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Occupational Safety and Health Management in Construction Industry

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Management of occupational safety and health in construction industry. Module consists of related rules and regulations, OSHMS and HIRARC in work place. Discuss on OSHA 1994 and FMA 1967.

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Occupational Safety and Health Management in Construction Industry

  1. 1. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION OSH514OSH514OSH514OSH514 :::: SAFETY MANAGAMENT INSAFETY MANAGAMENT INSAFETY MANAGAMENT INSAFETY MANAGAMENT IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRYCONSTRUCTION INDUSTRYCONSTRUCTION INDUSTRYCONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY 1
  2. 2. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Lesson Plan Introduction Module 1: Occ. Safety and Health management and the law Module 2: Preparing for work Module 3: Setting up the site Module 4: Construction-phase safety and health 2
  3. 3. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION INTRODUCTION 3
  4. 4. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Management of OSH at site Overview of OSH Management System MS 1722 Policy Organizing Planning and Implementation Evaluation Action for improvement 4
  5. 5. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION OSH MS Make compulsory as stated in Section 15, general duties of employers to ensure so far as is practicable the plant and system of works are maintain safely and without risks to the employees, other people (not its immediate workers) & surrounding. 5
  6. 6. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION OSH MS 1722:2011 6
  7. 7. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION OSH MS 1722: Policy The policy should be:- a) specific to the organisation and appropriate to its size and the nature of its activities; b) concise, clearly written, dated and made effective by the signature or endorsement of the employer or the most senior accountable person in the organisation; c) communicated and readily accessible to all persons at their workplace; d) reviewed for continuing suitability; and e) employee participation 7
  8. 8. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION OSH MS 1722: Policy Should have the following key principles:- a) protecting the safety and health of all members of the organisation and others who may be affected by the work carried out; b) preventing work-related fatalities, disabilities, injuries, ill health, diseases, property and environmental damage and near misses; c) complying with relevant OSH national laws and regulations, and other requirements to which the organisation subscribes; d) ensuring that employees and their representatives are consulted and encouraged to participate actively in all elements of the OSHMS; and e) continually improving the performance of the OSHMS. 8
  9. 9. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION OSH MS1722: Organising In organising stages:- • Assign responsibility, accountability and authority; • Ensure competence, training and awareness are fulfilled; • Establish OSHMS documentation • Proper communication to the stakeholder 9
  10. 10. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION OSH MS1722: Planning & Implementation In these stages: • Initial review to know the gap • Set the OSH objectives • Include OSH element in procurement & contracting • Do the HIRARC • Emergency prevention, preparedness and response • Management of change 10
  11. 11. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION OSH MS1722: Evaluation The company should evaluate the implementation OSH thru; • Performance monitoring and measurement • Incident investigation • Audit • Management review 11
  12. 12. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION OSH MS1722: Action for Improvement Once evaluated and required improvement; • Recommend and perform preventive and corrective actions • Findings shall be addressed • Continual improvement 12
  13. 13. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION HIRARC 13
  14. 14. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Contents Objectives Accidents Basic of accident prevention method 14
  15. 15. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Objectives At the end, participants would know: Terminologies related to hazards, risks and accidents. Exposure to accidents and its causes and consequences happens in construction site, and Understood and be able to elaborate the basic method of accidents prevention 15
  16. 16. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Definition of Hazard, Risk and Danger 16
  17. 17. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Defined as source or condition which has potential to cause injury and/or ill health to humans, damage to property or damage to workplace or environment or combination of any of the above. Hazard may cause harm if not in control (uncontrolled hazards) Note: Source OHSAS 18000 & MS1722:2003 Hazard Hazard source Attack of the tiger – hazard due to potential impact may cause harms 17
  18. 18. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Tripping Fallen from height Example of Hazard 18
  19. 19. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Definition of OHSAS 18002 – Combination of likelihood or probability AND consequences/ effect for a particular hazard to happen. Definition of MS1722 – A combination of the likelihood of an occurrence of a hazardous event or exposure with specified period or in specified circumstances and the severity of injury or damage to the health of people, property, environment or any combination of these caused by the event or exposure. Risks High risk Low risk 19
  20. 20. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Definition of OHSAS 18002 – Combination of likelihood or probability AND consequences/ effect for a particular hazard to happen. Definition of MS1722 – A combination of the likelihood of an occurrence of a hazardous event or exposure with specified period or in specified circumstances and the severity of injury or damage to the health of people, property, environment or any combination of these caused by the event or exposure. Risks High risk Low risk 20
  21. 21. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Scope of work Hazard Risk Grinding Eyes hit by flying debris Eye injury or blind Welding Radiation from the welding arc Eye inflammation/ kataraks/blind Working at height Fall from height Injury/Death Example of Risks 21
  22. 22. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Danger explains relative exposure to the hazard. It shows the tendency of a hazard hit / struck an employee in a risky situation. Examples: Employees who regularly handle chemicals will be more vulnerable to the dangers of the chemicals than other employees who rarely do. More concentrated sulfuric acid is more dangerous than the sulfuric acid was diluted, so the risk is higher for workers handling the concentrated acid compared to workers who handle dilute acids. Danger 22
  23. 23. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION DANGER HIGH RISK SITUATION Sumber: Panduan ISO/IEC 51:1990 (E) WARNING MEDIUM RISK SITUATION CAUTION LOW RISK SITUATION Do you know? SIGNAGE MEANING THAT - 23
  24. 24. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION What is ACCIDENT? 24
  25. 25. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Events or conditions that are not planned or expected Unfortunate Events as a result of negligence or ignorance Events occurring unintentional Events that occur due to reasons unknown An accident is an unexpected sequence of events and unplanned occurs through a logical sequence and by a combination of several historical reasons cause harm either an injury or illness to people, damage to property or the environment, accidents, near misses, loss, or a combination of the above effects Definition of accident 25
  26. 26. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION HUMAN MACHINERY/ EQUIPMENT METHOD/ PROCEDURE MATERIALS MEDIA Source of accident 26
  27. 27. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Injuries Disability Loss (monetary) Reputation Disablement Death Damage Phobia/Fear Effect of accident 27
  28. 28. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Direct (magnitud 1) Indirect (magnitud 8-36) Medical Loss of income Damage of property Supervisory time Affect the performance Reputation New workers Video Cost of accident 28
  29. 29. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Safety issues Falls Mobile plant Falling materials and collapses Electrical accident Trips Health issues Asbestos Manual handling Noise and vibration Chemical Most frequent cases 29
  30. 30. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Year No of reported accidents No of workplace accident No of accident to/fro workplace No of death accident 2001 84,333 67,163 17,170 958 2002 81,810 63,423 18,387 858 2003 73,858 56,249 17,609 822 2004 69,132 50,803 18,329 846 2005 61,182 43,885 17,297 773 2006 58,321 40,617 17,704 733 2007 56,339 38,657 17,682 755 2008 54,133 35,092 19,041 981 2009 55,186 34,376 20,810 663 2010 57,656 34,911 22,745 409 Source: PERKESO & JKKP (as cited by Sayani Saidon in her research on HSE in JBPM) Statistic 30
  31. 31. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Graph: No of accident vs Years - 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 70,000 80,000 90,000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 No of reported accidents No of workplace accident No of accident to/fro workplace No of death accident 31
  32. 32. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Safety and health at work is the responsibility of every employer and employee. Cooperation between employers and employees is very important to avoid any incident that threatens the safety and health at work This image cannot currently be displayed. What is your roles? 32
  33. 33. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Fundamental of Accident Prevention 33
  34. 34. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Accidents Prevention Method Method C = H = Hazard identification A = Analyse the risks T = Take action 34
  35. 35. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION CAMKAN HAZARD (HAZARD IDENTIFICATION) Identify and record where each hazard or potential hazard exists arising from any type of work Include all types of hazards i.e. physical, biological, chemical, psychosocial For example: - Employees who work at height might slips and fall down. Employees who install electrical wiring, when contact to exposed cable will get electrocuted. Hazard Identification 35
  36. 36. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Methods of identifying hazards Observations & reference, Documentation i.e. complaints, reports, proposals, records of accidents, sick leave records, information from internet etc. Systematic method i.e. HAZAN (Hazard Analysis) Occupation health and safety audit Hazard Identification 36
  37. 37. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION ANALISA RISIKO (RISK ANALYSIS) Simple analysis method - qualitative analysis involves a two-dimensional risk matrix or 3-dimensional like JSA, HAZOP Generic analysis method - based on the risk of others having the same system Complex analysis method - for the quantitative analysis of complex systems through certain method such as Principal Failure Analysis (Fault Tree Analysis) Hybrid method - combining semi-quantitative as qualitative and quantitative analysis Failure Mode & Impressions (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis) Analyse the Risk 37
  38. 38. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION TINDAKAN (ACTION) Right action, practical and appropriate for controlling risks arising from hazards Involve risk control hierarchy that consists of 2 main options: Eliminate the risk, or Accept hazard but reduces the level of risk Take action 38
  39. 39. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION First control method Control the source of the hazard by ELIMINATION - Remove the hazard from the workplace - Do not perform unsafe act or dangerous practices - Eliminate harmful equipment, processes, machinery, equipment or hazardous materials 39
  40. 40. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Second control method Control the source of the hazard by SUBSTITUTION - Substitute materials, equipment, machines with less dangerous and safer items - Do the same job with safer procedure/method 40
  41. 41. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Third control method Hazard control by ISOLATION - Hazard isolated, contained or kept away from workers - Hazard kept away through engineering controls such as the installation of a dividing wall, barrier or security fence - Lock off / interlocking system 41
  42. 42. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Fourth control method Hazard control by ENGINEERING CONTROL - Modification & Redesign - The work, machinery or processes can be redesigned to make them safer. 42
  43. 43. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Fourth control method Hazard control by ENGINEERING CONTROL - Automation - Dangerous process can be automated or mechanized. For example, computer-controlled robots can handle spot welding operations in car assembly plants. Precautions should be taken to protect workers from the hazards of robotics. 43
  44. 44. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Fourth control method Hazard control by ENGINEERING CONTROL - Barriers - Hazard can be blocked before it reaches workers. For example, guard/barriers protect workers from contact with moving parts. 44
  45. 45. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Fourth control method Hazard control by ENGINEERING CONTROL - Absorption - Baffles can block or absorb noise. Typically, the most effective baffles is the one that keep the most distance between the hazard and human 45
  46. 46. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Fourth control method Hazard control by ENGINEERING CONTROL - Dilution - Some hazards can be diluted or dissipated. For example, the ventilation system can dilute the toxic gas before it reaches the operator. Add water 46
  47. 47. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Fifth control method Hazard control by ADMINISTRATION CONTROL - Signboard - Signboard warning or prohibition of a hazard - Signboard rules or safe work - OSH promotion - OSH promotion by conducting awareness programs such as OSH, OSH day celebrations, etc. 47
  48. 48. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Fifth control method Hazard control by ADMINISTRATION CONTROL - Safe work procedures - Employees are required to use safe work procedures when executing the works. - Employers are expected to ensure that employees comply with safe work procedures. Safe work procedures should be periodically reviewed and constantly updated. - Supervision and training - Initial training on safe work procedures and refresher training should be provided. Appropriate regulation to help workers identify hazards and assess the possible procedures. 48
  49. 49. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Fifth control method Hazard control by ADMINISTRATION CONTROL Job rotations and other procedures can reduce the time workers are exposed to hazards. For example, employees working in a given period is limited to work involving ergonomic problems to prevent cumulative trauma injuries. Noise process can be scheduled when no one is at work. Housekeeping program and hygiene (cleanliness) in the workplace, repairs and maintenance Housekeeping at work including cleaning, waste disposal and clean-up after the completion of a job. spill. Hygiene practices can reduce the risk of toxic substances absorbed by workers or taken home to their families. Street clothing should be stored in separate lockers to avoid being contaminated by work clothing. 49
  50. 50. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Last control method PERSONNEL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT 50
  51. 51. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Job Safety Analysis - Systematically proactive measures to prevent accidents by identify hazards for each step / activity assignments - Use principles SREDIM (select, record, examine, Develop, install & maintain) - A basis for the formulation of safety policy, safe systems of work or safe work procedures that can be used in the field of training (ie courses or OJT) - Important factors to consider when forming JSA is - Accident frequency and severity level - New or rarely performed work. 51
  52. 52. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Job Safety Analysis Select the workprocess Break into small significant activities Observe and analyze in detail potential hazard in each activities Develop control measures as per hierarchy Establish safe systems of work and safe working instruction Review the continually Normally, 10 steps is okay Hazard category 52
  53. 53. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Job Safety Analysis AKTIVITI HAZARD KAWALAN 1. Periksa suis lampu dalam keadaan OFF 1.1 kejutan elektrik 1.1.1 Matikan suis utama DB dan guna pen ujian untuk memastikan bekalan benar-benar putus 2. Tanggalkan bulb dengan menekan sedikit bulb lampu kedalam soketnya 2.1 kejutan elektrik 2.2 bulb meletup 2.3.kaca tajam 2.1.1 Pastikan suis dimatikan 2.2.1 Pakai cermin mata keselamatan 2.3.1 Pakai saring tangan keselamatan 3 Tukar bulb lampu baru 3.1 kejutan elektrik 3.2 bulb meletup 3.3.kaca tajam 3.1.1 Pastikan susi dimatikan 3.2.1 Pakai cermin mata keselamatan 3.3.1 Pakai sarung tangan keselamatan 4. Nyalakan lampu (ON suis) 4.1 kejutan elektrik 4.2 bulb meletup 4.1.1 Pastikan suis ditebatkan dengan sempurna 4.2.1 Pakai cermin mata keselamatan 5. Discaj bulb lampu rosak ke dalam bekas khas 5.1 bulb meletup 5.2.kaca tajam 5.1.1 Pastikan bulb dibuang kedalam bekas khas yang tak mudah koyak dan di”seal” 5.1.1. Pakai cermin mata keselamatan 5.2.1 Pakai sarung tangan keselamatan TUGASAN: Menukar bulb lampu incandescent (mentol) jenis pin 53
  54. 54. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION MODULE 1 Laws & regulations 54
  55. 55. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Contents Legislative requirement OSHA FMA UBBL CIDB Others 55
  56. 56. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION FACTORIES AND MACHINERY ACT & REGULATIONS 56
  57. 57. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION FMA 1967 Provision for control of OSH and welfare related issues in the factory but focus on workers Registration and inspection of machinery and all related equipment. Covering most premises which operations involving engineering and machinery operations EXCEPT: Storing locomotives / vehicles where only cleaning activities, cleaning and repairs. Areas where only five or fewer employees whose work does not involve the use of machinery 57
  58. 58. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION FMA 1967 Generally, the act: Contains 11 regulations on OSH & 4 supported regulations (administration, penalty & certification) Registration of competent personnel, Provision of maintenance and inspection & T&C of machinery and installation Endorsement for hazardous machinery Certification for machinery installation 58
  59. 59. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION FMA 1967 Regulations relating to construction: Building Operations and Works of Engineering Construction Safety (BOWECS) 1986 Safety, Health and Welfare Regulations 1970 Notification, Certificate Of Fitness & Inspection Regulations 1970 Fencing Of Machinery And Safety Regulations 1970 59
  60. 60. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION FMA 1967 Others are: Steam Boiler And Unfired Pressure Vessel Regulations 1970 Electric Passenger And Goods Lift Regulations 1970 Persons-In-Charge Regulations 1970 Administration Regulations 1970 Certificates Of Competency – Examinations Regulations 1970 Compoundable Offences Regulations 1978 Lead Regulations 1984 Asbestos Process Regulations 1986 60
  61. 61. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Notification, Certificate of Fitness and Inspection 1970 Provision for Pursuant to Section 35 (1) required registration of BOWEC within seven days from date of commencement, the regulation specify the forms that must be used to notify the DOSH officer of a new occupancy of a factory, the start of building work, the installation of certain machinery and the notification of accidents and diseases Describes the certificate of fitness that must be held for steam boilers, unfired pressure vessel and hoisting machines 61
  62. 62. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION BOWECS 1986 Provision for Safety of the construction which explains on the hazard and risk emerge from construction and control measures Detailing on concrete and structural work Provision for construction’s structures likes catch platform, chutes, safety belts, ladders and scaffolds Safety in construction’s works likes demolition, excavation, manual handling, piling, blasting and explosion Safety of hand and power tools 62
  63. 63. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Safety, Health and Welfare Regulations 1970 Provision for Safe means of access and safe place of employment, provision of edge protection on floor openings and stairs (Regulation 7, 8) All stairways and floors must be of good construction and properly maintained; ladders must be of adequate construction and maintained in a sound condition (Regulations 9 to 11) Persons must be protected from falls of more than 10 feet by the use of safety belts or ropes (Regulation 12) 63
  64. 64. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Safety, Health and Welfare Regulations 1970 Provision for Adequate protection are necessary before working inside a confined space (Regulation 13) Flammable and dangerous liquids must be securely stored and precautions taken against fire and explosion (Regulations 14 to 17, 21, 22) Materials and finished goods must be securely stacked and stored (Regulations 19, 20) Specifications are laid down for cleaning of surfaces inside factory (Regulation 23) 64
  65. 65. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Safety, Health and Welfare Regulations 1970 Provision for Lighting, ventilation and climate requirements are all detailed (Regulations 24-29) Working clothes and protective equipment (Regulation 32) Welfare facilities such as toilets, drinking water, washing facilities and first aid (Regulation 33 to 38) 65
  66. 66. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT 1994 & REGULATIONS 66
  67. 67. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION INTRODUCTION FMA 1967 is too prescriptive which overtime become irrelevant and just covering mostly on workers involving in manufacturing, mining & construction OSHA 1994 more holistic with systematic and simpler method to control the hazard and risk 67
  68. 68. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION OSHA 1994 Contains 67 section, 7 regulations & 2 orders One stop center – main act for OSH related issues Duty of Care So far as is practicable Self-regulation Welfare of the workers Participation of all level 68
  69. 69. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION The purpose of the Act: • To ensure the safety, health and welfare of persons at work against safety risks arising from work activities • Protecting other people and surrounding against health and safety risks arising from the activities of persons at work. • Promote a safe work environment for people at work that are tailored to their physiological and psychological needs. OSHA 1994 69
  70. 70. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Main provision:- Section 15 – Responsibility of employer Ensure the safety and health of the workers are maintained Ensure the working environment free from hazard or risk Section 16 – OSH polisy Prepared, communicate and maintain the OSH policy according to act Section 17 – Responsibility of employers to the public or people other than his employee OSHA 1994 70
  71. 71. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Main provision:- Section 24 - Responsibility of Employee To ensure the safety and health of yourself and others Cooperation with employers for compliance with the Act Section 29 - Appointment of OSH Officer OSH officer appointed by resolution of OSH regulations Section 30 - Establishment of Safety Committee Establish and permit the Safety Committee to perform their roles effectively Section 32 - NADOOPOD A report on the accident and dangerous occurrence, occupational poisoning / disease to the authorities OSHA 1994 71
  72. 72. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION OTHER RELATED ACTS 72
  73. 73. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION FIRE SERVICES ACT 1988 The provisions necessary for the Fire and Rescue Department to function effectively and efficiently, to protect people and property from the risk of fire and for purposes connected therewith. Contains 63 sections and 4 rules Key provisions: - Elimination of fire hazard Requirements of fire fighting equipment Certificate Requirements (Fire Certificate) - needs to CFO 73
  74. 74. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION UBBL 1984 Enforced by local government for each state Details specifications for premises such as lighting, ventilation, fire protection systems etc. Issuance of certificate of fitness for occupation (CFO) when provisioning requirements are met 74
  75. 75. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ACT 1974 The provisions necessary to prevent, eliminate, control hazards and risks that threaten the quality of the environment. Intended to advise the Director-General to carry out his duties with respect to the environment. Contains 51 provisions and regulations 30 which includes pollution, waste management, emissions banned substances etc. 75
  76. 76. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION ELECTRICITY SUPPLY ACT 1990 Provisions for the electrical installations and electrical equipment to ensure the safety of the installation / equipment and also the people involved. Details for safety factors involving electrical works, and also competent person who is authorized to perform electrical engineering work Electricity Regulations 1994 require the installation must be tested and approved before use and should be maintained by a competent person 76
  77. 77. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION CIDB 1994 Promotions and boost quality in the construction industry Promote the use of standards and the development of construction techniques and building materials Accreditation of skilled workforce and site supervisor Accredit and register the construction contractors as well as suspend, terminate and re-registration the blacklisted company 77
  78. 78. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION MODULE 2 Preparing for Works 78
  79. 79. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Contents Introduction Planning the work Organizing the work Notifying the site to HSE 79
  80. 80. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Objective To expose to the participant on the preparation required before stating the construction works 80
  81. 81. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION To ensure that health and safety issues are planned, organized, controlled, monitored and reviewed. Everyone controlling site work has health and safety responsibilities. Ensuring that the proposed work is not going to put others at risk requires planning and organization. Planning for the entire duration of the project Introduction 81
  82. 82. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Gathering as much health and safety information about the project and the proposed site before work begins is important. Sources of information include: the client, the design team & contract documents; contractors and consultants; equipment and material suppliers; and HSE guidance and standards. Planning the work 82
  83. 83. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Investigate the history of the site and its surroundings. Inspect the site for any unusual features which might affect the work, or how the work will affect others. Pay particular attention to: asbestos or other contaminants; overhead power lines and underground services; unusual ground conditions; public rights of way across the site; nearby schools, footpaths, roads or railways; and other activities going on at the site. Pre-inspection 83
  84. 84. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION When estimating costs and preparing the programme, consider any particular health and safety hazards associated with the work. Make sure suitable allowances have been made in the price. The job will run more smoothly, efficiently and profitably if hazards have been predicted, planned for and controlled from the outset. Having to stop or reschedule work to deal with emergencies wastes time and money. Work programme 84
  85. 85. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Inspect the machinery, plants, equipment to ensure suitability Plan for the delivery of material, plant, equipment etc. and its storage area Obtain health and safety information (MSDS, CSDS or manual). It may be necessary to: Get a specialist who is familiar with the necessary precautions; Carry out an assessment of the health risks arising from substances or equipment; and act on your findings, e.g. by eliminating harmful substances where possible, or by using a less hazardous method of work or providing training on the safe use of the material or equipment. Material/machinery safety 85
  86. 86. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Discuss and ask the contractor on safe working practice Identify potential hazards and risks that may arise from their works Assess the exposure of hazard to others (public and other contractors) Establish safety measures Emergency and rescue procedures Training need analysis PPE requirements Safe working methods 86
  87. 87. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Manpower requirement Experienced, background & trained worker Subcontractor management Monitoring and supervision Safe working instruction – to be communicated and understood Coordination among the contractors Work programme – scheduling and organizing the jobs and resources Organising the work 87
  88. 88. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Subjected to Section 35 under Factories And Machinery Act 1967, every person who undertakes any building operations or works of engineering construction shall notify to Department of Occupational Safety and Health not later than seven days from the commencement of construction activities. The notification is exempted to the construction activities that can be completed in a period less than six (6) weeks and does not involve the use of machinery. Notify the authority 88
  89. 89. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Construction Industry Development Board Contractor registration Worker’s Safety Induction Course – green card Site registration and levy for contract sum above RM 0.5 M Department of Occupational Safety and Health Certificate of Fitness for machinery Registration of on site batching plant Appointment or termination of Safety Officer Authority concerned 89
  90. 90. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Department of Environment Effluent discharge Disturbance to nature Local authorities - UBBL Others – BOMBA, Police or Health Authority concerned 90
  91. 91. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION MODULE 3 Setting up the Site 91
  92. 92. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Contents Site requirement Facilities Safety Plan 92
  93. 93. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Objectives At the end, participants would know: Fundamental health and safety issues that required to be addressed when setting up the site 93
  94. 94. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Site Requirement 94
  95. 95. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Site access Activities in and out of the site must go through a designated gateway. Must be no barriers and is suitable for vehicles and equipment in and out. Foreign routes for pedestrians. Safe access onto and around the site for people and vehicles. Ensure vehicles can be kept clear of pedestrians at vehicle loading/unloading areas, parking and maneuvering places and areas where drivers’ vision may be obstructed. 95
  96. 96. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Worker’s safe passage Worker walkway must be free from obstructions, have adequate light (50 lux) and signboards Employees are not allowed to use the shortcut that expose them to danger. * Rule 10 BOWEC - Access to Workplace * Rule 20 BOWEC - Illumination of Passageways etc. 96
  97. 97. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Site boundaries Preventing unauthorized access / trespassers Protecting the public from hazard from the site Minimum height of 2 meters and not have any gaps or holes. HOARDING 97
  98. 98. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Facilities 98
  99. 99. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Welfare facilities The construction industry involves a lot of manual work and physical. Welfare facilities should be provided so that the workers can reduce fatigue and improve health in turn stimulate the job. Welfare facilities should be available are: Clean water to drink Preparation of food / dining Place locker / break room Sanitary / clean room 99
  100. 100. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Waste area Proper waste management at site Designated area for temporary waste collection before shipping out from the construction site 100
  101. 101. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Storage Tidy, floor clean and dry, free of tripping hazard or slippery condition. When storing materials, ensure a safe load for the floor or racks Maintain the work passage or emergency routes are not blocked Ensure that building materials are not stored within 2 m of open space during construction 101
  102. 102. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Hazardous material’s storage The storage area of flammable materials must have adequate warning signs and no smoking in the vicinity of 6 meters from it. Flammable waste materials must be stored in special storage before being taken out for disposal. Hazardous materials i.e. flammable liquid should be stored separately from other non-combustible materials and the storage required special design. Should have good air circulation. 102
  103. 103. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Illumination Installation of emergency lights for emergency purposes Avoid working in dark place or insufficient brightness Natural light is available for people to see to do their work and move about the site safely. Provide sufficient illumination to prevent accident 103
  104. 104. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Safety Planning 104
  105. 105. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Safety Planning Emergency procedures Planning for an emergency Fire safety First aid NADOOPOD On site regulations 105
  106. 106. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Emergency procedures Emergency response plan should be established and maintained. Be able to identify the potential for accidents and emergency situations Address the prevention of occupational safety and health risk associated with them. The plan should be made according to the size and nature of activity based on relevant international standard. 106
  107. 107. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Emergency procedures The emergency procedures should: (a) ensure that the necessary information, internal communication and coordination are provided to protect all people in the event of an emergency at the worksite; (b) provide information and communication with the relevant authorities and the neighbourhood and the emergency response services; (c) address first aid, fire fighting and evacuation at construction sites; and (d) provide relevant information and training to all members of the organization, at all levels, including regular exercise in emergency response. 107
  108. 108. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Planning for an emergency 1. Perform HIRARC to identify immediate dangers 3. Objective/scope of the plan 5. Delegate roles and responsibility 2. Review existing emergency plan 4. The best plan that suit the current work 6. Make the plan works 108
  109. 109. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Fire safety Flammable gases, liquids, solids Source of ignition: - Static electricity - Smoking materials - Naked flame - Electrical equipment - Hot surface From the air or oxidizing substances 109
  110. 110. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Fire safety Classification of fires as per MS 1182:1990 Class D: Fires involving metals. Class C: Fires involving gases Class A: Fires involving solid materials, usually of an organic nature, in which combustion normally takes place with the formation of glowing embers. Class B: Fires involving liquids or liquefiable solids. Class E: Fires involving electrical. 110
  111. 111. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Fire safety: means of giving warning Set up an alert system Periodically test the system to familiarize Improvement to ensure the alert system is audible and recognizable by the workers 111
  112. 112. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Fire safety: means of escape Is a structural means whereby a safe route(s) is provided for persons to travel from any point in a building to a place of safety. Escape route should not be obstructed , safest way to safer place, and communicated to workers In planning means of escape, three major elements to consider: travel distances (or, alternatively, direct distances); escape route and exit capacities; the number of occupants for whom means of escape must be provided 112
  113. 113. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Fire safety: means of fighting fire Type of Fire Extinguishers • 4 main fire extinguishers: • Water – Class A • Foam – Class A and B • Carbon dioxide – Class B and E • Dry Chemical Powder – Class A, B, C and E 113
  114. 114. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Fire safety: means of fighting fire How to Use the Fire Extinguishers 114
  115. 115. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Fire safety IN THE EVENT OF FIRE • Activate the emergency bell • Evacuate the area and foes to safer place • Call the fire brigade • Inform the person in charge (BOMBA) whoever trap in the building If emergency siren activated, RESPONSE IMMEDIATELY even though it is a drill 115
  116. 116. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION First aid • Provide adequate and appropriate equipment, facilities and personnel to enable first aid to be given to workers when needed. • Provision for first aid – First aid box should be located at potential hazardous place – First aid box equipped with enough equipment to cope with numbers of workers – An appointed person for first aid for every 50 workers – Information communicated to workers on details of appointed person or first and where to find them and easily recognizable. • Workplace more than 200 workers should provide properly equipped first aid or treatment room. 116
  117. 117. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION First aid • In the event of accident at work place: – Alert the qualified first aider/doctor/ambulance – Pay attention to the surrounding and ensure the area is safe – Isolate the source of accident and evaluate the situation or condition of the victim. If possible, do not attempt to move the victim – Check the breathing and heart beat. If bleeding, make effort to stop the bleeding by pressing the injured area. – Ensure victim not shivering and motivate the victim. – Do not remove any evidence. 117
  118. 118. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Reporting the accidents • Under the OSHA 1994 and NADOOPOD 2004 regulations • Whoever in control at site has obligation to report any incidents or accidents based on details as prescribed in regulations • Generally, immediately report on accidents, dangerous occurrences, occupational poisoning & occupational diseases to authorities. 118
  119. 119. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION On site regulations • Every workplace has specific regulations for safe work. • In form of written - includes all operations especially those involve in high risks as working at heights, excavation, confine space and so on. 119
  120. 120. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Signage 120
  121. 121. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Signage 121
  122. 122. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Signage 122
  123. 123. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Signage 123
  124. 124. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION MODULE 4 Construction Phase 124
  125. 125. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION CONTENTS Overview of Construction Safety Stage 1: Infrastructure Work Stage 2: Substructure Stage 3: Super structure Stage 4: Finishing works General requirements 125
  126. 126. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Overview of Construction Safety Stage 1: Infrastructure Work Stage 2: Substructure Stage 3: Super structure Stage 4: Finishing works General requirements 126
  127. 127. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION 10 common accidents Physical Health 1. Falls incl. from height 1. Asbestos 2. Mobile plant 2. Manual handling 3. Falling objects & collapse 3. Noise &vibration 4. Electrical accidents 4. Chemicals 5. Trips 127
  128. 128. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 1: Infrastructure Work Survey work Site clearing Logistic – mobilisation of materials, machine, man etc. Earthwork Service relocation work Confined space Demolition 128
  129. 129. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 1: Survey work 129
  130. 130. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 1: Survey work JOB SCOPE: SURVEY WORK HAZARD CATEGORY: 1. BIOLOGICAL 2. ERGONOMIC 3. PSYCOSOCIAL WORKPLACE HAZARD RISKS 1. BITTEN/STUNG 1. SWOLLEN 2. REPITITIVE MOVEMENT 2. BACK PAIN 3. FALLS 3. INJURY 4. HEAT STRESS 4. FAINT/UNCONCIOUS CONTRIBUTING FACTOR CONTROL MEASURE 1. WILD ANIMAL OR INSECTS 1. INSECT REPELENT CREAM 2. LIFTING HEAVY EQUIPMENTS 2.PPE - COVERALL, SAFETY BOOT, HAT 3. TRIPPING & SLIPPING 3. PROPER MANUAL HANDLING ETC 4. SUN RADIANCE 130
  131. 131. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 1: Site clearing 131
  132. 132. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 1: Site clearing JOB SCOPE: SITE CLEARING HAZARD CATEGORY: 1. BIOLOGICAL 2. PHYSICAL 3. PSYCOSOCIAL WORKPLACE HAZARD RISKS 1. BITTEN/STUNG 1. SWOLLEN 2. MACHINERY OVERTURN 2. INJURY 3. FALLS 3. INJURY 4. HEAT STRESS 4. FAINT/UNCONCIOUS CONTRIBUTING FACTOR CONTROL MEASURE 1. WILD ANIMAL OR INSECTS 1. INSECT REPELENT CREAM 2. UNEVEN @ UNSTABLE GROUND 2. PPE - COVERALL, SAFETY BOOT, HAT 3. TRIPPING & SLIPPING 3. PROPER MANUAL HANDLING 4. SUN RADIANCE 4. JOB ROTATION ETC 132
  133. 133. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 1: Earth work 133
  134. 134. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 1: Earth work JOB SCOPE: EARTH WORK HAZARD CATEGORY: 1. BIOLOGICAL 2. PHYSICAL 3. PSYCOSOCIAL WORKPLACE HAZARD RISKS 1. EXTREME WEATHER 1. ILL HEALTH 2. MACHINERY OVERTURN 2. INJURY 3. SLIP, TRIP OR FALLS 3. INJURY 4. HEAT STRESS 4. FAINT/UNCONCIOUS CONTRIBUTING FACTOR CONTROL MEASURE 1. WILD ANIMAL OR INSECTS 1. INSECT REPELENT CREAM 2. UNEVEN/UNSTABLE/SOFT GROUND 2. STABILISED THE GROUND, LEVELING 3. TRIPPING & SLIPPING 3. PROPER MANUAL HANDLING 4. SUN RADIANCE 4. PPE - COVERALL, SAFETY BOOT, HAT ETC 134
  135. 135. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 1: Service relocation work 135
  136. 136. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 1: Service relocation work JOB SCOPE: SERVICE RELOCATION WORK HAZARD CATEGORY: 1. BIOLOGICAL 2. CHEMICAL 3. PSYCOSOCIAL WORKPLACE HAZARD RISKS 1. MACHINERY OVERTURN 1. INJURY 2. ENBANKMENT COLLAPSE 2. INJURY, DEATH 3. SLIP, TRIP & FALLS 3. INJURY 4. UTILITIES DAMAGE 4. UTILITIES BREAKDOWN CONTRIBUTING FACTOR CONTROL MEASURE 1. UNEVEN GROUND 1. STABILSED THE GROUND 2. SOFT/UNSTABLE SOIL 2. STABILISED SOIL, SUPERVISION 3. TRIPPING & SLIPPING 3. PROPER MANUAL HANDLING, COMPETENCY 4. EXCAVATION 4. PPE - COVERALL, SAFETY BOOT, HAT ETC 136
  137. 137. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 1: Confined space • OKSIGEN > 23% (oxygen richness) cause flammable materials or liquids easily caught fire • When Oxygen < 19.5% oxygen deficiency causing dizziness and faint/unconcoius 137
  138. 138. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Why confined space is dangerous place Closed manhole/sewage tunnel for a long period accumulate toxic gaseous or flammable gaseous likes hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, methane or else. H2S CH4 Sometimes, toxic materials/substances/ wastes were illegally dump into the sewage lines or manholes. Also contaminated due to leaks of tanks or pipelines containing toxic materials which seep through the sol to the sewage lines or manhole. 138
  139. 139. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 1: Confined space Prior to confined space works, obtain permit from relevant authorities and ensure the site has been inspected by competent person and approved to enter. 139
  140. 140. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 1: Confined space JOB SCOPE: CONFINED SPACE HAZARD CATEGORY: 1. BIOLOGICAL 2. CHEMICAL 3. PSYCOSOCIAL 4. ERGONOMICS WORKPLACE HAZARD RISKS 1. SUFFOCATION 1. FAINT/DEATH 2. ELECTROCUTION 2. INJURY, DEATH 3. SLIP, TRIP, FALLS 3. INJURY 4. INHALATION OF TOXIC GASEOUS 4. FAINT/UNCONCIOUS/DEATH CONTRIBUTING FACTOR CONTROL MEASURE 1. RESPIRATORY FAILURE 1. ADEQUATE VENTILATION, GAS DETECTOR 2. ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION/CABLE 2. CABLE DETECTION, PTW APPROVAL 3. TRIPPING & SLIPPING 3. PROPER MANUAL HANDLING 4. TOXIC GASOUES 4. PPE - COVERALL, SAFETY BOOT, HAT, SCBA 140
  141. 141. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION PPE confined space If the concentration still hazardous, the workers shall wear proper PPE likes respirator or self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) ?? ?? ?? Fresh air O2 O2 O2 O2 141
  142. 142. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Equipment used for confined space entry 142
  143. 143. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 1: Demolition • Done by competence person or company registered with authorities • Method of demolition is depending on design and construction of the building • Prior to work, approval from relevant authorities 143
  144. 144. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 1: Demolition JOB SCOPE: DEMOLITION HAZARD CATEGORY: 1. BIOLOGICAL 2. ERGONOMIC 3. PSYCOSOCIAL WORKPLACE HAZARD RISKS 1. HIT BY FLYING OBJECT 1. INJURY 2. ERGONOMICS 2. BACK PAIN 3. SLIP, TRIP, FALLS 3. INJURY 4. HEAT STRESS 4. FAINT/UNCONCIOUS 5. FALL FROM HEIGHT 5. INJURY DEATH CONTRIBUTING FACTOR CONTROL MEASURE 1. FLYING OBJECT/DEBRIS 1. ISOLATION, NETTING 2. REPITITIVE MOVEMENT 2. JOB ROTATION, PROPER EQUIPMENT 3. TRIPPING & SLIPPING 3. PROPER MANUAL HANDLING 4. SUN RADIANCE 4. PPE - COVERALL, SAFETY BOOT, HAT ETC 144
  145. 145. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION General requirements • Remove fragile object such as glasses and disconnect gas pipelines, electricity, water • Sufficient warning sign and ensure proper communication to stakeholder especially public • Get consent from relevant authorities • Thorough inspection of the structures of the building to be demolished. • Supervised and monitor by competent person during the works • Where practicable, works only on approved platform design for the work • Obey safe procedure working at height 145
  146. 146. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 2: Substructure Foundation works Piling work safety Concreting work safety Welding and cutting work safety 146
  147. 147. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 2: Piling work 147
  148. 148. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 2: Piling work JOB SCOPE: PILING WORK HAZARD CATEGORY: 1. PHYSICAL 2. ERGONOMIC 3. PSYCOSOCIAL WORKPLACE HAZARD RISKS 1. NOISE AND VIBRATION 1. HEARING PROBLEM, DEAFNESS 2. GROUND FAILURE 2. INJURY, DEATH 3. FALLS 3. INJURY 4. HEAT STRESS 4. FAINT/UNCONCIOUS CONTRIBUTING FACTOR CONTROL MEASURE 1. NOISE 1. ISOLATION 2. SOFT GROUND, UNSTABLE 2. SOP, SUPERVISION 3. OPENING, EXCAVATION 3. SIGNAGE, PTW, 4. SUN RADIANCE 4. PPE - COVERALL, SAFETY BOOT, HAT ETC 148
  149. 149. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 2: Concreting work 149
  150. 150. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 2: Concreting work JOB SCOPE: CONCRETING WORK HAZARD CATEGORY: 1. PHYSICAL 2. ERGONOMIC 3. PSYCOSOCIAL WORKPLACE HAZARD RISKS 1. FALLING FROM HEIGHT 1. INJURY, DEATH 2. REPITITIVE MOVEMENT 2. BACK PAIN 3. SLIP, TRIP, FALLS 3. INJURY 4. HEAT STRESS 4. FAINT/UNCONCIOUS CONTRIBUTING FACTOR CONTROL MEASURE 1. UNSAFE ACT, NEGLIGENT 1. SIGNAGE, RAILINGS, NETTING 2. LIFTING HEAVY EQUIPMENTS 2. PROPER MANUAL HANDLING 3. TRIPPING & SLIPPING 3. HOUSEKEEPING 4. SUN RADIANCE 4. PPE - COVERALL, SAFETY BOOT, HAT ETC 150
  151. 151. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 2: Welding and cutting Gas cutting and welding Oxy-acetylene Electrical arc welding 151
  152. 152. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 2: Welding and cutting JOB SCOPE: WELDING AND CUTTING HAZARD CATEGORY: 1. PHYSICAL 2. CHEMICAL 3. BIOLOGICAL WORKPLACE HAZARD RISKS 1. FALLING OBJECT 1. INJURY 2. SMOKE, HARMFUL GASEOUS 2. RESPIRATORY PROBLEM 3. FIRE & EXPLOSION 3. INJURY , DEATH 4. HEAT STRESS 4. FAINT/UNCONCIOUS CONTRIBUTING FACTOR CONTROL MEASURE 1. NEGLIGENT 1. HOUSEKEEPING, TOE BOARD 2. TOXIC GASOUES OF WELDING 2. VENTILATION, RESPIRATOR 3. WELDING EQUIPMENT 3. SOP, SUPERVISION 4. SUN RADIANCE 4. PPE – WELDER MASK, SAFETY BOOT, HAT ETC 152
  153. 153. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 2: Welding and cutting • Ensure work place well ventilated • Ensure work place or surrounding free from flammable or combustible materials • If arc welding, emergency cut off located at reachable distance • All the equipment are inspected and free from defect. • Stand by extinguishment equipment in case of fire 153
  154. 154. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 2: Welding and cutting • Gas cylinder stored upright and in special secured cage with good ventilation • Keep distance gas cylinder storage from occupied place and flammable materials • Isolate and label empty cylinder • Do not store cylinder in confined space or under ground store or enclosed place. 154
  155. 155. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 3: Super structure Scaffolds Temporary structure Chutes Catch platform Ladder safety Lifting Operations Passenger Hoist Lifting crane 155
  156. 156. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 3: Scaffolding Sebuah platfom sementara yang tinggi bagi membantu melaksanakan sesuatu kerja 156
  157. 157. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 3: Scaffolding 157
  158. 158. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 3: Scaffolding safety • The scaffolding should be designed, erected, modified, maintained and dismantled by ONLY competent and skilled worker which supervised by competent personnel. • Mandatory requirement to inspect and approve the scaffolding once in a week or after bad weather (rains, heavy storm etc) and such inspection should be recorded. • Safety of scaffold depending on: – Erection comply with manufacturer’s OEM, specification, code of practice and done by skilled and competence workers – The in and out pathway is safe 158
  159. 159. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 3: Scaffolding tag 159
  160. 160. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 3: Scaffolding safety • Static scaffold should not be more than 15 m & mobile not more than 9.6 m or 12 m if secured to fixed structure. • Minimum size for wheel of mobile scaffold is 5 inches and properly secured on level ground and locked before working. • Do not move/push the mobile while people or materials still on top • Mechanically push or pull the scaffold is not recommended 160
  161. 161. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 3: Scaffolding safety • No gap more than 1” between platform. • Platform more than 2 meter should install guard rail high about 1 meter from platform and toe board min 6 inches high. • Calculation and endorsement for scaffold more than 40 m high for tubular and 15 m for other types • Structure strengthening required for loading bay or storage bay and safely blockaded with guard rail and toe board 161
  162. 162. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 3: Scaffolds & Formwork JOB SCOPE: SCAFFOLDS AND FORMWORK HAZARD CATEGORY: 1. PHYSICAL 2. ERGONOMICS 3. BIOLOGICAL WORKPLACE HAZARD RISKS 1. FALLING OBJECT 1. INJURY 2. ELECTROCUTION 2. INJURY DEATH 3. COLLAPSE 3. INJURY , DEATH 4. HEAT STRESS 4. FAINT/UNCONCIOUS CONTRIBUTING FACTOR CONTROL MEASURE 1. NEGLIGENT 1. HOUSEKEEPING, TOE BOARD 2. ELECTRICAL 2. EARTHING, CHECK THE POWERED EQPT ETC 3. UNSTABLE STRUCTURE 3. SOP, COMPETENCY, INSPECTION 4. SUN RADIANCE 4. PPE – WELDER MASK, SAFETY BOOT, HAT ETC 162
  163. 163. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 3: Fall prevention method Personal Fall Arrest System (PFAS) Guardrails Safety netting 163
  164. 164. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 3: Fall prevention method 164
  165. 165. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Temporary structure Use of approved chute for waste removal for height more than 6 m Barricade, isolate or fence off the collection area 165
  166. 166. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Temporary structure Construction waste that falls can be arrested by the use of catch platforms. Catch platforms should be cleaned daily to avoid the overloading which will cause it to collapse. CATCH PLATFORM 166
  167. 167. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 3: Ladder safety Straight ladder or access ladder – for accessing to and from a space or place Step ladder – for performance of work 167
  168. 168. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 3: Ladder safety • Set the ladder on a flat and firm ground • Do not work on the stairs in front of a closed door • Tie the ladder at the top and bottom in the absence of helper • Stairs must have a height of 1m above the landing (roof & height) • Use the principle of 1:4 168
  169. 169. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 3: Ladder safety JOB SCOPE: LADDER SAFETY HAZARD CATEGORY: 1. PHYSICAL 2. ERGONOMIC WORKPLACE HAZARD RISKS 1. FALL FROM HEIGHT 1. INJURY 2. REPITITIVE MOVEMENT 2. BODY PAIN 3. FALLING OBJECT 3. INJURY 4. AWKWARD POSTURE 4. BODY PAIN CONTRIBUTING FACTOR CONTROL MEASURE 1. UNSAFE ACT, NEGLIGENT 1. PROPER TRAINING, LADDER INSPECTION 2. LIFTING HEAVY EQUIPMENTS 2. PROPER MANUAL HANDLING 3. UNSAFE ACT 3. SUPERVISION, SAFE WORK PROCEDURE 4. AWKWARD POSTURE 4. PPE - COVERALL, SAFETY BOOT, HAT ETC 169
  170. 170. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 3: Passenger Hoist • Hoist must be installed or dismantled by trained and competence person • Only operate approved hoist • The hoist should be operated by trained hoist operator • Hoist must be equipped with 'fall arrester' and 'over-run', in place of 2m high fence out and the safe working load as shown in the hoist. 170
  171. 171. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 3: Passenger Hoist JOB SCOPE: PASSENGER HOIST HAZARD CATEGORY: 1. PHYSICAL WORKPLACE HAZARD RISKS 1. FALL FROM HEIGHT 1. INJURY 2. PINCHED/STUCK IN BETWEEN 2. INJURY 3. FALLING OBJECT 3. INJURY CONTRIBUTING FACTOR CONTROL MEASURE 1. UNSAFE LIFTING DEVICES 1. CERTIFIED LIFTING DEVICES 2. NEGLIGENT 2. PROPER TRAINING, SOP 3. NEGLIGENT 3. SAFE WALKWAY, OVERHEAD PROTECTION 4. SIGNAGE 171
  172. 172. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 3: Lifting crane • A crane is equipment that be able to lift up or down or transfer loads using its long boom • Type found at site: – Crawler crane – Mobile crane – Tower crane 172
  173. 173. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Risks associated with crane 173
  174. 174. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Loads • Load calculation basing on material’s delivery note • Ensure calculation is right and should be done by competent person • Ensure the loading capacity within acceptable range of the crane • Load capacity depending on • Ground condition & surface condition • Wind direction • Other loads • Cable, sling and other lifting equipment • Ensure the crane operator know: • Load capacity • Scope • Lifting procedure 174
  175. 175. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Accident involving crane IMBALANCE LOADS 175
  176. 176. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 3: Lifting crane JOB SCOPE: LIFTING CRANE HAZARD CATEGORY: 1. PHYSICAL WORKPLACE HAZARD RISKS 1. FALLING OBJECT 1. INJURY 2. CRANE FAILURE 2. DAMAGE PROPERTY, INJURY, DEATH 3. GROUND/FOUNDATION FAILURE 3. DAMAGE PROPERTY, INJURY, DEATH 4. COMMUNICATION FAILURE 4. MISPLACE, ACCIDENT CONTRIBUTING FACTOR CONTROL MEASURE 1. HUMAN/MECHANICAL ERROR 1. APPROVED CRANE, 2. HUMAN/MECHANICAL ERROR 2. LIFTING/RIGGING SOP 3. SOFT/UNSTABLE SOIL 3. PROPER CRANE HANDLING 4. INCOMPETENT, HUMAN ERROR 4. TRAINED OPERATOR 176
  177. 177. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 4: Finishing works Roofing work Insulation & cladding work Electrical safety Testing and Commissioning 177
  178. 178. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 4: Roofing work • Risk associated with working on the roof – Falling from roof – Falling when stepping onto rotten roof – Fall from stair or scaffolding – Lightning strike when bad weather 178
  179. 179. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 4: Roofing work 179
  180. 180. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 4: Roofing work JOB SCOPE: ROOFING WORK HAZARD CATEGORY: 1. PHYSICAL 2. ERGONOMIC WORKPLACE HAZARD RISKS 1. FALLING FROM HEIGHT 1. INJURY, DEATH 2. FALLING OBJECT 2. INJURY, DEATH 3. STRIKE BY LIGTHNING 3. INJURY, DEATH 4. HEAT STRESS 4. FAINT/UNCONCIOUS CONTRIBUTING FACTOR CONTROL MEASURE 1. HUMAN/MECHANICAL ERROR 1. FALL PROTECTION, WARNING SIGN 2. INSECURED, HUMAN ERROR 2. TRAINING 3. LIGTHNING 3. SOP, SAFE WORKING INSTRUCTION 4. SUN RADIANCE 4. PPE - COVERALL, SAFETY BOOT, HAT ETC 180
  181. 181. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 4: Painting 181
  182. 182. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 4: Painting JOB SCOPE: PAINTING HAZARD CATEGORY: 1. PHYSICAL 2. CHEMICAL 3. ERGONOMICS WORKPLACE HAZARD RISKS 1. FALLING FROM HEIGHT 1. INJURY 2. FALLING OBJECT 2. INJURY 3. AWKWARD POSTURE 3. BODY PAIN 4. HEAT STRESS 4. FAINT/UNCONCIOUS CONTRIBUTING FACTOR CONTROL MEASURE 1. HUMAN BEHAVIOUR 1. FALL PROTECTION, SIGNAGE 2. UNSAFE ACT 2. TRAINING, SUPERVISON 3. REPEATITIVE MOVEMENT 3. PROPER MANUAL HANDLING 4. SUN RADIANCE 4. PPE - COVERALL, SAFETY BOOT, HAT 182
  183. 183. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 4: Plastering 183
  184. 184. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 4: Plastering JOB SCOPE: PLASTERING HAZARD CATEGORY: 1. PHYSICAL 2. CHEMICAL 3. ERGONOMICS WORKPLACE HAZARD RISKS 1. FALLING FROM HEIGHT 1. INJURY 2. FALLING OBJECT 2. INJURY 3. AWKWARD POSTURE 3. BODY PAIN 4. HEAT STRESS 4. FAINT/UNCONCIOUS CONTRIBUTING FACTOR CONTROL MEASURE 1. HUMAN BEHAVIOUR 1. FALL PROTECTION, SIGNAGE 2. UNSAFE ACT 2. TRAINING, SUPERVISON 3. REPEATITIVE MOVEMENT 3. PROPER MANUAL HANDLING 4. SUN RADIANCE 4. PPE - COVERALL, SAFETY BOOT, HAT 184
  185. 185. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 4: Electrical safety • Object non conductive (insulation) – wood, plastic, glass, rubber etc • Electrical energy is hazard that is - • Unseen • No smell • Quiet • Electrical energy flow thru conductor - • Metal • Water • Human body 185
  186. 186. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 4: Electrical safety • Basic safety precaution in electrical is important when performing electrical work. Hazard from electrical • Electrocuted • Fire • Electric static • Explosion • Two main protection from electricity: - • Protection from direct contact – insulation • Protection from indirect contact – earthing 186
  187. 187. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 4: Electrical safety The degree of electrocution depending on: • Flow of current in body • Amount of current enter the body • Period of exposure 187
  188. 188. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 4: Electrical safety AMOUNT OF CURRENT SEVERITY / CONSEQUENCES < 1 mA NO HARM 1-8 mA SLIGHTLY SHOCK, BUT NOT SO HURT AND MIGHT TEMPORARY LOOSE MUSCLE CONTROL 8-15 mA PANTFUL SHOCK EFFECT, HAZARD RELEASE BY ITSELF 15-20 mA PAINFUL SHOCK EFFECT, THE HAZARD CAN NOT BE RELEASED ON ITS OWN AND LOSS OF MUSCLE CONTROL 20-50 mA PAINFUL; SEVERE CONTRACTION IN THE MUSCLES AND DIFFICULTY IN BREATHING 100-200 mA VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION WHICH IS A HEART CONDITION THAT CAN RESULT IN DEATH > 200 mA SEVERE BURNS AND SEVERE CONTRACTION IN THE MUSCLES, CAUSING THE MUSCLES IN THE CHEST COMPRESS THE HEART AND CAUSE CARDIAC ARREST (DEATH) 188
  189. 189. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 4: Electrical safety JOB SCOPE: ELECTRICAL WORK HAZARD CATEGORY: 1. PHYSICAL 2. ERGONOMIC WORKPLACE HAZARD RISKS 1. ELECTROCUTION 1. INJURY, DEATH 2. SHARP EDGE 2. BACK PAIN 3. TRIP, SLIP OR FALLS 3. INJURY 4. HEAT STRESS 4. FAINT/UNCONCIOUS CONTRIBUTING FACTOR CONTROL MEASURE 1. ELECTRICITY 1. LOCKOUT TAG OUT PROCEDURE 2. LIFTING HEAVY EQUIPMENTS 2. PPE - COVERALL, SAFETY BOOT, HAT 3. TRIPPING & SLIPPING 3. GOOD MANUAL HANDLING & HOUSEKEEPING 4. SUN RADIANCE 4. SOP, TRAINING AND COMPETENCY ETC 189
  190. 190. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Stage 4: Electrical safety MCB MCCB ELCB / RCCB FUSE HRC FUSE CUT OUT FUSE 190
  191. 191. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION General requirements Hand power tool safety Road traffic management Working over water Permit to Work 191
  192. 192. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION General requirements Hand power tool safety Section 147 – 153 BOWEC – Hand & Power Tools 192
  193. 193. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION General requirements Hand power tool safety Well maintained Right tools Inspect before use Follow instruction Right PPE 193
  194. 194. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION General requirements Do not use defective tools Must have protection or guarding Hand power tool safety 194
  195. 195. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION General requirements Use according to the capacity specified by the manufacturer Wear appropriate PPE - gloves and safety shoes Store in a dry place Precautious if working in a humid place Ensure sufficient light Hand power tool safety 195
  196. 196. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION General requirements Use of modified tool – grinder 196
  197. 197. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION General requirements • Work system should be planned carefully so as not to endanger road users and workers themselves. • Accidents can happen to other users as a result of broken machinery or vehicles site if negligent. Traffic management 197
  198. 198. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION General requirements • Traffic Signal Manual must be used to determine the needs and size of the safety zone signal is necessary. • Local authorities and the police should be contacted to determine if the right job path should be closed and traffic control systems such as temporary traffic lights and clear signage should be used to control the flow of traffic Traffic management 198
  199. 199. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION General requirements • Working over the water surface exposes the workers to risk of drowning or swept away when fall into the water. • Safety precautions must be observed so that the employee is not dropped or pushed into the water. • Determine the employee can be saved in the shortest period if they fall into the water. Working over water 199
  200. 200. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION General requirements • Helmet and non slippery safety boot shall be wearing all time • Workers shall wears floatable safety jacket Working over water 200
  201. 201. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION General requirements • When working on swift currents, run the rope or net across the surface of the water on the downstream side of all workplace locations and equipped with floats or other tools that can help the employee to float during emergency. • The line must be tied to a solid structure at each end. Working over water 201
  202. 202. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION General requirements • Rescue Line (grab lines) should be placed with some distance (reachable distance) to the structure or platform. Working over water • A platform must be built properly and equipped with retaining bar and toe-board around. • Safety nets will catch fallen worker which then can be rescued by boat. 202
  203. 203. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION PTW system is a formal written system used to regulate certain occupations that have been identified to possess potential hazards and risks and also one of the means of communication between employers (who create jobs & Hazard) and employees. Based on the definition by the International Association of Oil and Gas Association (OGP) in the Guidelines in PTW system, serial Report 6.29/189; published in January 1993 203 Permit To Work
  204. 204. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION To avoid or reduce the risk of a serious accident or incident for the work to be carried out To control and coordinate work activities To provide a system of communication between the end users or employers with subcontractors Evidence or record of evidence 204 Objective of PTW
  205. 205. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION A formal written system detailing on working, attached with HIRARC or similar A form of safe work instructions Ensure that all elements of the work system are adhered to Clearly identifies the responsibilities of each person involved The involvement of all relevant parties, including contractors Ensure everyone is trained A checking mechanism (check & balance) 205 Characteristic of PTW
  206. 206. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Hot work such as welding, gas cutting, etc Electrical works Working with hazardous materials Confined space Working over/in the water Handle radioactive materials and explosives Lifting heavy materials etc. ...........SO ON... 206 Example of PTW
  207. 207. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION Hot work Permit General Work Permit i.e. Cold Work Electrical Work Permit Radiation Work Permit Pressure Testing Permit Lifting Permit Blasting Permit etc 207 Type of PTW
  208. 208. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION 208 Procedure of PTW
  209. 209. Oleh: Engr. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol Email: razman.pe@gmail.com OSH514 : SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION THE END Thanks you 209

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