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  2. 2. <ul><li>By the end of the session learner will be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Define Hypertension. </li></ul><ul><li>List the types of hypertension. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the pre disposing factors of high blood pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>Explore the symptoms of high blood pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe complications of high blood pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the golden rules to avoid high blood Pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize management of high blood pressure. </li></ul>06/07/09
  3. 3. <ul><li>Blood Pressure (BP) </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure of the blood against the walls of the blood vessels is known as blood Pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>HYPERTENSION: </li></ul><ul><li>Persistent level of blood pressure in which systolic pressure is greater than or equal to 135mmHg and diastolic blood pressure is greater than or equal to 85mmHg. </li></ul>06/07/09
  4. 4. Cont. <ul><li>Elevated blood pressure readings may not always mean that you have high blood pressure. For some people, just being in a medical setting causes their blood pressure to rise. This is called White – coat Hypertension </li></ul><ul><li>Millions of people whose blood pressure was previously considered borderline high (130–139/85–89 mm Hg) or normal (120/80) now fall into the &quot; pre hypertension &quot; ranges. * </li></ul>06/07/09 m
  5. 5. <ul><li>Major cause of heart failure known as silent killer because of person may symptoms free. </li></ul><ul><li>20% adult population develop hypertension for which 90% are essential (primary) </li></ul><ul><li>hypertension began 30s or 50s. </li></ul><ul><li>remaining 10% has a secondary causes such as vascular disorders, drugs ,tumors & pregnancy </li></ul>06/07/09
  6. 6. <ul><li>Family history of high blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Cigarette smoking </li></ul><ul><li>Obesity </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional Stress </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive salt intake </li></ul><ul><li>High cholesterol diet. </li></ul>06/07/09
  7. 7. 06/07/09
  8. 8. 06/07/09 Classification Blood Pressure NORMAL < or equal to 120mmhg < or equal to 80mmhg PRE HYPERTENSION 120 – 139mmhg 80 - 89 mmhg STAGE 1 HYPERTENSION 140 – 159mmhg 90 – 99mmhg STAGE 2 HYPERTENSION >160mmhg >100mmhg
  9. 9. <ul><li>Primary Hypertension (Essential) </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary Hypertension. </li></ul>06/07/09
  10. 10. <ul><li>Essential HTN </li></ul><ul><li>Usually occurs in the fourth or fifth decade </li></ul><ul><li>Risk factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Obesity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive salt intake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive alcohol intake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of exercise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family history of essential HTN </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Caffeine and smoking increase the BP acutely but are not risk factors for the development of chronic essential HTN </li></ul>06/07/09
  11. 11. Secondary hypertension <ul><li>Coarctation of the aorta </li></ul><ul><li>Renal artery stenosis </li></ul><ul><li>Phaeochromocytoma </li></ul><ul><li>Conn’s syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Polycystic kidney </li></ul><ul><li>Fibromuscular hyperplasia </li></ul>06/07/09
  12. 12. <ul><li>Arterial baroreceptor system </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation of body fluid volume </li></ul><ul><li>Hormonal regulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Renin Angiotensin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vasopressin. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vascular auto regulation </li></ul>06/07/09
  13. 13. <ul><li>High blood pressure is rightly called silent killer. </li></ul><ul><li>SOMETIMES IT PRODUCES FOLLOWING SYMPTOMS. </li></ul><ul><li>Restless and unable to sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Headache and dizziness </li></ul><ul><li>Palpitations </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling tired, faint </li></ul><ul><li>Swelling in legs. </li></ul><ul><li>Nose bleeding. </li></ul><ul><li>NOTE </li></ul><ul><li>Many people do not have any Symptoms. </li></ul>06/07/09
  14. 14. <ul><li>Diagnostic: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurement of BP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>History & physical examination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laboratory studies to assess secondary causes and target organ damage, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urine analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ECG to determine left ventricular hypertrophy </li></ul></ul>06/07/09
  15. 15. <ul><li>Beta blocker </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atenolol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metoprolol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Propranolol </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Calcium Channel blockers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Norvasc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verapamil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adalat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diuretics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lasix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spirnolectone </li></ul></ul>06/07/09
  16. 16. <ul><li>ACE inhibitors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capotin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Renitec </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zestril </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cozaar </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vasodilators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydralazine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nipride </li></ul></ul>06/07/09
  17. 17. <ul><li>BLOOD VESSELS </li></ul><ul><li>Hardening of the walls of the blood vessels. </li></ul><ul><li>Narrowing of the blood vessels </li></ul><ul><li>HEART </li></ul><ul><li>It may cause rupture of the blood vessel leading to </li></ul><ul><li>Paralysis </li></ul><ul><li>Sudden death. </li></ul><ul><li>KIDNEYS </li></ul><ul><li>Kidney disease, kidney failure. </li></ul><ul><li>EYES </li></ul><ul><li>Eye problem which may lead to blindness. </li></ul>06/07/09
  18. 18. <ul><li>NOTE </li></ul><ul><li>High blood pressure cannot be cured but it </li></ul><ul><li>can be controlled by following advices. </li></ul><ul><li>Take medication regularly and at the right time. </li></ul><ul><li>Check blood pressure regularly. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep your medical appointment and follow your doctor’s advice. </li></ul><ul><li>Control your weight. </li></ul><ul><li>Control the amount of salt in your diet. </li></ul><ul><li>Stop smoking </li></ul><ul><li>Take enough rest and do exercise regularly. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn to manage / over come some of the stress in your life. </li></ul><ul><li>Assess apical and peripheral pulses </li></ul>06/07/09
  19. 19. <ul><li>HTN </li></ul> 06/07/09
  20. 20. <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>06/07/09