RBG Blakademics                                                                            January, 2011                  ...
RBG Blakademics                                              January, 2011before Southern Blacks en masse began to escape ...
RBG Blakademics                                              January, 2011For African people in the U.S., the end goal of ...
RBG Blakademics                                              January, 2011Dr. Nobles also believes that since our behavior...
RBG Blakademics                                              January, 2011traditions, customs, and practices. We American ...
RBG Blakademics                                              January, 2011The American institution of psychological slaver...
RBG Blakademics                                                    January, 2011Reversing the Psychological Effects of Sla...
RBG Blakademics                                                    January, 2011Sovereignty is Our Goal"Our next assignmen...
RBG Blakademics                                                  January, 2011Stage III End Point: 21st Century Maroon Fre...
RBG Blakademics                                                 January, 2011GlossaryBelief Systems Analysis - Approach to...
RBG Blakademics                                                 January, 2011Europeans and Arabs and then transported to t...
RBG Blakademics                                                 January, 2011crossroads. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press.F...
RBG Blakademics                                                 January, 2011personality. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Win...
RBG Blakademics                                              January, 2011     RBG BLAKADEMICS LIBRARY     RBG Blakademics...
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Dwt: A Tool for Breaking the Chains of Psychological Slavery By Uhuru Hotep

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Dwt: A Tool for Breaking the Chains of Psychological Slavery By Uhuru Hotep

  1. 1. RBG Blakademics January, 2011 (An Introduction to the 4th Principle of the Johari Sita) Dwt: A Tool for Breaking the Chains of Psychological Slavery By Uhuru HotepHypertext Contents(First Movement) Background ................................................................................................ 1Foreground ............................................................................................................................... 2Futureground ........................................................................................................................... 4(Second Movement) Introduction............................................................................................ 7Sovereignty is Our Goal .......................................................................................................... 8Conclusion ............................................................................................................................... 9Glossary.................................................................................................................................. 10References.............................................................................................................................. 11(First Movement) Background"Having a fool is one of the basic ingredients of and incidents to the making of the slavery system." -Willie LynchThe European American ruling elite and their agents, from George Washington andThomas Jefferson to Bill Clinton and George W. Bush, have clearly understood thattheir preeminent status, class dominance, and economic superiority are contingentupon carefully managing the thinking processes and cleverly exploiting the labor ofthe African American people. During the time of Washington and Jefferson - two ofAmericas most notorious slave owners - most Africans in the 13 British NorthAmerican colonies (which later became the United States) were in bondage, bothphysically and psychologically. Consequently, it was easy for Europeans to controlthe thinking and steal the labor of Africans.It took a Civil War (1861-5) and Abraham Lincolns Emancipation Proclamation (1863)to initiate a legal process, which culminated in the passage of the 13th Amendment tothe U.S. constitution in 1865, to move this nation toward ending the physicalenslavement of African people. And, it took an additional 35 years, or until 1900,Dwt: A Tool for Breaking the Chains of Psychological Slavery/Uhuru Hotep Page 1
  2. 2. RBG Blakademics January, 2011before Southern Blacks en masse began to escape from the physical slavery of theshare cropping system. Only by migrating North into Americas urban industrialcenters were the Black masses able to bring an end to 300-years of physicalenslavement.Because it is a deeply entrenched, intergenerational, mental disorder afflicting thevast majority of our people, the effort to liberate ourselves from psychologicalenslavement has been no easy matter. Unlike the physical slavery we left behind inthe South, we brought our mental slavery North with us. Psychologist Naim Akbar(1989), the worlds foremost authority on Black psychological slavery, discovered thatthe European American system of slave making perfected in this country over thepast 350 years cleverly weaves psychological conditioning and limited education withoutright terrorism and premeditated violence to create a dense tapestry of Africandependence on and service to those who oppress them. Willie Lynch, a mysterious18th century Caribbean planter considered to be a master handler of slaves, bestsums up the American approach to slave making.According to the story, Willie Lynch was invited to the U.S. by a group of wealthyVirginia and Carolina plantation owners in 1712 to teach them the "art" of slavemaking. Lynch taught the Americans that the long-range goal of Black enslavement isto "create a dependency state so that we may be able to get from them usefulproduction for our business and pleasure." Using six "cardinal principles" perfected onhis plantation, Lynch found that he could "break the will to resist" of his slaves byusing techniques he created for domesticating his wild horses which rendered themboth - man and beast - submissive and dependent, ready to serve his every need(Akoto & Akoto: 278).To create self-perpetuating, lifelong, dependent Black slaves, Lynch advocated usingan "instruction of containment" to disconnect them from their "original historical base"along with organizing their family structure by dictating male - female relations andchild rearing practices (Akoto & Akoto: 278, 280). While the historical authenticity ofWillie Lynch may be suspect, can we doubt his historical accuracy when it comes torevealing what has been the true nature of Black-White relations in this nation thesepast 200 years?Foreground"Cast aside illusion, prepare to struggle." -Mao ZedongIt is 200 years later, but the game hasnt changed, only the playing field. The Whiteruling elite created public education system - even when managed and staffed byBlacks - knowingly provides African communities with an "instruction of containment"designed to keep us disconnected from our "original historical base" and powerless.And, this same White ruling elite through their powerful media and social institutionsstill shapes our family structure to suit their economic needs by dictating Black male -Black female relations. Two hundred years later and we are still in a "dependencystate" exploited for the "business and pleasure" of others just as Willie Lynchinstructed.Dwt: A Tool for Breaking the Chains of Psychological Slavery/Uhuru Hotep Page 2
  3. 3. RBG Blakademics January, 2011For African people in the U.S., the end goal of our 21st century psychological slaveryis the same today as it was in 1619 when the first 19 Africans arrived at Jamestown,Virginia. The European American hegemony seeks to exploit African labor andresources for European American enrichment. It is just that simple. Over the past 350years, the White American ruling elite, perhaps best symbolized by Willie Lynch, hasperfected a system of Black psychological enslavement based on elementary mindcontrol techniques.* For example, during most of the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries, itwas a capital offense for enslaved African Americans to learn to read or write in anylanguage. Consequently, during most of their history in this country, Africans wereilliterate; what they knew about the world was restricted, in the main, to only whattheir White masters wanted them to know.Following the Civil War, dozens of European American missionaries, mostly womenand primarily from Massachusetts and Pennsylvania, traveled South to serve as thefirst teachers of the recently freed Africans. They brought with them, as Booker T.Washington (1900) noted, materials, curricula and pedagogy best suited for genteelBostonians and urbane Philadelphians, and thus devoid of any practical knowledge orskills suited for improving Black southern rural life.By 1933, the European control, or better said, "containment," of African Americaneducation had produced such havoc that it prompted Harvard-trained historian CarterG. Woodson to publish The Mis-Education of the Negro, a stunning expose of theself-alienating effects of American educational practice in the African Americancommunity. For the past 100 years, the American system of public (mis)educationhas effectively trained millions of African people to play roles supportive of thepolitical and economic institutions controlled by their oppressors insuringintergenerational White domination and intergenerational Black subordination. TheCivil Rights Era spawned the Black Consciousness Movement of the 1960s and 70s,impregnated by the Pan African nationalist spirit of Marcus Garvey, Queen MotherMoore, Eljiah Muhammad, Malcolm X, and Kwame Ture among others plantedAfrocentric seeds that took root, grew and blossomed in the 1980s and 90s.Today, what has changed is not the game or the playing field, it is our understandingof game (war) theory and game (war) strategy. For example, psychologist WadeNobles (1986) coined the metaphorical term conceptual incarceration to help usbetter understand a key aspect of the psychological slavery that shackles Africanpeople. Conceptual incarceration results from our unwitting adoption of erroneousconcepts, ideas, views, opinions and theories about ourselves as African people,about Europeans, and about the world. It is Nobles contention that the debilitatinganti-Black, anti-African attitudes in the belief systems of virtually all Black peopleregardless of class, education, or religious orientation are largely to blame for theunderdeveloped state of African communities in the U.S. and abroad.Dwt: A Tool for Breaking the Chains of Psychological Slavery/Uhuru Hotep Page 3
  4. 4. RBG Blakademics January, 2011Dr. Nobles also believes that since our behavior is influenced by what we think aboutourselves and the world, large numbers of African people are imprisoned by falsebeliefs about themselves and the world which generates behaviors that keep usamong the poor in every nation. We all, in varying degrees as Black people socializedunder White supremacy, have internalized a set of beliefs that compel us to serve theneeds of our oppressors while blatantly neglecting our own group development.These are the "invisible chains" that bind us.Futureground"Free your mind, and your ass will follow." -George ClintonOne tool for breaking the chains of psychological slavery and freeing African peoplefrom the shackles of conceptual incarceration is a process I call Dwt (Dwat) after theKemetic (ancient Egyptian) word that signifies the daily transformations wrought bythe rising and the setting of the sun. Dwt is the fourth principle of the Johari Sita andthus a scientific method for removing the psychological chains of mental bondage.Rooted in Erriel Addaes (1996) notion of nyansa nnsa da or "thought withoutboundaries," at its most elementary levels, Dwt equips us to experience then activelypromote what Thomas Kuhn (1970) called a paradigm shift - in our case, fromEuropean centered too African centered world views. At its highest level, Dwtpromotes harmonizing the human will with the Universal Will, a process the Kemitescalled Maat.Dwt emancipates African people from the dungeon of false beliefs about ourselves,others and the world because it provides us with a new set of historically accuratefacts, concepts, theories, and perspectives about ourselves, about others, and aboutthe world based on our African cultural and intellectual heritage. African centeredscholars, like Maulana Karenga, Molefi Asante, Linda Myers, Wade Nobles, NaimAkbar, Marimba Ani, Amos Wilson, Kwame Akoto, Jacob Carruthers, Asa Hilliard anda host of others, are developing a lexicon to free us from conceptual incarceration -not only by replacing our false, limited concepts and ideas with correct ones, but alsoby expanding and re-centering our analyses, definitions, and understanding ofourselves and the world.In addition, our African centered scholars have discovered that much of what ispassed off in our schools, in our churches, in our civic organizations, and by themedia as universal truths are nothing more than select European theories, practices,preferences, and customs wrapped around a core of Jewish mythology and folklore.Today, our psychological slavery in large measure is self-imposed; we have allowedothers to imprison us in their ethnic or cultural groups concepts and beliefs. In short,we have been contained by our infatuation with Europes knowledge; therefore, wehave scant knowledge of our own.Dwt, for African people, is a journey of rediscovery and reconnection inspired by whatthe Akan people of Ghana, Togo, and Cote dIvoire call sankofa. Sankofa posits thatthe wisdom is reaching back and reconnecting with the best of ones ancestralDwt: A Tool for Breaking the Chains of Psychological Slavery/Uhuru Hotep Page 4
  5. 5. RBG Blakademics January, 2011traditions, customs, and practices. We American Africans are blessed because weare perhaps the only large group in the U.S. with a tricultural heritage. We have threecultural traditions we can mine for "gold": African, European, and Native American. Asrecipients of European centered education, most African Americans have anabundance of operational concepts from our European "gold mine."But that is not enough; we cannot empower ourselves, our people, or Abibiman (TheBlack Nation) merely by adopting the world views, belief systems, and life styles ofEuropean Americans. Our salvation will not come from imitating others, but only frombeing our authentic, African selves. That is why we sankofa, which means that we: (1)extract the "gold" from our African and Native American heritages (two longneglected, untapped sources of potent operational concepts) and (2) assess ourEuropean cultural borrowings through the lenses of African and Native Americanphilosophy and tradition. In cases where there are conflicting world views, wegravitate toward the traditional wisdom of Africa. Mwalimu Shujaa (1996) sees thisprocess of African cultural "gold mining" and European cultural sifting as aspects ofre-Africanization.Dwt, because it vigorously promotes re-Africanization, breaks African people out ofconceptual incarceration by shifting what psychologist Julian Rotter (1966) calls ourlocus of control from external sources to internal sources. It is Dr. Rotters belief thatindividuals (and my belief that entire communities) have either an internal or externallocus or center of control.People and communities that have internal centers of control believe that throughtheir own persistent effort, they can rearrange or change their life conditions withoutoutside approval or assistance. Because they believe deeply that they are the"captains of their fate" and the "masters of their destiny," they feel empowered,optimistic, creative, productive, energetic, and positive. Because of this deep faith inthemselves, their people, and hard work, they are willing to take calculated risks tofulfill their dreams. Such people are successful and such communities areautonomous, wholesome places to live and raise children.On the other hand, people and communities that have an external center of controlbelieve at their core that they cannot arrange their lives and construct their futureswithout the active approval of and assistance and guidance from external humanagencies. Those with an external locus of control look for powerful others to think,legitimize and provide for them. They are victims of a psychology of dependenceoften to the extent that they are willing to place their lives and the lives of theirchildren in the hands of others who they believe will treat them fairly. Because theybelieve that others are better equipped to make decisions about their fate than theythemselves, they are considered child-like and foolish, worthy of exploitation andabuse by their oppressors. Such people and communities languish in a "dependencystate," depressed, demoralized, and disenfranchised.Dwt: A Tool for Breaking the Chains of Psychological Slavery/Uhuru Hotep Page 5
  6. 6. RBG Blakademics January, 2011The American institution of psychological slavery is predicated on African peoplemaintaining an external locus of control. Through a variety of tactics and strategies,like those advocated by Willie Lynch, slave masters shifted the self-perception (locusof control) of most captured Africans from that of "prisoners of war," which is aninternal focus to "accommodating slaves," an external focus. As Akoto and Akoto(2000) pointed out, there are vast differences in how these two groups see the world.Though both are "constrained by the dominant order," the prisoner of war or P.O.W."steadfastly refuse to accept the legitimacy or permanence of his/her condition."She/He constantly seeks opportunities to escape from, sabotage, or destroy her/hiscaptors.Even in the face of unspeakable horror and brutality, the P.O.W. maintains her/hisinternal locus of control, which Akoto and Akoto believe to be "an unbreachablepsycho-emotional fortress anchored in the unknowable depths and expanse of thespirit." Once they escaped from slavery, British and American slave owners calledAfrican P.O.W.s, Maroons, a term which comes from the Spanish word cimarrones,meaning "wild ones."Stripped of the "spirit" of resistance inherent in knowing ones ethnic group history,culture and traditions, the slave, on the other hand, accepts "the current order aspermanent and seeks only to modulate the personal discomfort associated with thatorder." Forsaking all thought of rescue and seeing small chance for permanentescape, over time, vast numbers of African P.O.W.s came to see their Europeancaptors as first their masters, and then their superiors and benefactors therebycompleting their conversion to "accommodating slaves." In exchange for pettycreature comforts, favorite status, or merely, like house slaves, close physicalproximity to their beloved masters, slaves, by definition, are content to center theirlocus of control only on those external "rewards" provided by their masters.Dwt teaches that the maintenance and perpetuation of African psychologicalenslavement and its chief expression, conceptual incarceration, pivot on Africanpeople maintaining an external locus of control. As long as we turn away from Africaand our ancestral wisdom and embrace as solutions to our life problems the views ofEuropeans, Arabs, Asians, Jews and others from outside of our traditional Africancultural centers, we will remain the servants of Europeans, Arabs, Asians, and Jews,in both thought and deed.Because of its emphasis upon re-Africanization, Dwt ends our "dependency state,"liberating us from psychological slavery and conceptual incarceration by re-centeringus in traditional African knowledge bases. This re-centering returns us to Maroonstatus, permanently shifting our locus of control from external or European-basedconcepts and definitions to internal or African and Native American-based conceptsand definitions. For African people, Dwt may be our most effective strategy forcombating European mind control and defeating its attendant, psychological slavery.Dwt: A Tool for Breaking the Chains of Psychological Slavery/Uhuru Hotep Page 6
  7. 7. RBG Blakademics January, 2011Reversing the Psychological Effects of Slavery inthe African American Community: A Meditation(Second Movement) Introduction"The limits of tyrants are prescribed by those whom they oppress." -Frederick DouglassAfrican Americans are the only group of American immigrants whose ancestors cameto these shores involuntarily. As prisoners of war (POWs), Africans were captured orkidnapped then brought to the Americas where the slave making process wascompleted. If they survived the five to six week trans-Atlantic voyage of horrors knownas the "middle passage," African POWs were then trained for a life of obedient,faithful service to their European captors.Usually initiated in the West Indies and commonly called "seasoning," the first two-to-three years of life under White slavery for what the Europeans called a "raw negro"was devoted largely to forced labor and rudimentary language instruction. It wasduring this period that POWs were made to work 16 or more hours per day and learnfrom "seasoned" slaves the rudiments of their captors language (Franklin & Moss,1994; Parish, 1989; Jordan, 1968; Haley, 1976). Despite frequent revolts and theconstant Maroon presence, slowly over the course of time, the vast majority of AfricanPOWs were either murdered or converted into slaves (Aptheker,1968; Price, 1979;Franklin & Schweninger, 1999).Slave owners used a myriad of tactics and strategies, from physical violence,terrorism and brutality to family destruction, forced miscegenation and mis-education,to transform Africans and their descendants into slaves (Blassingame, 1979; VanDeburg,1979; Oakes, 1983; White, 1985; Akbar, 1989; Spring, 1997). As evidencedby our complete political and economic dependency on European Americans andtheir institutions, we are still enslaved, psychologically and emotionally, to the childrenof our former masters (Muhammad, 1965; Wright, 1984; Akbar, 1989; Baldwin, 1992;Wilson, 1993). Slavery in the U.S. may have ended in 1863, but the African Americanpeople are still reeling from the after shocks of a 350-year holocaust ofdehumanization, disenfranchisement, and dependency known today as the Maafa(Ani, 1994; Borishade, 1996; Farrakhan, 1993; Akbar, 1989).Dwt: A Tool for Breaking the Chains of Psychological Slavery/Uhuru Hotep Page 7
  8. 8. RBG Blakademics January, 2011Sovereignty is Our Goal"Our next assignment in history is nation manage-ment and nation structure." -John Henrik ClarkeTo rescue African Americans from intergenerational dependency on EuropeanAmericans and their institutions - which is the psychological aftermath of 300 years ofslavery - requires that we invert the seasoning process. Africans in large numbers firstcame to these shores as POWs and then they were systematically terrorized,methodically brutalized, deliberately mis-educated - in a word, "seasoned" - intoaccepting first slave status and now second class citizenship. But, before they werePOWs, Africans were free and sovereign people. And that is where we must return;national sovereignty is our one and only destination.To get back home will require that we travel a well-defined path leading to a numberof critical junctions. These junctions are important milestones that signal that we areindeed making progress and headed in the right direction. Reaching our destination ofmental liberation requires travel in reverse order starting from our present-day statusas quasi-educated, pseudo-citizens. We move next to the point of establishing aPOW mind set and world view, which slowly awakens our Maroon consciousness, theconsciousness of autonomous nationhood.As stated earlier, this journey of return to our source I call Dwt after the Kemetic wordfor the daily transformations occasioned by the rising and setting of the sun. Dwt, inessence, is a journey of rediscovery and reconnection that leads African Americanstoward freedom and wholeness through three distinct stages of self-awareness andself-recognition.Stage I Start Point: Well-Seasoned, Mis-Educated Quasi-Citizen.The intergenerational Black dependency state (Lynch, 1712) demands an instructionof containment (Lynch, 1712) to produce an external locus of control (Rotter, 1966)and exclusive eurocentric world views and frames of reference (Woodson, 1933),which confines African Americans to conceptual incarceration (Nobles, 1986), andthus psychological enslavement by our assimilationist-integrationist fantasies andyearnings (Akbar, 1989).Stage II Mid-Point: ReAfricanized Black POWer Practitioner.As a result of constant sankofa practice, which incorporates a process psychologistLinda Myers (1988) calls Belief Systems Analysis, a system educator MwalimuShujaa (1996) calls the D-R-C method, and a perspective philosopher Erriel Addae(1996) calls nyansa nnsa da, the African American escapes from conceptualincarceration, internalizes his/her locus of control, and negates the "instruction ofcontainment" inherent in European centered world views. The impetus to break thebonds of dependency is heightened with knowledge of the American tradition andlegacy (1619-present) of White domination and oppression and the American traditionand legacy of Black resistance and triumph.Dwt: A Tool for Breaking the Chains of Psychological Slavery/Uhuru Hotep Page 8
  9. 9. RBG Blakademics January, 2011Stage III End Point: 21st Century Maroon Freedom Fighter.Self-emancipated from all forms of psychological slavery, centered in the best oftraditional African philosophical belief systems and world views, empowered by anindigenous African religion and speaking at least one African language, the 21stcentury Maroon actively works for African American national sovereignty throughservice in Pan African nationalist organizations. Committed to restoring Maat (truth,justice, order, harmony, and balance) and terminating the maafa, Maroons areservant leaders in the tradition of Harriet Tubman, David Walker, Ida B. Wells, MarcusGarvey, Mary McLeod Bethune, Elijah Muhammad, Martin Luther King, Malcolm X,Fannie Lou Hamer, and Kwame Ture. Active in their families and communities as wellas the larger African World, they joyfully embrace the role of scholar-warrior-family-nation builder as their lifes mission and work (Akoto & Akoto, 2000; Williams, 1974).Conclusion"We aint what we want to be, and we aint what we gonna be, but thank God we aint what we was." -African American ProverbCompleting the journey from psychological enslavement/dependency, or Stage I,back to Stage III - group autonomy, world leadership and planetary restoration - is thecosmic assignment, divine mission, and thus supreme life challenge facing theAfrican American people. This is the great task that our history and this centuryplaces before us. Taking it on requires unprecedented clarity, courage, andcommitment.We begin, however, with the clear understanding that millions of African Americansare stuck permanently at Stage I. As well-seasoned, half-educated, quasi-citizenswillingly deceived by illusions of inclusion, they are content to live out their lives asfaithful servants to the European hegemony; they see no compelling reason to dootherwise. Only the complete collapse of the European world order would shake themout of their lethargic, myopic dependency of thought and deed.And those few who re-Africanize and reach Stage II are extremely susceptible to co-optation, content with the fact that they have a little knowledge, but not enough tobuild on what they have learned or to pass it on. Just as in the days of our GreatEnslavement, many are called, but few are chosen. Only the boldest, the baddest,and the bravest dared to reach out for the freedom and the responsibility that Maroonlife guaranteed.Perhaps one out of a hundred who re-Africanizes and self-emancipates will reachStage III. But, that is all we need to win. Victory is ours when 21st century Maroonfreedom fighters form trans-national family-based alliances to harness the politicaland economic power inherent in our historical vision of total African emancipation.Dwt: A Tool for Breaking the Chains of Psychological Slavery/Uhuru Hotep Page 9
  10. 10. RBG Blakademics January, 2011GlossaryBelief Systems Analysis - Approach to transpersonal psychotherapy rooted in Africanphilosophical principles and designed to move African people toward self-empowerment andwholeness (Myers, 1988).Conceptual Incarceration - State of being bound and limited in both thought and action byour self-imposed containment in European centered paradigms (Nobles, 1986).Dependency State - Psycho-emotional state of child-like reliance upon and subservience toWhite authority figures inculcated into Negro slaves by their masters (Lynch, 1712).D-R-C Method - Liberatory reasoning that posits thatt Africans must first deconstruct theformal canons of western thought (democracy, Christianity, capitalism, rationality, progress,etc.), reconstruct those Western concepts that are potentially transformative, and thenconstruct new concepts based on our African traditions (Shujaa, 1996).Dwt - Kemetic (ancient Egyptian) term for dusk and dawn, which is the period between therising and setting of the sun thought to usher in changes of consciousness (Nobles, 1990).Instruction of Containment - Type of pedagogy and curriculum designed to educateAfricans for European servitude. Involves both mis-education and diseducation (Lynch, 1712;Woodson, 1933; Carruthers, 1996).Locus of Control - Seat of our sense of power, legitimacy and authority. Rotter posits thatpeople have either an external or internal center of control (Rotter, 1966).Maafa - Swahili word for "disaster" first used by Marimba Ani to mean the past 500 years ofEuropean and Arab conquest, domination and exploitation of African people (Ani, 1984).Maat - Kemetic word for truth, justice, order, balance, harmony, reciprocity and proprietyknown to the ancient Chinese as the Tao. Also a moral code and standard of conduct forevaluating leadership and society (Karenga, 1988; Ashby, 1996; Hotep, 2000).Maroon - European (English) slave owner term for self-emancipated Africans, 1500-1863(Price, 1967).Nyansa nnsa da - African centered liberatory orientation advanced by Kofi Addae (E.Roberson) that posits that African liberation turns on developing the capacity to think outsideof and independent from the prevailing Eurocentric norm. A Twi phrase meaning "unlimitedthought;" or "thought without boundaries" (Addae, 1996).Paradigm Shift - Ability to adopt another world view, which allows us to see the world fromanother angle or perspective (Kuhn, 1970).POWs - Prisoners of War. The status of the captured Africans stolen out of Africa by WesternDwt: A Tool for Breaking the Chains of Psychological Slavery/Uhuru Hotep Page 10
  11. 11. RBG Blakademics January, 2011Europeans and Arabs and then transported to the Americas, Europe, or Asia (Akoto & Akoto,2000).Psychological Slavery - Incarceration in European belief and value systems that promoteAfrican allegiance and subservience to European political and economics needs (Akbar,1984).Re-Africanization - Pan-African nationalist approach to African development rooted incultural and intellectual traditions and practices found in both classical African societies(Akan, Kemet, Nubia, Zulu, Yoruba etc.) and the present-day African World Community(Shujaa, 1996; Akoto & Akoto, 2000).Sankofa - Traditional Akan epistemological concept which posits that wisdom is learning fromour past to build for our future.ReferencesAddae, E. (1996). Nyansa nnsa da: Killing the enemy within. In To heal a people: Afrikanscholars defining a new reality. Columbia, MD: Kujichagulia Press.Adero, M. (1993). Up south: Stories, studies, and letters of this centurys African-Americanmigrations. New York: The New Press.Akbar, N. (1989). Chains and images of psychological slavery. Jersey City, NJ: New MindProductions.Akoto, K. & Akoto, A. (2000). The sankofa movement: ReAfrikanization and the reality of war.Washington, DC: Oyoko Infocom.Anderson, J. (1988). The education of Blacks in the south, 1860-1935. Chapel Hill, NC: TheUniversity of North Carolina Press.Ani, M. (1994). Yurugu: An afrocentric critique of European cultural thought and behavior.Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press.Apetheker, H. (1968). Slave guerilla warfare. In To be free.- Studies in American Negrohistory. New York: International Publishers.Blassingame, J. (1979). The slave community: Plantation life in the antebellum south. NewYork: Oxford University Press.Borishade, A. (1996). Re-aligning African heads: Yoruba curatives for maafa-related ailments.Jacksonville, FL: Sankofa Productions.Clarke, J. (1991). Image and mind control in the African World: Its impact on African people athome and abroad. In Clarke, J. Notes from an African world revolution: Africans at theDwt: A Tool for Breaking the Chains of Psychological Slavery/Uhuru Hotep Page 11
  12. 12. RBG Blakademics January, 2011crossroads. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press.Farrakhan, L. (1993). A torch light for America. Chicago: FCN.Franklin, J. & Moss, A. (1994). From slavery to freedom.- A history of African-Americans.New York: McGraw-Hill.Franklin, J. & Schweninger, L. (1999). Runaway slaves: Rebels on the plantation. New York:Oxford University Press.Haley, A. (1976). Roots: The saga of an American family. New York: Dell Publishing.Hill, P. (1848). Fifty days on board a slave ship. Baltimore, MD: Black Classic Press. [Reprint1993].Jordan, W. (1968). White over Black: American attitudes toward the Negro, 1550-1812. NewYork: Penguin Books.Kambon (Baldwin), K. (1992). The African personality in America: An African-centeredframework. Tallahassee, FL: Nubian Nation Publications.Katz, W. (1986). Black Indians: A hidden heritage. New York: Atheneum Books.Lynch, W. (2000). Lets make a slave: The origin and development of a social being calledThe Negro. In Akoto, K. & Akoto, A. The sankofa movement. Washington, DC: OyokoInfocom.Mellon, M. (1969). Early American views on Negro slavery: From the letters and papers of thefounders of the republic. New York: Mentor Books.Muhammad, E. (1965). Message to the Black man in America. Chicago: MMI.Myers, L. (1988). Understanding an Afrocentric view: Introduction to optimal psychology.Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing.Nobles, W. (1986). African psychology: Toward its reclamation, reascension, & revitalization.Oakland, CA: The Institute for the Advanced Study of Black Family Life and Culture.Nobles, W. (1990). The infusion of African and African American content: A question ofcontent and intent. In Hilliard, A., Payton-Stewart, L., & Williams, L.(Eds), Infusion of Africanand, African American content in the school curriculum. Chicago: Third World Press.Oakes, J. (1983). The ruling race: A history of American slave holders. New York: VintageBooks.Parish, P. (1989). Slavery: History and historians. New York: Harper & Row.Price, R. (Ed.), (1979). Maroon societies: Rebel slave communities in the Americas.Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Rotter, J. (1966). Generalized expectations for internal versus external control ofreinforcement. Reprinted in J. Rotter et al. Applications of a social learning theory ofDwt: A Tool for Breaking the Chains of Psychological Slavery/Uhuru Hotep Page 12
  13. 13. RBG Blakademics January, 2011personality. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Shenkman, R. (1988). Legends, lies, & cherished myths of American history. New York:Harper Perennial.Shujaa, M. (1996). Coming home again: Re-Africanization as personal transformation. InAddae, E. (Ed.), To heal a people: Afrikan scholars defining a new reality. Columbia, MD:Kujichagulia Press.Spring, J. (1997). Deculturalization and the struggle for equality: A brief history of theeducation of dominated cultures in the United States. New York: McGraw-Hill.Van Deburg, W. (1979). The slave drivers: Black agricultural labor supervisors in theantebellum south. New York: Oxford University Press.Wase, G. (1998). Maat: The American African path of sankofa. Denver, CO: Mbadu Pub.Washington, B. (1900). Up from slavery: An autobiography. Chicago: Lushena Classics[Reprint 2000].White, D. (1985). Arnt I a woman?: Female slaves in the plantation south. New York: W.W.Norton.Williams, C. (1974). The destruction of Black civilization. Chicago: Third World Press.Wilson, A. (1993). The falsification of Afrikan consciousness: Eurocentric history, psychiatryand the politics of White supremacy. New York: AWIS.Woodson, C. (1933). The mis-education of the Negro. Washington: Associated Publishers.Wright, B. (1984). The psychopathic racial personality and other essays. Chicago: ThirdWorld Press.Copyright © 2002 Kwame Ture Youth Leadership Institute* See Robert Muhammads article, "Mind Wars: Attack of the Songs!" Final Call (June 11,2002), for an insightful analysis of the use of behavior modification - or mind control -techniques in hip hhop music.Uhuru Hotep is the creator of the Johari Sita: The Six Jewels of African Centered Leadershipand the co-founder of the Kwame Ture Youth Leadership Institute. He currently serves as theassociate director of the Spiritan Division of Academic Programs and the Michael P. WeberLearning Skills Center at Duquesne University. He can be reached at hotep@duq.eduDwt: A Tool for Breaking the Chains of Psychological Slavery/Uhuru Hotep Page 13
  14. 14. RBG Blakademics January, 2011 RBG BLAKADEMICS LIBRARY RBG Blakademics is the academic arm of RBG Street Scholars Think Tank, a Web 2.0 in Education Demonstration. This Educational Program and Research Project is Dedicated to Further Building the Hip Hop--Black Liberation Movement Connection by Combining Conscious Digital Edutainment with A Scholarly Self Directed Learning Environment. Designed, developed and curated by Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D. / bna RBG Street Scholar  Last updated:01 / 15 / 2011  Documents:282 1. RBG Africology 101 Curriculum Guidebook 2. RBG COMMUNIVERSITY OVERALL GOALS 3. RBG Street Scholars Think Tank Curricula Overview Booklet-2010 UPDATE/ Including mp3 Intros. 4. Video Basics, Herbert Zettl 5. Technology for Communicating Information See all 282 documentsDwt: A Tool for Breaking the Chains of Psychological Slavery/Uhuru Hotep Page 14

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