with the spirit of Sankofa ("return and get it" a West Afrikan Symbol of Adinkra Wisdom representing the importance of our learning from the past) you should keep in mind that in the societies of our Afrikan ancestors and current kinsman the oral tradition was / is the method of choice in which history, stories, folktales and spiritual beliefs were /are passed on from generation to generation. Websters dictionary defines "oral" as, "spoken rather than written," and it defines the word "tradition" as, "transmittal of elements of a culture from one generation to another especially byoral communication." It is the power of the Afrikan oral tradition integrated with writtendocumentation that sits at the core of this compilation. We believe that the ultimate end ofintellectual growth and development for students of Afrikan decent in 21st America should firstand foremost be a deeper overstanding and a fuller appreciation of Afrikan people’s rich historyand continuing struggle for individual and collective self-definition and political economicdevelopment as a Nation within a Nation. Reading, thinking and reflecting with close attention tothis book’s scholastic guidance you learn to see more, understand more and uncover more, thusprepare yourself for a richer, more selfless and more meaningful contributions to self and kind.As you read / study these essays please keep in mind, education is not eternal and timelesslywritten in stone, but should be situated historically, socially, intellectually, written and read atparticular times, with particular intents, under particular historical conditions, with particularcultural, personal, gender, racial, and class perspectives at center. Through this multimedialearning program you will be afforded the opportunity to see ideology in operation, as ourcurricular content comprises a weeding the past, the present and the future struggles andmovement of various Nationalist and PanAfrikanist groups, organizations, movements andformations in real-time.Finally, this guide is provided as a cypher and portal of entry to encourage and enhance criticalreading, thinking and writing based in the Afrikan Idea.RBG Communiversity 2013 |A Multimedia Interactive Guidebook 4|Page
  5. 5. A CAPSULE OF WHAT’S INSIDE In the words of Sekou Toure “to us, Revolution means the collective movement initiated by a group of men or by a whole people, and supported by their conscious determination to change an old degrading order into a new, progressive order in view of ensuring the safeguard and development of collective and individual interests, without any discrimination whatsoever. The People’s Revolution, to us, remains thus a collective consciousness in motion, and a collective movement guided by conscience and whose ultimate aim is the continued progress of man and the People.” Revolution and Religion—Excerpts from Enhancing the People’s PowerMore on *New Afrikan Academic Foundations: Black Nationalism and Pan-AfrikanismBlack Nationalism (BN) advocates a racial definition (or redefinition) of black national identity,as opposed to multiculturalism. There are different Black Nationalist philosophies but theprinciples of all Black Nationalist ideologies are 1) Black unity, and 2) Black self-determination / political, social and economic independence from White society. Video IcebreakerRBG Communiversity 2013 |A Multimedia Interactive Guidebook 5|Page
  6. 6. *We of the New Afrikan Independence Movement spell "Afrikan" with a "k" because Afrikan linguistsoriginally used "k" to indicate the "c" sound in the English language. We use the term "New Afrikan,"instead of Black, to define ourselves as an Afrikan people who have been forcibly transplanted to a newland and formed into a "new Afrikan nation" in North America. That withstanding, in this paper NewAfrikan, Black, African American and Afrikans in America are used interchangeably in accordance withcitations used.Learn more RBG FROLINAN STUDIES COLLECTIONMartin Delany Martin Delany is considered to be the grandfather of Black Nationalism. Inspired by the apparent success of the Haitian Revolution, the origins of Black Nationalism in political thought lie in the 19th century with people like Marcus Garvey, Elijah Muhammad, Henry McNeal Turner, Martin Delany, David Walker, Henry Highland Garnet, Edward Wilmot Blyden, Paul Cuffe to name a few. The repatriation of Afrikan slaves to Liberia or Sierra Leone was a common Black Nationalist theme in the 19th century.UNIA-ACL Marcus Garveys Universal Negro Improvement Association of the 1910s and 1920s represents the largest and most powerful Black Nationalist movement to date, claiming 11 million members at its heights. Although the future of Afrika is seen as being central to Black Nationalist ambitions, some adherents to black nationalism are intent on the eventual creation of a separate black American nation inthe U.S. or Western hemisphere. According to Wilson Jeremiah Moses in his famous workClassical Black Nationalism, Black Nationalism as a philosophy can be examined from threedifferent periods giving rise to various ideological perspectives for what we can today considerwhat Black Nationalism really is. The first being pre-Classical Black Nationalism beginningRBG Communiversity 2013 |A Multimedia Interactive Guidebook 6|Page
  7. 7. from the time the Afrikans were brought ashore in the Americas to the Revolutionary period.After the Revolutionary War, a sizable number of Afrikans in the colonies, particularly in NewEngland and Pennsylvania, were literate and had become disgusted with their social conditionsthat had spawned from Enlightenment ideas. We find in such historical personalities as PrinceHall, Richard Allen, and Absalom Jones a need to found certain organizations as the FreeAfrikan Society, Afrikan Masonic lodges and Church Institutions. These institutions would serveas early foundations to developing independent and separate organizations. By the time of Post-Reconstruction Era a new form of Black Nationalism was emerging among various Afrikan-American clergy circles. Separate circles had already been established and were accepted byAfrikans in American because of the overt oppression that had been in existence since theinception of the United States. This phenomenon led to the birth of modern Black Nationalismwhich stressed the need to separate and build separate communities that promote strong racialpride and also to collectivize resources. This ideology had become the philosophy of groups likethe Moorish Science Temple and the Nation of Islam. Although, the Sixties brought on aheightened period of religious, cultural and political nationalism, Black Nationalism would laterinfluence afrocentricity.Marcus Garvey Marcus Garvey encouraged black people around the world to be proud of their race and to see beauty in their own kind. A central idea to Garveyism was that black people in every part of the world were one people and they would never advance if they did not put aside their cultural and ethnic differences and unite. Black people, Garvey felt, should love and take care of other black people. The principles of Garveyism are race first, self-reliance and nationhood. Race first is the idea that black people should support other black people first and foremost, self-reliance is the idea that black people should be politically and economically self-reliant (it was important to Garvey that black people develop businesses owned and operated by black people andthat they patronize these businesses) and nationhood is the idea that black people should create aUnited States of Afrika which would safeguard the interests of black people worldwide. ToRBG Communiversity 2013 |A Multimedia Interactive Guidebook 7|Page
  8. 8. disseminate the UNIAs program, Garvey founded the Negro World newspaper and to encourageblack economic independence, he founded the Black Star Line in 1919 as well as the NegroFactories Corporation. The UNIA also initiated the Universal Afrikan Legion, a paramilitarygroup, the Black Cross Nurses, the Afrikan Black Cross Society and the Black Cross Tradingand Navigation Corporation. Garvey attracted millions of supporters and claimed eleven millionmembers for the UNIA. Marcus Garvey, however, did not advocate that all black people shouldleave the United States to emigrate to Afrika (a strong United States of Afrika would protect theinterests of all black people everywhere in the world so a physical migration of all black peoplein the West was unnecessary and, in some cases, undesirable). Although Marcus Garvey was anardent supporter of racial separatism (he encouraged black people to separate themselves fromwhites residentially, develop their own all black businesses and schools, and preached againstinter-racial marriage as race suicide), he made it clear that he held no hostility towards whitesand believed in the equality of all human beings. Garvey set the precedent for subsequent BlackNationalist and pan-Afrikanist thought including that of Kwame Nkrumah (and several otherAfrikan leaders) the Nation of Islam, Malcolm X and most notably, Carlos Cooks (who isconsidered the ideological son of Marcus Garvey) and his Afrikan Nationalist PioneerMovement. Marcus Garveys beliefs are articulated in The Philosophy and Opinions of MarcusGarvey.Malcolm X Malcolm X Between 1953 and 1965, while most black leaders worked in the civil rights movement integrate black people into mainstream American life, Malcolm X preached independence. He maintained that Western culture, and the Judeo-Christian religious traditions on which it is based, was inherently racist. Constantly ridiculing mainstream civil rights leader Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Malcolm X declared that nonviolence was the "philosophy of the fool". In response to Reverend Kings famous "I Have a Dream" speech, Malcolm X quipped, "While King was having a dream, the rest of us Negroes are having a nightmare."Malcolm X believed that black people must develop their own society and ethical values,including the self-help, community-based enterprises that the black Muslims supported. He alsoRBG Communiversity 2013 |A Multimedia Interactive Guidebook 8|Page
  9. 9. thought that Afrikan Americans should reject integration or cooperation with EuropeanAmericans until they could achieve cooperation among themselves. Malcolm called for a "blackrevolution." He declared there "would be bloodshed" if the racism problem in America remainedignored, and he renounced any sort of "compromise" with whites. After taking part in a Hajj(pilgrimage to Mecca), he recanted extremist opinions in favor of mainstream Islam and ["truebrotherhood"], and was soon after assassinated during a speech held at The Audubon Ballroom,NYC. Upon his return from Mecca, Malcolm X abandoned his commitment to racial separatism;however, he was still in favor of Black Nationalism and advocated that black people in the U.S.be self-reliant. The beliefs of post-Mecca Malcolm X are articulated in the charter of hisOrganization of Afro-American Unity (a Black Nationalist group patterned after theOrganization of Afrikan Unity).Frantz Fanon While in France Frantz Fanon wrote his first book, Black Skin, White Mask, an analysis of the impact of colonial subjugation on the black psyche. This book was a very personal account of Fanon’s experience being black: as a man, an intellectual, and a party to a French education. Although Fanon wrote the book while still in France, most of his other work was written while in North Afrika (in particular Algeria). It was during this time that he produced his greatest works, A Dying Colonialism and perhaps the most important work on decolonizationyet written, The Wretched of the Earth.. In it, Fanon lucidly analyzes the role of class, race,national culture and violence in the struggle for national liberation. In this seminal work Fanonexpounded his views on the liberating role of violence for the colonized, as well as the generalnecessity of violence in the anti-colonial struggle. Both books firmly established Fanon in theeyes of much of the Third World as the leading anti-colonial thinker of the 20th century. In 1959he compiled his essays on Algeria in a book called LAn Cinq: De la Révolution Algérienne.RBG Communiversity 2013 |A Multimedia Interactive Guidebook 9|Page
  10. 10. Black Power Movement Black Power was a political movement expressing a new racial consciousness among black people in the United States in the 1960s and 1970s. Black Power represented both a conclusion to the decades civil rights movement and an alternative means of combating the racism that persisted despite the efforts of black activists during the early 1960s. The meaning of Black Power was debatedvigorously while the movement was in progress. To some it represented Afrikan-Americansinsistence on racial dignity and self-reliance, which was usually interpreted as economic andpolitical independence, as well as freedom from European American authority. These themes hadbeen advanced most forcefully in the early 1960s by Malcolm X. He argued that black peopleshould focus on improving their own communities, rather than striving for complete integration,and that black people had a duty to retaliate against violent assaults. The publication of TheAutobiography of Malcolm X (1965) created further support for the idea of Afrikan-Americanself-determination and had a strong influence on the emerging leaders of the Black Powermovement. Other interpreters of Black Power emphasized the cultural heritage of black people,especially the Afrikan roots of their identity. This view encouraged study and celebration ofblack history and culture. In the late 1960s black college students requested curricula in Afrikan-American studies that explored their distinctive culture and history. Still another view of blackPower called for a revolutionary political struggle to reject racism and economic exploitation inthe United States and abroad, as well as colonialism. This interpretation encouraged the allianceof non-whites, including Hispanics and Asians, to improve the quality of their lives.RBG Communiversity 2013 |A Multimedia Interactive Guidebook 10 | P a g e
  11. 11. Uhuru Movement The Uhuru Movement is the largest contemporary black movement advocating Black Nationalism and was founded in the 1980s in St. Petersburg, Florida. Composed mainly of the Afrikan Peoples Socialist Party, the Uhuru Movement also includes other organizations based in both Afrika and the United States. These organizations are in the process of establishing a broader organization called the AfrikanSocialist International. "Uhuru" is the Swahili word for freedom. The Republic of New Afrika(RNA) A was a social movement organization that proposed three objectives. First, the creationof an independent Black-majority country situated in the southeastern region of the UnitedStates. The vision for this country was first promulgated on March 31, 1968, at a BlackGovernment Conference held in Detroit, Michigan, United States. Proponents of this vision layclaim to five Southern states (Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina)and the Black-majority counties adjacent to this areain Arkansas, Tennessee and Florida. Asimilar claim is made for all the Black-majority counties and cities throughout the United States.Second, they demanded several billion dollars in reparations from the US government for thedamages inflicted on Black people by chattel enslavement, Jim Crow segregation, and persistentmodern-day forms of racism. Third, they demanded a referendum of all Afrikan Americans inorder to decide what should be done with their citizenry. Regarding the latter, it was claimed thatBlack people were not given the choice to decide in regard to what they wanted to do afteremancipation.RBG Communiversity 2013 |A Multimedia Interactive Guidebook 11 | P a g e
  12. 12. New Afrika (PG-RNA) The Black Government Conference was convened by the Malcolm X Society and the Group on Advanced Leadership (GOAL), two influential Detroit-based organizations with broad followings. This weekend meeting produced a Declaration of Independence (signed by 100 conferees out of approximately 500), a constitution, and the framework for a provisional government. Robert F. Williams, a revolutionary human rights advocate then living in exile in China, was chosen as the first President of the provisional government; attorney Milton Henry was named First Vice President (a student of Malcolm Xs teachings); and Betty Shabazz, widow of Malcolm X, served as Second Vice President. The Provisional Government of the Republic ofadvocated/advocates a form of cooperative economics through the building of NewCommunities—named after the Ujamaa concept promoted by Tanzanian President JuliusNyerere; militant self-defense through the building of local Peoples Militias and an abovegroundstanding army called the Black Legion; and respect for international law through the building oforganizations that champion the right of self-determination for people of Afrikan descent. Duringits existence, the organization was involved in numerous controversial issues. For example, itattempted to assist Oceanhill-Brownsville in seceding from the United States during the conflictthat took place there. Additionally, it was involved with shootouts at New Bethel Baptist Churchin 1969 (during the one-year anniversary of the founding) and another in Jackson, Mississippi, in1971 (where it had begun to start its occupation of the South on a single farm). Within bothevents, law-enforcement officials were killed as well as injured and harsh legal action wasimposed against organizational members. The US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) believedthe Republic of New Afrika to be a seditious group and conducted raids on its meetings, whichled to violent confrontations, and the arrest and repeated imprisonment of RNA leaders notedabove. The group was a target of the COINTELPRO operation by the federal authorities but wasalso subject to diverse Red Squad activities of Michigan State Police and Detroit PoliceDepartment—among other cities. There is a new era for "The Republic". It is the party of THEBLACK PATRIOTS-a moderately conservative group of New Afrikans that believe indemonstrating compassion and prosperity for all people (most especially, NEW AFRIKANS(former Afrikan-Americans). To form a more perfect union, the Republic of New Afrika is thefoundation to create change politically, economically, socially and culturally among theRBG Communiversity 2013 |A Multimedia Interactive Guidebook 12 | P a g e
  13. 13. descendants of slaves in America. The critical difference in "The Republic" is the collective effort to strategically purchase land in centralized regions of the United States of America. RBG Honorable Marcus Mosiah Garvey Studies Collection (22) By Rbg Street Scholar Marcus Garvey’s lessons in learning, “The Who, What, Why and How of Reading” EXCERPTS: These lessons and guideposts in learning can be found in Marcus Garvey, Message to the People, The Course of Afrikan Philosophy, edited by Dr. Tony Martin. The Honorable Marcus Mosiah Garvey presents his formula for learning in his courses on Afrikan Philosophy in the 1930s. I think it is most appropriate to preface this series of essays with a review of Mr. Garvey’s formula for learning as we continue to build our Knowledge of Self and seek specific guideposts to our development as a people.RBG Communiversity Courses of StudyCollections 2012, Summer and FallSemesters Lesson 1: One must never stop reading. Read everything that you can read, that is of standard knowledge. Don’t waste time reading trashy literature. The idea is that personal experience is not enough for a human to get all the useful knowledge of life, because the individual life it too short, so we must feed on the experience of others. Lesson 2: Read history incessantly until you master it. This means your own national history, the history of the world, social history, industrial history, and the history of the different sciences; but primarily, the history of man. If you do not know what went on before you came here and what is happening at the time you live, but away from you, you will not know the world and will be ignorant of the world and mankind. RBG Communiversity 2013 |A Multimedia Interactive Guidebook 13 | P a g e
  14. 14. Lesson 3: To be able to read intelligently, you must first be able to master the language of yourcountry. To do this, you must be well acquainted with its grammar and the science of it. Peoplejudge you by your writing and your speech. If you write badly and incorrectly they becomeprejudiced towards your intelligence, and if you speak badly and incorrectly, those who hear youbecome disgusted and will not pay much attention to you, but in their hearts laugh after you.Lesson 4: A leader who is to teach men and present any fact of truth to man must first be taughtin his subject.Lesson 5: Never write or speak on a subject you know nothing about, for there is alwayssomebody who knows that particular subject to laugh at you or to ask you embarrassingquestions that may make others laugh at you.Lesson 6: You should read four hours a day. The best time to read is in the evening after youhave retired from your work and after you have rested and before sleeping hours, but do sobefore morning, so that during your sleeping hours what you read may become subconscious,that is to say, planted in your memory. LessonLesson 7: Never keep the constant company of anybody who doesn’t know as much as you or(is) as educated as you, and from whom you cannot learn something from or reciprocate yourlearning.Lesson 8: Continue always in the application of the things you desire educationally, culturally,or otherwise, and never give up until you reach your objective.Lesson 9: Try never to repeat yourself in any one discourse in saying the same thing over andover again except when you are making new points, because repetition is tiresome and it annoysthose who hear the repetition.Lesson 10: Knowledge is power. When you know a thing and can hold your ground on that thingand win over your opponents on that thing, those who hear you learn to have confidence in youand will trust your ability.Lesson 11: In reading books written by white authors, of whatever kind, be aware of the fact thatthey are not written for your particular benefit of your race. They always write from their ownRBG Communiversity 2013 |A Multimedia Interactive Guidebook 14 | P a g e
  15. 15. point of view and only in the interest of their own race. From: Message to the People: TheCourse of Afrikan by Marcus Garvey, Tony Martin (Editor), September 1986This book was originally written as a primer for RBG Street Scholars Think Tank’s FROLINAN.Thus, to talk about its purpose is to preface it within the context of the Think Tank.RBG Communiversity’s Pedagogical ApproachWith strict attention to developing our students’ basic education skills in the context of thehighest standards of academic excellence, suitable for one to confidently sit for high stakeexams(i.e. SAT/ACT and MCATs, LSATs), we simultaneously advance the psycho-emotionalhealing and spiritual upliftment of our people by providing KNOWLEDGE, WISDOM ANDOVERSTANDING of the historo-cultural, socio-political and psycho-educational experiences ofAfrikans in America in a way that “RADICALLY REAPPRAISES EDUCATION” from the painedand angry perspective of the oppressed black community.THE TEACHER’S RESPONSIBILITY TO THE LEARNER 1. To help learners identify the proper starting points for their personalized learning program and to discern relevant modes of examination and reporting back on their progress. 2. To encourage learners to view Afrikan-centered knowledge and truth as both historical and contextual realities. 3. To enable the learner to see value-system conceptual frameworks as cultural constructs, and to appreciate that they can act on their world individually and collectively to transform said constructs. 4. To create a partnership with learners by negotiating individualized learning contracts for goals, strategies, and evaluation criteria, 5. To be an inspirer and manager of the RBG learning experience rather than simply an information provider. 6. To help learners acquire the needs assessment techniques necessary to discover what objectives they should set for themselves. 7. To encourage the setting of objectives that can be met in several learning domains, ie. cognitive, psychomotor and affective, and offer a variety of options for evidence of successful performance. 8. To provide self-directed learners (SDL) with objectives, learning strategies, resources, and evaluation criteria to guide their study, and academic growth. 9. To teach inquiry skills, time management, problem solving, critical thinking, decision making, personal development, and self-evaluation. 10. To act as an advocate for educationally undeserved and mis-educated New Afrikan populations by facilitating their access to proper knowledge and objectively reliable study tools and resources. 11. To help learners navigate, locate and negotiate RBG learning resourcesRBG Communiversity 2013 |A Multimedia Interactive Guidebook 15 | P a g e
  16. 16. 12. To help learners develop positive attitudes and feelings of independence relative to learning, thus building self-esteem, self-image and self-concept as Afrikan people. 13. To offer resources and methods that take into account learner personality types and learning styles. 14. To design and develop high-quality teaching / learning tools and resources according to Web 2.0 academic and technology trends, standards and learner responses / feedback.Curricular Domains, Fields and Aims Outline and Links to ContentWITH A BRIEF BACKGROUND OF THE AFRIKAN-CENTERED EDUCATIONMOVEMENTA DEMONSTRATION OF THE STUDY DOMAINS OUR VARIOUS CURRICULA DEPLOY INWEB 2.0 ENVIRONMENTS”Example: RBG Afrikan- Centered Cultural Development and Education WikizineIn NATIONBUILDING, Agyei Akoto has produced a volume that challenges all Afrikan people,particularly those of us in the United States, to confront with seriousness the responsibilities ofeducating for liberation, and the reality that the goal of liberation must be Nationhood. This bookis a masterpiece of vision. More importantly, by writing candidly about the experience producedby 20 years of sustained kazi (work) within a collective of creative thinkers and doers, the authorhelps readers understand how the wisdom he reveals in NATIONBUILDING was developed.One appreciates, through Agyeis writing that nationbuilding is the process that gives us formand substance within humanity; it is through this process that we create and recreate the culturethat defines our lives. RBG Blakademics Web 2.0 curriculum is proving to be one of the mostextensive and engaging Nation Building academic demostrations online. It was implemented fiveyears ago and uses Dr. Akoto’s Nationhood- Afrikan Centered Curriculum Standards as its coreoutline. RBG Blakademics TV (5 Theme Channels)RBG Communiversity 2013 |A Multimedia Interactive Guidebook 16 | P a g e
  17. 17. Curricular Domains, Fields and Aims Outline ACTI (Afrikan Centered Thematic Inventory)I. Spirituality and the Psycho-Affective DomainSPIRITUAL AWARENESSAim: To transmit the knowledge of Afrikan spiritual tradition, and develop an appreciation fortradition and the ability to apply the major principles to self, family and community ayerMORAL CONSCIOUSNESSAim: To foster an understanding and willingness to be guided by those principles thatcharacterizes the righteous and just person -Principles of MAÁT and Book of Going Forth by DayFAMILY AS BASIC SPIRITUAL AND MORAL UNITAim: To develop an understanding and appreciation for the dynamics affecting the Afrikanfamily; to recognize its centrality to the Afrikan nationality, and work to revitalize it orkshop and Tutorial -UpdatedSELF-KNOWLEDGE PRACTICE Aim: To facilitate the achievement of total knowledge of self as a unique extension of thecollective, defined by the collective and committed to itRBG Communiversity 2013 |A Multimedia Interactive Guidebook 17 | P a g e
  18. 18. -Self Directed Learning-Tool for Breaking the Chains of Psychological Slavery By Uhuru HotepANCESTRAL VENERATIONAim: To facilitate the acquisition and valuing of the wisdom of the ancestors; and to foster acommitment to restore their works and make those works even better than before -A RBG BlakademicsII. Cultural and Ideological DomainTHE PRIMACY OF AFRIKAN CIVILIZATION AND THE AFRIKAN ORIGIN OF THEHUMAN SPECIES Aim: To develop and inform a complete and more comprehensive historical consciousness, fromantiquity to the contemporary, that will be the basis for Afrikan unity and development -Multi-Melanins Paper-2011 UpdatedAFRIKAN HERITAGE AND CULTURAL UNITYAim: To develop an appreciation of the need to foster cultural, and political unity among allAfrikan people, and to commit oneself to that taskof Ancient Kemet-Nana Baffour Amankwatia IIAFRIKAN CENTERED HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE (Afrikan Perspective on allKnowledge and Intellectual Endeavor)Aim: To develop a commitment to reconstruct Afrikan culture through the reclamation ofAfrikan history and the critical/creative analysis of all knowledge and experience from anAfrikan centered perspective -of Slavery in America-A RBG Black History Month Multi-media SpecialIDEOLOGICAL CLARITY (CONSCIOUSNESS), COMMITMENT AND CONDUCTRBG Communiversity 2013 |A Multimedia Interactive Guidebook 18 | P a g e
  19. 19. Aim: To foster identification with and a desire to participate in the ongoing dialogue aimed atcreating a coherent and dynamic Afrikan/ nationalist ideology for the liberation andindependence of Afrikan peopleBEAUTY AND AESTHETICSAim: To foster the development of a sense of the beautiful and righteousness that is Afrikancentered -Asili Black Writers, Poets and Playwrights 1711-PresentWHITE SUPREMACY/ RACISM STUDIESAim: To develop an awareness and sensitivity to the dynamics of white supremacy. To facilitatethe development of personal and collective strategies to counteract the effects of racism/whitesupremacy -Genocideof Blacks in 21st Century America -Companion ReaderIII. Socio-Political and Economic DomainPAN AFRIKAN POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC UNITY, COOPERATION ANDDEVELOPMENTAim: To instill commitment to developing Pan Afrikan cultural, political and economic unity andcooperation. -Black Star Rising-RBG Empowerment Co- AllRBG Artist and Businesses: Get RBG Graphics, Press Design & Promotional Packages thatEngageAFRIKAN IN AMERICA NATIONALITYAim: To foster the commitment to the development of an organized, unified, productive anddynamic nationality of Afrikans in America -Compiled & Edited by PhillipNATIONAL AND COMMUNITY LEADERSHIPRBG Communiversity 2013 |A Multimedia Interactive Guidebook 19 | P a g e
  20. 20. Aim: To develop an awareness of the necessary qualities of leadership and to inculcate thosenecessary values and skills of leadership that are essential to the liberation and development ofAfrikan people - GQuotable Elders and AncestorsDEMOCRATIC PLURALITY OF RACIAL/ETHNIC NATIONALITIES IN THEAMERICAN POLITICAL ECONOMYAim: To foster a profound awareness of the psychic and constitutional entrenchment of whiteracial/ethnic supremacy in the U.S. and to advance the Afrikan nationality within the "nation ofnations" that the American political economy in fact is. - A Master Plan-Organization of Afro-American Unity-MX and the OAAU Aims and ObjectivesHUMAN AND CIVIL RIGHTSAim: To foster an awareness of one of the higher goals of social activism, the creation of a worldorder that is culturally pluralistic and truly democratic, equalitarian, and just -What We WantStreet ScholarIMPEDIMENTSAim: To inculcate a clear understanding of the historical impediments to Afrikan liberation anddevelopment, and further to provide a clear criteria for identifying and handling those lessobvious impediments to the advancement of the race -The Maafa / Ongoing European Holocaust of Afrikan Enslavement Collection -POLITICS,WAR, POLICE STATE AND GLOBAL ECONOMIC CRISIS he PIC Studies CollectionINSTITUTIONAL AND NATIONHOOD GOALSAim: To foster a clear understanding of our mission to build the institutional infrastructure of anindependent nationality (Nationhood), and to foster a conscious commitment and conduct toadvance the New Afrikan Nation and Afrikan race toward independence and freedom, and thehuman race toward greater humanity ation of the New Afrikan NationRBG Communiversity 2013 |A Multimedia Interactive Guidebook 20 | P a g e
  21. 21. RBG Communiversity is horizontally, vertically and concentrically integrated; so one learns- teaches multiple domains simultaneously, as against linear subject-based curricula. For example, the Standard American curriculum most Afrikan children in America are taught from goes in a straight line, By contrast RBG is circular. Five curricular domains provide the basis for the organization of the subject content within RBG Communiversity’s various curricula.Each curricular domain consists of one or more curriculum fields. The curriculum fields providethe actual structural basis for RBG’s organization and presentation of subject matters within thecurriculum. The purpose of listing the several fields under the curricular domains is to establishtheir relationships with the assumptions and aims of the ACTI (Afrikan Centered ThematicInventory) above. The curriculum fields are listed below under the curricular domains, andinclude the subject areas that comprise the respective fields of learning- teaching in RBGCommuniversity’s various integrated curricula.CURRIULA OURLINE:I. Cultural IdeologicalA. Culture and IdeologyB. CreativityII. Spiritual Psycho-AffectiveA. Self-KnowledgeB. Ethics and MoralityIII. Socio-Political and EconomicA. Political EconomyB. Cognition and InquiryC. TechnologyD. MathematicsRBG Communiversity 2013 |A Multimedia Interactive Guidebook 21 | P a g e
  22. 22. E. Sciences F. Computer Sciences IV. Technology A. Mathematics B. Science C. Computer Science D. Functional Skills V. Nation building (Practical Applications) A. Career Development Apprenticeships B. Research Theory and Practicum’sAFRIKAN CENTERED EDUCATION: THE BACKGROUND C. Community Development ProjectsCompanion: Intellectual Warfare/ a 2 hour Video presentation by Dr. Jacob H. Carruthers D: Organizational ExperienceIntellectual Warfare-Professor Jacob H. Carruthers -Jedi Shemsu JehewtyLINK TO FULL VIDEO GRIDProfessor Jacob H. CarruthersJedi Shemsu Jehewty(February 15, 1930 -- January 4, 2004)Jacob H. Carruthers is a founding director of the Association for the Study of Classical African Civilizations anda current member of its national board of directors. He is a founding member of both the Kemetic Institute ofChicago and the Temple of the African Community of Chicago. He is the acting director of the Center for InnerCity Studies, Northeastern Illinois University, where he also serves as a professor. He is the author of Scienceand Oppression, The Irritated Genie, and MDW NTR Divine Speech.Intellectual WarfareBy: Jacob CarruthersA scholarly work several years in the making, Intellectual Warfare testifies that the foundation of modernWestern thought, theory, and practice can be traced back to ancient African thought, theory, and practice. Dr.Carruthers exposes the African influence on Greek and Roman thought and its influence on the development ofmodern Western society, then establishes the urgency to Guidebook honor the role of Ancient African RBG Communiversity 2013 |A Multimedia Interactive defend and 22 | P a g ecivilizations on this major event...LEARN MORE
  23. 23. AFRIKAN CENTERED EDUCATION: THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUNDAfrocentric education is education targeted towards Afrikan people. The premise behind it is thenotion that human beings can be subjugated and made servile by limiting their consciousness ofthemselves and by imposing certain selective aspects of alien knowledge on others.[1] To controla peoples culture is to control their tools of self-determination in relationship to others.[2]Afrocentrists argue that what educates one group of people does not necessarily educate andempower another group of people. Philosophy Afrocentric education has as one of its tenets,decolonizing the Afrikan mind. The central objective in decolonizing the Afrikan mind is tooverthrow the authority in which alien traditions exercise over the Afrikan .[3] In order toachieve this, Eurocentric ideology must be dismantled from everyday Afrikan life. This is not tosay that the Afrikan is to reject foreign tradition, but she or he is to deny its authoritative controlin the culture of the Afrikan , and denounce allegiance to this authoritative control. Decolonizingthe Afrikan mind seeks to mentally liberate Afrikan s. Economic and political control can neverbe complete or effective without mental control. It is then clear that an Afrocentric education isessential based on the idea of mental liberation. Education Education was understood to be aprocess of harnessing the inner potential, and thus it is imperative to equip the youth with anawareness of their identity. The term "miseducation" was coined by Dr. Carter G. Woodson todescribe the process of systematically depriving Afrikan Americans of their knowledge of self.Dr. Woodson believed that miseducation was the root of the problems of the masses of theAfrikan American community and that if the masses of the Afrikan American community weregiven the correct knowledge and education from the beginning, they would not be in the situationthat they find themselves in today. Dr. Woodson argues in his book, The Mis-Education of theNegro, that Afrikan Americans often valorize European culture to the detriment of their ownculture. The problem concerning formal education is seen by Afrocentrists to be that Afrikanstudents are taught to perceive the world through the eyes of another culture, and unconsciouslylearn to see themselves as an insignificant part of their world. An Afrocentric education does notnecessarily wish to isolate Afrikan s from a Eurocentric education system but wishes to assert theautonomy of Afrikan s and encompass the cultural uniqueness of all learners. A school based onAfrikan values, it is believed, would eliminate the patterns of rejection and alienation that engulfso many Afrikan American school children, especially males. The movement for Afrikan -RBG Communiversity 2013 |A Multimedia Interactive Guidebook 23 | P a g e
  24. 24. centered education is based on the assumption that a school immersed in Afrikan traditions,rituals, values, and symbols will provide a learning environment that is more congruent with thelifestyles and values of Afrikan American families.History Afrikan -centered education has been an active area of Afrocentrism for many decades.See: RBG 18TH TO EARLY 20TH CENTURY STREET SCHOLARS COLLECTION 19th andearly 20th century Edward Wilmot Blyden, an Americo-Liberian educator and diplomat active inthe pan-Africa movement, perceived a change in perception taking place among Europeanstowards Afrikan s in his 1908 book Afrikan Life and Customs, which originated as a series ofarticles in the Sierra Leone Weekly News.[4] In it, he proposed that Afrikan s were beginning tobe seen simply as different and not as inferior, in part because of the work of English writerssuch as Mary Kingsley and Lady Lugard, who traveled and studied in Africa.[4] Such anenlightened view was fundamental to refute prevailing ideas among Western peoples aboutAfrikan cultures and Afrikan s. Blyden used that standpoint to show how the traditional social,industrial, and economic life of Afrikan s untouched by "either European or Asiatic influence",was different and complete in itself, with its own organic wholeness.[4] In a letter responding toBlydens original series of articles, Fante journalist and politician J.E. Casely Hayfordcommented, "It is easy to see the men and women who walked the banks of the Nile" passinghim on the streets of Kumasi.[4] Hayford suggested building a University to preserve Afrikanidentity and instincts. In that university, the history chair would teach “Universal history, withparticular reference to the part Ethiopia has played in the affairs of the world. I would lay stressupon the fact that while Ramses II was dedicating temples to the God of gods, and secondly tohis own glory, the God of the Hebrews had not yet appeared unto Moses in the burning bush;that Africa was the cradle of the worlds systems and philosophies, and the nursing mother of itsreligions. In short, that Africa has nothing to be ashamed of in its place among the nations of theearth. I would make it possible for this seat of learning to be the means of revising erroneouscurrent ideas regarding the Afrikan ; of raising him in self-respect; and of making him anefficient co-worker in the uplifting of man to nobler effort.[4]”The exchange of ideas between Blyden and Hayford embodied the fundamental concepts ofAfrocentrism. In the United States, during the early 20th century and the Harlem Renaissance,many writers and historians gathered in major cities, where they began to work on documentingRBG Communiversity 2013 |A Multimedia Interactive Guidebook 24 | P a g e
  25. 25. achievements of Afrikan s throughout history, and in United States and Western life. They beganto set up institutions to support scholarly work in Afrikan -American history and literature, suchas the American Negro Academy (now the Black Academy of Letters and Arts), founded inWashington, DC in 1874. Some men were self-taught; others rose through the academic system.Creative writers and artists claimed space for Afrikan -American perspectives. Leaders includedbibliophile Arthur Schomburg, who devoted his life to collecting literature, art, slave narratives,and other artifacts of the Afrikan diaspora. In 1911 with John Edward Bruce, he founded theNegro Society for Historical Research in Yonkers, New York. The value of Schomburgspersonal collection was recognized, and it was purchased by the New York Public Library in1926 with aid of a Carnegie Corporation grant. It became the basis of what is now called theArthur Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, based in Harlem, New York.Schomburg used the money from the sale of his collection for more travel and acquisition ofmaterials.[5] Hubert Henry Harrison used his intellectual gifts in street lectures and politicalactivism, influencing early generations of Black Socialists and Black Nationalists. Dr. Carter G.Woodson co-founded the Association for the Study of Afrikan American Life and History (as itis now called) in 1915, as well as the The Journal of Negro History, so that scholars of blackhistory could be supported and find venues for their work. Among their topics, editors ofpublications such as NAACPs The Crisis and Journal of Negro History sought to include articlesthat countered the prevailing view that Sub-Saharan Africa had contributed little of value tohuman history that was not the result of incursions by Europeans and Arabs.[6] Historians beganto theorize that Ancient Egyptian civilization was the culmination of events arising from theorigin of the human race in Africa. They investigated the history of Africa from that perspective.In March 1925 Schomburg published an essay "The Negro Digs Up His Past" in the SurveyGraphic in an issue devoted to Harlems intellectual life. The article had widespread distributionand influence, as he detailed the achievements of people of Afrikan descent.[7] Alain Lockeincluded the essay in his collection The New Negro. Afrocentrists claimed The Mis-Education ofthe Negro (1933) by Carter G. Woodson, an Afrikan American historian, as one of theirfoundational texts. Woodson critiqued education of Afrikan Americans as "mis-education"because he held that it denigrated the black while glorifying the white. For these earlyAfrocentrists, the goal was to break what they saw as a vicious cycle of the reproduction of blackself-abnegation. In the words of The Crisis editor W. E. B. Du Bois, the world left AfrikanRBG Communiversity 2013 |A Multimedia Interactive Guidebook 25 | P a g e
  26. 26. Americans with a "double consciousness," and a sense of "always looking at ones self throughthe eyes of others, of measuring ones soul by the tape of a world that looks on in amusedcontempt and pity."[8]In his early years, W. E. B. Du Bois, researched West Afrikan cultures and attempted toconstruct a pan-Afrikan ist value system based on West Afrikan traditions. In the 1950s Du Boisenvisioned and received funding from Ghanaian president Kwame Nkrumah to produce anEncyclopedia Afrikan a to chronicle the history and cultures of Africa. Du Bois died beforebeing able to complete his work. Some aspects of Du Boiss approach are evident in work byCheikh Anta Diop in the 1950s and 1960s. Du Bois inspired a number of authors, includingDrusilla Dunjee Houston. After reading his work The Negro (1915), Houston embarked uponwriting her Wonderful Ethiopians of the Ancient Cushite Empire (1926). The book was acompilation of evidence related to the historic origins of Cush and Ethiopia, and assessed theirinfluences on Greece. 1960s and 1970s The 1960s and 1970s were times of social and politicalferment. In the U.S. were born new forms of Black Nationalism, Black Power and Black ArtsMovements, all driven to some degree by identification with "Mother Africa." Afrocentricscholars and Black youth also challenged Eurocentric ideas in academia. The work of CheikhAnta Diop became very influential. In the following decades, histories related to Africa and thediaspora gradually incorporated a more Afrikan perspective. Since that time, Afrocentrists haveincreasingly seen Afrikan peoples as the makers and shapers of their own histories.[9] You haveall heard of the Afrikan Personality; of Afrikan democracy, of the Afrikan way to socialism, ofnegritude, and so on. They are all props we have fashioned at different times to help us get onour feet again. Once we are up we shant need any of them any more. But for the moment it is inthe nature of things that we may need to counter racism with what Jean-Paul Sartre has called ananti-racist racism, to announce not just that we are as good as the next man but that we are muchbetter. —Chinua Achebe, 1965[10] In this context, ethnocentric Afrocentrism was not intendedto be essential or permanent, but was a consciously fashioned strategy of resistance to theEurocentrism of the time.[8] Afrocentric scholars adopted two approaches: a deconstructiverebuttal of what they called "the whole archive of European ideological racism" and areconstructive act of writing new selfconstructed histories.[8] At a 1974 UNESCO symposium inCairo titled "The Peopling of Ancient Egypt and the Decipherment of Meroitic Script", CheikhAnta Diop brought together scholars of Egypt from around the world.[11] Key texts from thisRBG Communiversity 2013 |A Multimedia Interactive Guidebook 26 | P a g e
  27. 27. period include: * The Destruction of Black Civilization (1971) by Chancellor Williams * TheAfrikan Origins of Civilization: Myth or Reality (1974) by Cheikh Anta Diop * They CameBefore Columbus: The Afrikan Presence in Ancient America (1976) by Ivan Van SertimaSome Afrocentric writers focused on study of indigenous Afrikan civilizations and peoples, toemphasize Afrikan history separate from European or Arab influence. Primary among them wasChancellor Williams, whose book The Destruction of Black Civilization: Great Issues of a Racefrom 4500 B.C. to 2000 A.D. set out to determine a "purely Afrikan body of principles, valuesystems (and) philosophy of life".[12] 1980s and 1990s In the 1980s and 1990s, Afrocentrismincreasingly became seen as a tool for addressing social ills and a means of groundingcommunity efforts toward self-determination and political and economic empowerment. In his(1992) article "Eurocentrism vs. Afrocentrism", US anthropologist Linus A. Hoskins wrote: Thevital necessity for Afrikan people to use the weapons of education and history to extricatethemselves from this psychological dependency complex/syndrome as a necessary preconditionfor liberation. [...] If Afrikan peoples (the global majority) were to become Afrocentric(Afrocentrized), ... that would spell the ineluctable end of European global power anddominance. This is indeed the fear of Europeans. ... Afrocentrism is a state of mind, a particularsubconscious mind-set that is rooted in the ancestral heritage and communal value system.[13]American educator Jawanza Kunjufu made the case that hip hop culture, rather than beingcreative expression of the culture, was the root of many social ills.[14] For some Afrocentrists,the contemporary problems of the ghetto stemmed not from race and class inequality, but ratherfrom a failure to inculcate Black youth with Afrocentric values.[15] In the West and elsewhere,the European, in the midst of other peoples, has often propounded an exclusive view of reality;the exclusivity of this view creates a fundamental human crisis. In some cases, it has createdcultures arrayed against each other or even against themselves. Afrocentricity’s responsecertainly is not to impose its own particularity as a universal, as Eurocentricity has often done.But hearing the voice of Afrikan American culture with all of its attendant parts is one way ofcreating a more sane society and one model for a more humane world. -Asante, M. K. (1988)[16]In 1997, US cultural historian Nathan Glazer described Afrocentricity as a form ofmulticulturalism. He wrote that its influence ranged from sensible proposals about inclusion ofmore Afrikan material in school curricula to what he called senseless claims about Afrikanprimacy in all major technological achievements. Glazer argued that Afrocentricity had becomeRBG Communiversity 2013 |A Multimedia Interactive Guidebook 27 | P a g e
  28. 28. more important due to the failure of mainstream society to assimilate all Afrikan Americans.Anger and frustration at their continuing separation gave black Americans the impetus to rejecttraditions that excluded them.[17]Today, Afrocentricity takes many forms, including striving for a more multicultural and balancedapproach to the study of history and sociology. Afrocentrists contend that race still exists as asocial and political construct.[15] They argue that for centuries in academia, Eurocentric ideasabout history were dominant: ideas such as blacks having no civilizations, no written languages,no cultures, and no histories of any note before coming into contact with Europeans. Further,according to the views of some Afrocentrists, European history has commonly received moreattention within the academic community than the history of sub-Saharan Afrikan cultures orthose of the many Pacific Island peoples. Afrocentrists contend it is important to divorce thehistorical record from past racism. Molefi Kete Asantes book Afrocentricity (1988) argues thatAfrikan -Americans should look to Afrikan cultures "as a critical corrective to a displacedagency among Afrikan s." Some Afrocentrists believe that the burden of Afrocentricity is todefine and develop Afrikan agency in the midst of the cultural wars debate. By doing so,Afrocentricity can support all forms of multiculturalism.[18] Afrocentrists argue thatAfrocentricity is important for people of all ethnicities who want to understand Afrikan historyand the Afrikan diaspora. For example, the Afrocentric method can be used to research Afrikanindigenous culture. Queeneth Mkabela writes in 2005 that the Afrocentric perspective providesnew insights for understanding Afrikan indigenous culture, in a multicultural context. Accordingto Mkabela and others, the Afrocentric method is a necessary part of complete scholarship andwithout it, the picture is incomplete, less accurate, and less objective.[19] Studies of Afrikan andAfrikan -diaspora cultures have shifted understanding and created a more positive acceptance ofinfluence by Afrikan religious, linguistic and other traditions, both among scholars and thegeneral public. For example religious movements such as Vodou are now less likely to becharacterized as "mere superstition", but understood in terms of links to Afrikan traditions. Inrecent years Afrikan a Studies or Africology[9] departments at many major universities havegrown out of the Afrocentric "Black Studies" departments formed in the 1970s. Rather thanfocusing on black topics in the Afrikan diaspora (often exclusively Afrikan American topics),these reformed departments aim to expand the field to encompass all of the Afrikan diaspora.They also seek to better align themselves with other University departments and find continuityRBG Communiversity 2013 |A Multimedia Interactive Guidebook 28 | P a g e
  29. 29. and compromise between the radical Afrocentricity of the past decades and the multiculturalscholarship found in many fields today.[20]Reference Notes 1. Woodson, Dr. Carter G. (1933). The Mis-Education of the Negro. KhalifahsBooksellers & Associates.2. Akbar, Dr. Naim.(1998)3. Chinweizu (1987). Decolonizing the Afrikan Mind. Sundoor Press.)4. Blyden, Edward Wilmot (1994-03-01). Afrikan Life and Customs. Black Classic Press. ISBN978-0933121430.5. NYPL, Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture6. "The Afrikan Origin of the Grecian Civilisation", Journal of Negro History, 1917, pp.334-3447. Arthur Schomburg, "The Negro Digs Up His Past", The Survey Graphic, Harlem: March1925, University of Virginia Library, accessed 2 Feb 20098 Tejumola Olaniyan, "From Black Aesthetics to Afrocentrism", West Africa Review, Issue 9(2006)9. a b Henry Louis Gates (Editor), Kwame Anthony Appiah (Editor), Afrikan a: TheEncyclopedia of the Afrikan and Afrikan -American Volume 1. Page 114, Oxford UniversityPress. 2005. ISBN 019517055510. Chinua Achebe, The Novelist as Teacher, 196511. Bruce G. Trigger, "The Peopling of Ancient Egypt and the Decipherment of Meroitic Script:Proceedings of the Symposium Held in Cairo from 28 January to 3 February 1974 byUNESCO", The International Journal of Afrikan Historical Studies, Vol. 13, No. 2 (1980), pp.371-37312. The Destruction of Black Civilization: Great Issues of a Race from 4500 B.C. to 2000 A.D.,p. 19 198713. Linus A. Hoskins, Eurocentrism vs. Afrocentrism: A Geopolitical Linkage Analysis, Journalof Black Studies (1992), pp. 249, 251, 253.14. Hip-Hop vs MAAT: A Psycho/Social Analysis of Values Jawanza Kunjufu 199315. a b Achieving Blackness: Race, Black Nationalism, and Afrocentrism By Algernon Austin.ISBN 081470707616. Asante, M. K. (1988). Afrocentricity. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press Inc. Page 2817. We Are All Multiculturalists Now By Nathan Glazer Published 1997 Harvard UniversityPress ISBN 067494836XRBG Communiversity 2013 |A Multimedia Interactive Guidebook 29 | P a g e
  30. 30. 18. Teasley, M.; Tyson, E. (2007). "Cultural Wars and the Attack on Multiculturalism: AnAfrocentric Critique". Journal of Black Studies 37 (3): 390. doi:10.1177/0021934706290081.19. Using the Afrocentric Method in Researching Indigenous Afrikan Culture by QueenethMkabela The Qualitative Report Volume 10 Number 1 March 2005 178-18920. Out of the Revolution: The Development of Afrikan a Studies By Delores P. Aldridge,Carlene Young. Lexington Books 2000. ISBN 0739105477RBG Communiversity 2013 |A Multimedia Interactive Guidebook 30 | P a g e