History of the Black-White Race Issue| Attorney James Meredith

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History of the Black-White Race Issue| Attorney James Meredith

  1. 1. History of the Black-White Race Issue| Attorney James Meredith History of the Black-White Race Issue| A VIDEO PRESENTATION: "HEREIN IS A VERY INSIGHTFUL AND IN-DEPTH PRESENTATION ON AMERICAN SLAVERY AS IT RELATES TO WORLD HISTORY, U.S HISTORY AND HISTORICAL TO PRESENT-DAY WHITE SUPREMACY PROVIDED BY ATTORNEY JAMES MEREDITH" AMONG HIS MANY RAZOR SHARP REVELATIONS, ATTORNEY MEREDITH PURPORTS "RACISM HAS NEVER BEEN THE PROBLEM, THE ISSUE IS WHITE SUPREMACY". HE GOES AS DEEP AS TO EXPLAINS THAT THE TERM "AFRICAN AMERICAN" IS AN AGREED UPON TERM (BETWEEN THE NEGRO BOURGEOISIE AND NATIONAL WHITE MEDIA) THAT THEY (THE NEGRO BOURGEOISIE) ARE CLEAR ON IT'S DENOTING SECOND CLASS CITIZENSHIP, BUT HAVE CUT A SET-ASIDE DEAL AS TO DISTINGUISH THEMSELVES FROM THE BLK MASS...SEE CH. 13 and 14 National Press and Racism in the Media. Attorney James Meredith “A BRIEF BIOGRAPHY OF ATTORNEY JAMES MEREDITH HAS ALSO BEEN PROVIDED HEREIN” James Meredith in 1962 Best known for his becoming the first black student at the University of Mississippi.
  2. 2. History of the Black-White Race Issue| Attorney James Meredith VIEW THE VIDEO http://fora.tv/2007/03/26/History_of_the_Black-White_Race_Issue CHAPTERS (TOPICS COVERED): 01. Introduction 02. Slavery in Human History 03. Columbus Takes African Slaves 04. Slavery Becomes Law in America 05. Dred Scott 06. Andrew Jackson and Mississippi 07. Abolitionist Movement 08. White Supremacy or Segregation 09. Plessy v. Ferguson 10. World War I Era 11. Status of Blacks 12. Brown Decision 13. National Press 14. Racism in the Media FINALLY, I PARTICULARLY LIKE AND CONCUR WITH WHAT ONE VIEWER STATES ABOUT THIS PRESENTATION. "This Is The Best History Lesson On World History, American History, Black History, i Have Had In My Life Time That Has Made Me Realize Who, What, When, How, Where, And Why We Are In The Situation We Are In Now In This Country. There Are People In This Country Who Are Awakening And People Who Want To Keep Them Unconcious. I Could Always Feel What Is Wrong In This Country But I Could Not Ever Explain What Or Why But Now I Know What I Have Always Felt. Thank You Robert H. Jackson Center For Your Honest Work. Thank You James Meredith for Your Life Works and Sharing It. I Thank God That I Found This History Lesson. I Understand Now." ELBERT
  3. 3. James Meredith 1 James Meredith James Meredith James Meredith in 1962 Born June 25, 1933 Kosciusko, Mississippi Education University of Mississippi; Columbia Law School, LL.B. Known for becoming the first black student at the University of Mississippi James Howard Meredith (born June 25, 1933) is an American civil rights movement figure, a writer, and a political adviser. In 1962, he was the first African-American student admitted to the segregated University of Mississippi, an event that was a flashpoint in the American civil rights movement. Motivated by President John F. Kennedy's inaugural address, Meredith decided to exercise his constitutional rights and apply to the University of Mississippi. [1] His goal was to put pressure on the Kennedy administration to enforce civil rights for African Americans. [1] Early life and education Meredith was born in Kosciusko, Mississippi, of Choctaw [citation needed] and African-American heritage. Thousands of Choctaw had stayed in Mississippi when most of the people left their traditional homeland for Indian Territory in the removal of the 1830s. After attending local segregated schools and graduating from high school, Meredith enlisted in the United States Air Force. He served from 1951 to 1960. He attended Jackson State University for two years, then applied to the University of Mississippi which, under the state's legally imposed racial segregation, had traditionally accepted only white students. In Brown v. Board of Education (1954), the US Supreme Court ruled that publicly supported schools had to be desegregated.
  4. 4. James Meredith 2 University of Mississippi Meredith wrote that he wanted admission for his country, race, family, and himself. Meredith said, "Nobody handpicked me...I believed, and believe now, that I have a Divine Responsibility... [2] I am familiar with the probable difficulties involved in such a move as I am undertaking and I am fully prepared to pursue it all the way to a degree from the University of Mississippi." He was denied twice. [3] During this time, he was advised by Medgar Evers, a civil rights leader. On May 31, 1961, Meredith with backing of the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund filed suit in the U.S. District Court, alleging that the university had rejected Meredith only because of the color of his skin, as he had a highly successful record. The case went through many hearings and finally to the U.S. Supreme Court, which ruled that Meredith had the right to be admitted to the state school. [] Though Meredith was legally entitled to register, the Governor of Mississippi, Ross Barnett, tried to block him by having the Legislature pass a law that “prohibited any person who was convicted of a state crime from admission to a state school.” The law was directed at Meredith, who had been convicted of “false voter registration.” Since passage of its 1890 constitution, the state had voter registration rules that effectively disfranchised black voters. The US Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy had a series of phone calls with Governor Barnett. [4] Barnett reluctantly agreed to let Meredith enroll in the university. After being barred from entering on September 20, on October 1, 1962, he became the first African-American student at the University of Mississippi. [5] White students and anti-desegregation supporters, many who had driven in for the event, protested his enrollment by rioting on the Oxford campus. [6] Robert Kennedy called in 500 U.S. Marshals to take control, who were supported by the 70th Army Engineer Combat Battalion from Ft Campbell, Kentucky. They created a tent camp and kitchen for the US Marshals. To bolster law enforcement, President John F. Kennedy sent in U.S. Army troops from the 2nd Infantry Division from Ft. Benning , GA under the command of Maj. Gen Charles Billingslea and military police from the 503rd Military Police Battalion, and called in troops from the Mississippi Army National Guard. [6] Gen. Bllingslea's staff car was mobbed and set on fire at the entrance to to the university gate. General Billingslea, the Deputy Commanding General, John Corley, and aide, Capt Harold Lyon, were trapped inside the burning car but managed to force the car door open and had to crawl 200 yards into the gate to the University Lyceum Building while someone was shooting at them and continued to shoot the windows out, though the Army never returned fire. Gen Billingslea had established a series of escalating secret code words for issuing ammunition down to the platoons with another one for issuing it to squads, and a third one for loading, none of which could take place without the General himself, confirming the secret codes.{Lyon, HC (1974) It's Me & I'm Here! NYC: Delacorte}} In the violent clash, two people died, including the French journalist Paul Guihard, [] on assignment for the London Daily Sketch. He was found dead behind the Lyceum building with a gunshot wound to the back. One hundred-sixty US Marshals, one-third of the group, were injured in the melee, and 40 soldiers and National Guardsmen were wounded. [][7] The US government fined Barnett $10,000 and sentenced him to jail for contempt, but the charges were later dismissed by the 5th Circuit Court of Appeals. Meredith's entry is regarded as a pivotal moment in the history of civil rights in the United States. He graduated on August 18, 1963, with a degree in political science. [] Many students harassed Meredith during his two semesters on campus but others accepted him. According to first-person accounts chronicled in Nadine Cohodas's book The Band Played Dixie (1997), students living in Meredith's dorm bounced basketballs on the floor just above his room through all hours of the night. Other students ostracized him: when Meredith walked into the cafeteria for meals, the students eating would turn their backs. If Meredith sat at a table with other students, all of whom were white, the students would immediately get up and go to another table. [citation needed]
  5. 5. James Meredith 3 Education and activism Meredith continued his education, focusing on political science, at the University of Ibadan in Nigeria. [citation needed] He returned to the United States in 1965. He attended law school through a scholarship at Columbia University and earned an LL.B (law degree) in 1968. During this time, Meredith organized and led a civil rights march, the March Against Fear from Memphis, Tennessee to Jackson, Mississippi beginning on June 6, 1966. This was his public effort to encourage blacks to register and vote after passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which promised federal enforcement of rights. He hoped to help blacks overcome fear of violence at the polls. During this march he was shot by Aubrey James Norvell. [8] Jack R. Thornell's post-shooting photograph of Meredith on the ground won the Pulitzer Prize for Photography in 1967. [9][10] Meredith recovered from his wound and rejoined the march before it reached Jackson. During his march, 4,000 black Mississippians registered to vote. [11] Political career In 1967 while living and studying in New York, Meredith decided to run as a Republican against the incumbent Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. in a special election for the Congressional seat in Harlem, but withdrew. Powell was re-elected. [] Meredith said, "The Republican Party [of New York] made me an offer: full support in every way, everything." He had full access to top New York Republicans. [12] After returning to Mississippi to live, in 1972 Meredith ran for the US Senate against the Democratic senator James Eastland, who had been the incumbent for 29 years. [13] Meredith conceded that he had little chance of winning unless Governor George Wallace of Alabama entered the presidential race and split the white vote. [] An active Republican, Meredith served from 1989-1991 as a domestic adviser on the staff of United States Senator Jesse Helms. Faced with criticism from the civil rights community for working for the former avowed segregationist, Meredith said that he had applied to every member of the Senate and House offering his services, and only Helms' office responded. He also wanted a chance to do research at the Library of Congress. [] Statue of James Meredith at the University of Mississippi In 2002, officials marked the 40th anniversary of Meredith's historic admission to the University of Mississippi with a year-long series of events. Of the celebration, Meredith said, "It was an embarrassment for me to be there, and for somebody to celebrate it, oh my God. I want to go down in history, and have a bunch of things named after me, but believe me that ain't it." [] He said he had achieved his main goal at the time by getting the federal government to enforce his rights as a citizen. He saw his actions as "an assault on white supremacy." [] That year he was far more proud that his son Joseph Meredith graduated as the top doctoral student at the university's business school. [] During the anniversary year, Meredith, 69, was the special guest speaker for a seminar at Mississippi State University. Among other topics, Meredith spoke of his experiences at Ole Miss. During a question-and-answer session, a young white male asked Meredith if he had taken part in a formal rush program. Meredith replied, "Doesn't that have something to do with being in a fraternity?" The young man replied "Yes," and Meredith did not respond further. It was enough for the audience to remember that as a 29-year-old veteran, he had to be accompanied by armed military personnel to secure his safety at that time. [citation needed]
  6. 6. James Meredith 4 Political viewpoint Meredith has identified as an individual American citizen who demanded and received the constitutional rights held by any American, not as a participant in the U.S. civil rights movement. There have been tensions between him and representatives of the movement. When interviewed in 2002, the 40th anniversary of his enrollment at University of Mississippi, Meredith said, "Nothing could be more insulting to me than the concept of civil rights. It means perpetual second-class citizenship for me and my kind." [][14] In a 2002 interview with CNN, Meredith said, "I was engaged in a war. I considered myself engaged in a war from Day One. And my objective was to force the federal government—the Kennedy administration at that time—into a position where they would have to use the United States military force to enforce my rights as a citizen." [15] Books • 1966, his memoir Three Years in Mississippi, was published by the Indiana University Press. • He also self-published several books. Marriage and family James Meredith in 2007 Meredith was married to Mary June Wiggins Meredith, now deceased. [citation needed] Meredith had three sons, James, John and Joseph Howard Meredith, and one daughter, Jessica Meredith Knight. John Meredith is the founder of the Meredith Advocacy Group, a Washington, D.C.-based advocacy firm. [16] In 2002, Joseph Meredith graduated from the University of Mississippi as the most outstanding doctoral student in the School of Business Administration. Joseph had previously earned degrees from Harvard University and Millsaps College. James Meredith said of the occasion, "I think there's no better proof that white supremacy was wrong than not only to have my son graduate, but to graduate as the most outstanding graduate of the school...That, I think, vindicates my whole life."[17] Joseph Meredith died in 2008 at age 39 of complications from lupus. At the time of his death, he was an assistant professor of finance at Texas A&M International University. [] He was survived by his wife and a daughter, Jasmine Victoria. [] James Meredith currently lives in Jackson, Mississippi [18] with his second wife, Judy Alsobrook Meredith.
  7. 7. James Meredith 5 References [1][1] Bryant 2006, p. 60. [2][2] Schlesinger 2002, p. 317. [4][4] Schlesinger 2002, p. 318. [6][6] Schlesinger 2002, pp. 319-322. [10] "James Meredith" (http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/special/mlk/king/photogalleries/66-68/02.html), Martin Luther King and the Civil Rights Movement, 1966-1968, photos, Seattle Times, 2008 Further reading • Meredith, James (1966). Three Years in Mississippi. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. This book is readily available in the used book market and libraries. • Meredith, James (1995). Mississippi: A Volume of Eleven Books. Jackson, MS: Meredith Publishing. • Bryant, Nick (Autumn 2006). "Black Man Who Was Crazy Enough to Apply to Ole Miss". The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education (53): 60–71. • Doyle, William (2001). An American Insurrection: The Battle of Oxford, Mississippi, 1962. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-49969-8. • Schlesinger, Jr., Arthur (2002) [1978]. Robert Kennedy and His Times. New York: First Mariner Books. ISBN 0-618-21928-5. This book is readily available. • Stanton, Mary (2003). Freedom Walk: Mississippi or Bust. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 1-57806-505-4. • Hendrickson, Paul (2003). Sons of Mississippi. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-375-40461-9. Contains revealing interviews with Meredith conducted by the author. • Eagles, Charles W. (2009). The Price of Defiance: James Meredith and the Integration of Ole Miss. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-3273-1. • Lyon, Harold C (1974). It's Me & I'm Here! New York: Delacorte • Rogers, Carl R, Lyon, Harold C, Tausch, Reinhard: (2013) On Becoming an Effective Teacher - Person-centered Teaching, Psychology, Philosophy, and Dialogues with Carl R. Rogers and Harold Lyon. London: Routledge ISBN: 978-0-415-81698-4 External links • University of Mississippi biography (http://web.archive.org/*/http://www.olemiss.edu/depts/english/ ms-writers/dir/meredith_james/) (Archive) • James Meredith Collection (MUM00293) can be found at the University of Mississippi, Archives and Special Collections. (http://purl.oclc.org/umarchives/MUM00293/) • James Meredith Small Manuscripts (MUM00594) can be found also at the University of Mississippi. (http://purl. oclc.org/umarchives/MUM00594/) • CNN: "Mississippi and Meredith remember" (http://www.cnn.com/2002/US/South/09/30/meredith/index. html) • Associated Press: "Meredith ready to move on" (http://www.onlineathens.com/stories/092102/ new_20020921041.shtml) • U.S. Marshals Service and the Integration of the University of Mississippi (http://www.usmarshals.gov/ history/miss/index.html) • BBC On this day in History 1 October 1962 (http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/october/1/ newsid_2538000/2538169.stm) • Facsimiles of letters to the Justice Department and Thurgood Marshall from the Kennedy library (http://www. jfklibrary.org/meredith/jm.html)
  8. 8. James Meredith 6 • James Meredith's oral history video excerpts (http://www.visionaryproject.org/meredithjames) at The National Visionary Leadership Project • James Meredith's website (http://www.jamesmeredithbooks.com) • http://www.routledge.com/9780415816984/
  9. 9. Article Sources and Contributors 7 Article Sources and Contributors James Meredith  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=564695127  Contributors: 890il, Absolutadam802, Adjwilley, Ahoerstemeier, Ajraddatz, Alansohn, Alex43223, Alexanderj, Alexdeangelis86, Alexius08, Allspamme, Almogo, Anhydrobiosis, Arguman, Asarelah, Austrian, Avoided, Badgernet, Bazzargh, Bearcat, Bender235, Bento00, Beth Wellington, Billy Hathorn, Binary TSO, Bjohn18x, Blockinblox, Bob frasier, Boleyn2, Brian1978, Brotstain123, BurtAlert, Burzmali, CALR, CJ Aikman, Cadastral, CanadianLinuxUser, Canoe1967, Chicken2455, Ciphers, Clemmy, Cliftonian, Countrymanho, Courcelles, Crossmr, Cyanidethistles, D6, DARTH SIDIOUS 2, Dale Arnett, DangApricot, Darguz Parsilvan, Darwinek, DasallmächtigeJ, Davepape, DavidHitt, Db099221, Deb, Dgw, Discospinster, DisillusionedBitterAndKnackered, Dodgerblue777, Dozen buns, Dwarriorgangsta, Dybdal, EJF, Ebe123, Ed Poor, Edgar181, Enviroboy, Epbr123, Escape Orbit, Everyking, Fadesga, FlyingToaster, Fmguastaferro, Fourthords, Fredbauder, Fullstop, GeoGreg, GeofFMorris, GeorgeLouis, Gfoley4, GoRight, GoingBatty, Good Olfactory, GregorB, Grogers363, Halclyon, HamburgerRadio, Hmains, Hoponpop69, Hullaballoo Wolfowitz, Hut 8.5, Ioannes Pragensis, Iridescent, Ixfd64, JDnCoke, Jackfork, JamesChambers666, Jamespearce10, Jareha, Jclemens, Jebba, Jengod, JephthahsDaughter, Jfurr1981, Jmabel, Joefromrandb, John Nevard, Johnpacklambert, Jojhutton, Jon Cates, Jonathan.s.kt, Jpcarver, Jules1236, Jusdafax, KCinDC, KIAaze, Kane5187, Katieh5584, Keegan, Keikoreo, Kernel Saunters, Kierzek, Kingpin13, Kitten b, Koavf, Kukini, Kungming2, Kwiki, LAX, LOL, Lapisphil, Lapsed Pacifist, LedgendGamer, Leigh, Lerdthenerd, Leutha, Lunchboxhero, Mac, Math Champion, Mav, Maximus Rex, Maxis ftw, Maxkon, Mchanges!, Mennonot, Meno25, Michael Bednarek, Michael Hardy, Miller17CU94, Minesweeper, Moncrief, Monegasque, Moshe Constantine Hassan Al-Silverburg, MrFish, Muddbrixx, Muhandes, N419BH, Nakon, Nathanm mn, Neutrality, NewEnglandYankee, Night Gyr, Nilfanion, Nocheenlatierra, Noneforall, Normanzhang, OddibeKerfeld, Old Right, Ommnomnomgulp, Oxymoron83, PDH, Pacificus, Parkwells, Paul A, Paulleake, Peruvianllama, Peter Karlsen, Petrb, Phantomsteve, Philhayford, Pigman, Postcard Cathy, PrestonH, Propaniac, Pursey, Quaere, QuizzicalBee, R&Blover1996, RWReagan, Radon210, Ramorum, Randy Kryn, Rdblakel, RedJ 17, Reedy, Remy B, Res2216firestar, Rich Farmbrough, Rivertorch, Rlquall, Rm w a vu, Robfergusonjr, Robin Chen, Robth, RoyBoy, Ryansca, Sam gheiace, Samir, Schneelocke, SchreiberBike, Schutz, SeanLegassick, Seaphoto, Seb az86556, Selket, Shirulashem, Sjzukrow, Slazenger, Snowolf, Sonnnakotoittenaidesuyo, Spiesr, Spongefrog, StAnselm, StevenWT, SusanLK, TallNapoleon, Tbhotch, Tbjablin, Tbone55, Terence7, Tetraedycal, The Wordsmith, TheAlsobrooks, Tide rolls, Timberframe, Tippiegh, Todowd, Tommy2010, Tooanthonese, Traxs7, Treybien, Trödel, Tuckerresearch, Twang, Twitterpated., Twxo4, Ugur Basak, Ukexpat, Unfinishedportrait, Useight, Versus22, WODUP, WhisperToMe, Wikignome0530, WilliamJE, Wingman4l7, Wmwhite88, Wolfrock, Wuzur, Xedaf, Xionbox, Zen 38, Zidonuke, 471 anonymous edits Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors File:James_Meredith.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:James_Meredith.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Marion S. Trikosko, U.S. News & World Report File:James Meredith sculpture OleMiss.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:James_Meredith_sculpture_OleMiss.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: User:Allspamme File:James Meredith Portrait.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:James_Meredith_Portrait.png  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: Darrell Blakely, Darrell.Blakely@gmail.com License Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported //creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/

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