Bronfenbrenner<br />A brief history:<br />Born to Russian Jews<br />Completed a double major at Cornell University<br />Profession: Professor<br />http://www.blcc.cornell.edu/about_mission.html<br />
Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological system theory<br />Child experiences cognitive development in the context of a complex systems of relationships (Tan, Parsons, Hinson & Brown) <br />4 Levels <br /><ul><li>Microsystem
1. Microsystem<br />any immediate relationships or organizations they interacts with, such as their immediate family or caregivers and their school or daycare. <br /><ul><li>E.g. The more encouraging and nurturing these relationships and places are, the better the child will be able to grow.</li></li></ul><li>2. Mesosystem<br />how the different parts of a child’s microsystem work together. <br /><ul><li>E.g., if a child’ caregivers take an active role in a child's school, this will help ensure the child's overall growth.
In contrast, if the child's two sets of caretakers, mom with step-dad and dad with step-mom, disagree how to best raise the child and give the child conflicting lessons when they see him, this will hinder the child's growth in different channels.</li></li></ul><li>3. Exosystem<br />The other people and places that the child herself may not interact with often herself but that still have a large affect on her, extended family members, the neighborhood, etc. <br /><ul><li>E.g. Achild's parent gets laid off from work, that may have negative affects on the child if her parents are unable to pay rent or to buy groceries
E.g. Child’s parent receives a promotion and a raise at work, this may have a positive affect on the child because her parents will be better able to give her her physical needs.</li></li></ul><li>4. Macrosystem<br />largest and most remote set of people and things to a child but which still has a great influence over the child. <br />E.g. Government, cultural values, the economy, wars, etc. A government policy can affect a child either positively or negatively. China one-child policy affect in negative way. <br />
http://www.aifs.gov.au/growingup/pubs/reports/krq2009/images/fig2.gif<br />Changes at any of these level can influence cognitive development.<br />
Vygotsky <br />Brief history:<br />Born into non-religious Jewish family<br />Admitted to Moscow State University<br />Studied law<br />Profession: Researcher<br />http://psychology.about.com/od/profilesmz/p/vygotsky.htm<br />
Main themes<br />Zone of proximal development<br />Private Speech<br />Scaffolding<br />Sociocultural Perspective<br />
Zone of proximal development<br />Zone of actual development<br /><ul><li>Children solve problems independently.</li></ul>Zone of proximal development<br /><ul><li>Child solve problems with support</li></ul>Learning takes place at zone of proximal development<br />
Applications:<br />Language learning:<br /><ul><li>A child reading a word with single vowel easy, while a child reading words with multiple syllabus is hard.
Following Vygotsky’s lead, the child’s zone of proximal development in between these two
Child can read words with two vowels with access to teacher assistance.</li></li></ul><li>Private speech vsEgo-centric speech<br />Piaget saw self talk in children as ego-centric speech.<br /><ul><li>Ego-centric speech: Results from child not yet developing social abilities, which needs him to consider others. </li></ul>Vygotsky, in contrast saw it as private speech to guide the child’s development.<br />http://www.buzzle.com/articles/egocentric-speech.html<br />
Private Speech<br />Mechanism that turn shared knowledge into personal knowledge<br />Young children frequently talk to themselves. Verbalization are internalized as inner speech. Guides thinking and action.<br />Exhibition of private speech even at adult level.<br />
Scaffolding<br />Assistance rendered to children to complete tasks that they cannot independently accomplish<br />Plays an important role in helping child advance through zone of proximal development<br />Research shows young children (4-8) with scaffolding from Mother perform better.<br />
Sociocultural Perspective<br />Child’s culture and peer group have an impact on the development of the child. <br />He also believes that a child masters task that are deemed to be culturally important primarily through interacting with others.<br />Culture: Language, Shared beliefs, Interaction with people<br />